9-1 PRINCIPLES OF MARKETING Chapter 9 New Product Development andProduct Life-Cycle Strategies
Causes of New Product Failures 9-2 • Overestimation of Market Size • Product Design Problems • Product Incorrectly Positioned, Priced or Advertised • Costs of Product Development • Competitive Actions • To create successful new products, the company must: – understand it’s customers, markets and competitors – develop products that deliver superior value to customers.
9-3 New Product Development Process• Idea Generation and Screening• Concept Development and Testing• Marketing Strategy• Business Analysis• Product Development• Test Marketing• Commercialization
9-4New Product Development ProcessStep 1. Idea Generation Systematic Search for New Product Ideas Internal sources Customers Competitors Distributors Suppliers
9-5New Product Development ProcessStep 2. Idea Screening • Process to spot good ideas and drop poor ones • Criteria – Market Size – Product Price – Development Time & Costs – Manufacturing Costs – Rate of Return
9-6New Product Development ProcessStep 3. Concept Development & Testing 1. Develop Product Ideas into Alternative Product Concepts 2. Concept Testing - Test the Product Concepts with Groups of Target Customers 3. Choose the Best One
9-7New Product Development ProcessStep 4. Marketing Strategy Development Marketing Strategy Statement Formulation Part One - Overall: Target Market Planned Product Positioning Sales & Profit Goals Market Share Part Two - Short-Term: Product’s Planned Price Distribution Marketing Budget Part Three - Long-Term: Sales & Profit Goals Marketing Mix Strategy
9-8New Product Development ProcessStep 5. Business AnalysisStep 6. Product Development Business Analysis Review of Product Sales, Costs, and Profits Projections to See if They Meet Company Objectives If No, Eliminate Product Concept If Yes, Move to Product Development
9-9New Product Development ProcessStep 7. Test Marketing Standard Controlled Test Market Test Market Full marketing campaign A few stores that have in a small number of agreed to carry new representative cities. products for a fee. Simulated Test Market Test in a simulated shopping environment to a sample of consumers.
9-10 Product Life CycleSales andProfits ($) Sales Profits Time Product Introduction Growth Maturity Decline Develop- mentLosses/Investments ($)
Introduction Stage of the 9-11PLC Sales Low sales Costs High cost per customer Profits Negative Create product awareness Marketing Objectives and trial Product Offer a basic product Price Use cost-plus Distribution Build selective distribution Advertising Build product awareness among early adopters and dealers
Growth Stage of the PLC 9-12 Sales Rapidly rising sales Costs Average cost per customer Profits Rising profits Marketing Objectives Maximize market share Offer product extensions, Product service, warranty Price Price to penetrate market Distribution Build intensive distribution Advertising Build awareness and interest in the mass market
Maturity Stage of the PLC 9-13 Sales Peak sales Costs Low cost per customer Profits High profits Marketing Objectives Maximize profit while defending market share Product Diversify brand and models Price to match or best Price competitors Distribution Build more intensive distribution Advertising Stress brand differences and benefits
Decline Stage of the PLC 9-14 Sales Declining sales Costs Low cost per customer Profits Declining profits Marketing Objectives Reduce expenditure and milk the brand Product Phase out weak items Price Cut price Go selective: phase out Distribution unprofitable outlets Advertising Reduce to level needed to retain hard-core loyal customers