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Growth and Development Stages
Growth and Development Stages
Growth and Development Stages
Growth and Development Stages
Growth and Development Stages
Growth and Development Stages
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Growth and Development Stages

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  1. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory Erikson’s Theory of Piaget’s Theory of Kohlberg’s Theory of Psychosexual Development Psychosocial Development Cognitive Development Moral Development Infants Oral Stage Trust vs. Mistrust Sensorimotor Stage(birth to 1 year)  Child explores the world by using  Psychosocial Virtue: Hope Neonatal Reflex (1 mo.) mouth, especially the tongue  Fear: strangers, anxiety, loud  Stimuli are assimilated into beginning mental  Infants are interested in oral noises, falls, sudden images. Behavior entirely reflexive stimulation movements in the Primary Circular Reaction (1-4 mos.)  Baby finds pleasure in the mouth environment  Hand-mouth & ear-eye coordination develops.  Play: Solitary Reflect  Infant spends time looking at objects  Learning confidence or  Toy: rattle or tape of parent’s voice learning to love Secondary Circular Reaction (4-8 mos.)  Infant learns to initiate, recognize, and repeat pleasurable experiences  Infant anticipates familiar events  Toy: peel-a-boo Coordination of Secondary Reactions (8-12 mos.)  Infant can plan activities to attain specific goals.  Discovers a sense of identity, that his activities are separate from the activities of others.  Toy: nesting toys; colored boxes Toddler Anal Stage Autonmy vs. Shame Inventions of new means through mental Preconventional (Level I) (1-3 y/o) combinations (1-2 y/o)  Child learns to control urination and  Psychosocial Theme: “hold  Transitional phase Stage 1: (2-3y/o) defecation on or  Uses memory and imitation to act  Punishment / obedience  Toilet training let go”  Can solve basic problems, foresee maneuvers orientation  It is a part of the toddler’s self-  Child learns to be that will succeed or fail  Heteronomous morality discovery, a way of exerting independent and make  Toy: Blocks, colored plastic rings  Child does right because a independence decisions for self parent tells him or her to and to  Favorite word: “I”, “no” Preoperational Thought (2-7 y/o) avoid punishment Preschooler Phallic Stage Initiative vs. Guilt  Thought becomes more symbolic Stage 2: (4-7 y/o) (3-6y/o)  Can arrive at answers mentally  Individualism  The genitals are the pleasure of the  Ability to try new things  Thinking is basically concrete and critical  Instrumental purpose and child  Intensive activity and  Child is egocentric exchange  Oedipus and Electra Complex consuming fantasies  Displays static thinking  Carries out actions to satisfy  Child learns identity through  Interjects parent’s social  .Concept of time is now, and concept of own needs rather than society’s awareness of genital area consciousness distance is only as far as he/she can see  Will do something for that person  Masturbation is common during this  Child learns how to do things  No awareness of reversibility (for every action if that person does something for phase and that doing things is there is an opposite action) the child  Children may also show desirable exhibitionism  Knows right or wrong Concrete Operational Thought (7-12 y/o) Conventional (Level II)  Bogus playmates/imaginary  Systematic reasoning  Fears: dark, being left alone,  Uses memory to learn broad concepts Stage 3: (7-10 y/o) large animals, ghosts,  Classifications involve sorting objects accdg to  Orientation to interpersonal body mutilation, pain & attributes relations of mutuality objects  Child is aware of reversibility  Child follows rules because of a School-Age Latent Stage / Latency Period Industry vs. Inferiority  Understands conservation, sees constancy need to be a “good” person in (6-12 y/o) despite of transformation own eyes and eyes of others  All the sexual desires arch  Makes things w/ others Stage 4: (10-12 y/o)  Child’s personality development  Strives to achieve success Formal Operational Thought (12 yr)  Child finds following rules and appears to be nonactive or dormant  Child learns how to do things  Can solve hypothetical problems with scientific authority well reasoning  Child finds following rules  Understands causality satisfying  Can deal with the past, present & future  Follows rules of authority figures  Adult or mature thought and parents in an effort to keep the “system” working
  2. Adolescent Genital Stage Identity vs. Role Confusion Operational Thought Postconventional (Level III)(13-20 y/o)  Conflict: Setting Rules  Determines own sense of self Stage 5: (Older than 12)  Genitals become awakened  Development of who, what &  Capable of abstract thinking  Social contract, utilitarian law-  Adolescent develops sexual where they are going making persectives maturity and learns to establish  Become focus (self-concept)  Follows standards of society for satisfactory relationships w/ the  Period of rebellion and the good of all people opposite sex uncertainty Stage 6:  Adjusting to a new body and  Universal ethical principle seeking emancipation from orientation parents, choosing a vocation  Follows internalized standards of & determining a value system conduct.Young Adult Intimacy vs. Isolation  Person makes commitments to one another  Isolation and self absorption if unsuccessful  Independent from parents, possible marriage / partnership  Major goals to accomplish in career and family  Marrying age  Fulfillment of careerMiddle Adult Generativity vs. Stagnation Middle Adulthood:  Physical Changes: graying hair, wrinkling skin, pain &  Settling down muscle aches, menopausal  Find jobs period  Start a family  Psychosocial Virtue: Care  Mature adult is concerned w/ establishing & guiding the new generation or else feels Late Adulthood personal impoverishment  Relates to older & younger  Satisfaction w/ career generations  Become “Pillars of the Community”Older Adult Integrity vs. Despair  Accomplishment of goals  Achieves sense of acceptance of own life  Adapts to triumphs & disappointment w/ a certain ego integrity  Accepts the inevitability of death or else falls into despair  Appraisal of life & changing social roles  Self-concerned & withdrawn
  3. Havighurst’s Age Periods and Sullivan’s Theory of PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Developmental Task Interpersonal Relationships Mo. Gross Fine Motor Development Play Yr. Motor Development Infants  Largely reflex  The eyes is fixated on(birth to 1 the person SOLITARY Infancy Weight: 7 to 8 lbs year) 0-1  Keeps hands fisted PLAY Infancy and Early Childhood  Maternal anxiety Length: 19 to 21 in  Able to follow object to midline  Learning to walk Vital Signs:  Holds head up when  Development of social prone smile  Learning to take solid food Childhood 2  Responds to familiar  Learning to talk  As the child grows he T – 37.5 C voices  Learning to control the elimination of learns to interact P – 120 – 140 bpm  Holds head & chest  The baby knows how to body wastes  Use one specific R – 30 – 60 /min up when prone cry  Laughs aloud  Learning sexual differences & sexual language at a time BP – 80/40 mmHg 3  Babbles and “coos” modesty (language shock)  Follows object past midline  Achieving psychologic stability forming simple concepts of social and physical  Grasp  Can raise head and  Stepping chest reality Juvenile  Tonic neck  Teething  Learning to relate emotionally to  The child slowly 4  Reflexes are fading  Reach out to object parents, siblings & other people learning accepts authority from to distinguish right from wrong & his subordinates developing a conscience  More concept of self,  Turns front to back  Roll over  Has head lag when  Hold blocks at each status, & role pulled upright hand 5  Bears partial weight on feet when pulled Middle Childhood upright  Learning physical skills necessary for ordinary games  Turns both ways  Doubles birth weight  Moro reflex fading  Eruption of 1st tooth  Building wholesome attitudes toward  Sits w/ minimal support oneself as a growing organism 6  Uses palmar grasp  Learning to get along w/ age mates  Reaches out in  “dada”, “mama”  Learning an appropriate masculine and anticipation of being  Sleeps on prone feminine social role picked up position 7  Sits unsteadily  Uses fingers to hold  Developing fundamental skills in objects reading, writing & calculating  Transfers objects hand to hand  Developing concept necessary for everyday living  Sits securely w/o  Sits alone steadily for support an indefinite period  Developing conscience, morality & 8  Recognizes strangers scale of values  Peek-a-boo (to test memory)
  4.  Achieving personal independence  Creeps or crawls  Can hold own bottle  Starts to crawl  Developing attitudes toward social 9  Understands simple groups & institutions gestures  Pulls self to standing  From crawling to standing 10  Responds when called by his/her name  From crawling to  Walks with assistance 11 standing  Stands alone  Triples birth weight 12  Some infants take 1st  Can say 2 syllable step words  Can walk w/ help Toddler  A child gains about 5  Walks alone well  Puts small pellets into (1-3 y/o) to 6 lb and 5 in a 15  Can seat self in chair small bottles PARALLEL year during the  Can creep upstairs  Scribbles voluntarily w/ PLAY toddler stage a pencil / crayon  Head circumference  Holds a spoon increases only about 2cm  Can run and jump in  No longer rotates a  Prominent abdomen place spoon to bring it to – pouchy belly 18  Can walk up and mouth  Respirations slow down stairs w/ slightly assistance  HR: 90 – 110 bpm  BP: 99/64 mmHg  Walks up stairs  Can open doors by  The brain develops 24 alone turning doorknobs to about 90% of its  Unscrew lids adult size  Control of the urinary  Can jump down from  Makes simple lines or and anal sphincters 30 chairs strokes or crosses w/ a becomes possible pencil  8 new teeth (canines and molars) eruptPreschooler  Ectomorphic (slim  Alternates feet  Undresses self (3-6 y/o) body built) or 3  Runs  Stacks tower of blocks A endomorphic (large y/o  Rides tricycle  Draws a cross S body built) becomes  Stands on one foot S apparent O  PR: 85 bpm C  BP: 100/60 mmHg  Constantly in motion  Can do simple buttons I  Voiding is frequent 4  Jumps A (about 9 to 10 times y/o  Skips T a day) I  The average child V gains only about 4.5 E lb a year.  Height gain is also  Throws overhand  Draws a 6-part man & minimal: 2 to 3.5  Can lace shoes inches 5 Imaginative  Generally have all 20 y/o PLAY deciduous teeth by age 3
  5. School-Age  Average weight gain 6  A year of constant motion (6-12 y/o) is 3 to lb y/o  Skipping is a new skill  Increase in height is  First molars erupt 1 to 2 inches  By age 10 brain 7  Central incisors erupt A growth is complete y/o  Difference b/w sexes become apparent in play S  Posture becomes  Spends time in quiet play S more erect O  PR: 70 – 80 bpm 8  Coordination definitely improved C  BP: 112/60 mmHg y/o  Playing with gang becomes important I  Development of  Eyes become fully developed A Secondary Sex T 9 Characteristics I y/o  All activities done w/ gang  Sexual Maturation: V 10 Girls (12 – 18 y/o); E y/o  Coordination improves boys (14 - 20 y/o)  Deciduous teeth are 11 PLAY lost and permanent y/o  Active, but awkward and ungainly teeth erupt 12 y/o  Coordination improvesAdolescent  Developing intellectual skills and  Onset of puberty SEXUAL MATURATION(13-20 y/o)  Cessation of body Yr BOYS GIRLS concepts necessary for civic growth  Growth spurt  Pubic hair thick & curly, competence  Most girls are 1 to 2 continuing triangular in distribution  Desiring and achieving socially inches taller than  Pubic hair  Breasts, areola & papilla boys abundant & curly form secondary mound responsible behavior  Boys grow about 4 to 13  Testes, penis, &  Menstruation is ovulatory, 12 inches in ht and to scrotum enlarging making pregnancy  Acquiring a set of values & an ethical gain 15 to 65 lb 15 further possible system as a guide to behavior  Girls grow 2 to 8  Axillary hair inches and gain 15 present  Achieving emotional independence from to 55 lb  Facial hair fine & parents & other adults achieving  PR: 70 bpm downy  RR: 20 breaths/min  Voice changes assurance of economic independence  BP: 120/70 mmHg happening w/  Selecting and preparing for an  Gain 2nd molars by annoying freq. age 13 and 3rd  Genitalia adult  Pubic hair curly & occupation molars b/w 18 and  Pubic hair abundant (adult); may  Preparing for marriage and family life 21 y/o abundant & curly extend onto medial aspect  Achieving a new and more mature 15  Scrotum dark & of thighs to heavily rugated  Breast tissue adult & relations w/ age mates of both sexes 16  Facial and body nipples protrude  Achieving masculine or feminine social hair present  Areolas no longer project  Sperm production as separate ridges from role mature breasts  Accepting ones physique & using the  May have some degree of facial acne body effectively  Pubic hair curly & abundant (adult); END OF SKELETAL may extend along GROWTH 16 medial aspect of to thighs 17  Testes, scrotum & penis adult in size  May have some degree of facial acne  Gynecomastia
  6. 17 to END OF SKELETAL 18 GROWTH  Selecting a mateYoung Adult /  Learning to live w/ a partner Early  Starting a family Adulthood  Rearing children  Managing a home  Getting started in an occupation  Taking on civic responsibility  Finding a congenital social groupMiddle Adult  Achieving adult civic and social responsibility  Establishing and maintaining economic standard of living  Assisting teenage children to become responsible and happy adult  Developing adult-leisure time activities  Relating oneself to one’s spouse as a personOlder Adult /  Adjusting to decreasing physical Late strength & health Adulthood  Adjusting to retirement & reduced income  Adjusting to death of a spouse  Establishing an explicit affiliation w/ one age groupTerms:INFANCYExtrusion Reflex – food placed on an infant’s tongue is thrust forward and out of the mouth.Natal Teeth – teeth in newbornsNeonatal Teeth – teeth erupted in the first 4 weeks of lifeDeciduous Teeth – temporary baby teethGross Motor Devt – ability to accomplish large body movementsFine Motor Devt – measured by observing or testing the prehensile ability (ability to coordinate hand movements)Ventral Suspension – refers to an infant’s appearance when held in midair on a horizontal plane, supported by a hand under the abdomenLandau Reflex – develops at 3 mos. When held in ventral suspension, an infant’s head, legs, and spine extend. When the head is depressed, the hips, knees and elbows flexParachute Reaction – when infants are suddenly lowered toward an examining table from ventral suspension, the arms extend as if to protect themselves from falling.Neck-righting reflex – this reflex causes the baby to lose balance and roll sideways when lifting the head upThumb opposition – ability to bring the thumb and fingers together (4 mos)Pincer Grasp – ability to bring the thumb and 1st finger together. This enables the baby to pick up small objects (10 mos)Binocular vision – ability to fuse two images into oneHand Regard – hold hands in front of face and study their fingers for long periods of timeEight-Month Anxiety – the height of fear of strangers

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