BITES AND FIRST AIDA. Snake Bites Snake bites are punctured wounds caused by the fangs of snakes. As far as the treatment of the wound is concerned, it is dealt with as a minor wound. You should always assume that the snake is poisonous. Signs The patient will tell you that he has been bitten by a snake. The punctured wounds produced by the snake’s fangs are clearly visible. The patient may show signs of poisoning. Signs of shock Symptoms Casualty may experience disturbed vision. Casualty may feel nauseated or already be vomiting One or two small punctured wounds with sharp pain and local swelling Breathing may become difficult or fail together Symptoms and signs of shock Salvation and sweating may appear in advanced stages of venom Treatment Give salt water (5-6 tsp salt in 200 ml water) Drink the salt water hourly for 6 hrs.
After taking for 6 hrs., drink salt water once in four hourly for 6 times This tx----- nullify the snake venom complications.Aim Reassure the casualty Prevent absorption of venom and Arrange urgent removal to hospitalFirst aid1. Tie a piece of cloth or a tourniquet, tightly above the bite. To prevent venous blood return.2. Loosen the tourniquet for one minute in every twenty minutes.3. Keep the bitten limb hanging down.4. Treat for shock reassure, and keep the patient at rest and warm.5. Examine the wound.6. If there is doubt, and you cannot get the patient to hospital quickly. a. Wash the wound with luke warm water, with potassium permanganate added if available. b. Sterilize a knife or blade in a flame, and make a cut 1 cm deep in the form of a cross over the bite. c. Suck out the liquid (poison), using a piece of plastic over your mouth to protect yourself or suck out the liquid which out of the wound and spit it out. If the bite is on arm, the patient can suck his own wound.
d. Apply potassium permanganate crystals in cut. e. Apply a clean dressing. f. Treat for shock g. Refer to the nearest hospital h. If breathing fails, do artificial respiration. B. SCORPION STING What to do when you see a patient who has been stung by a scorpion. As a rule, you will be told that the sting is by a scorpion because the patient or some relative has actually seen the scorpion. Proceed as a follow: 1. Examine the site of the sting 2. Look for signs of shock, particularly in small childrens.Treatment 1. Apply a cold compress to the site of sting (or) sodium bicarbonate paste (cooking soda paste) 2. Treat for shock 3. Give hot drink and keep the patient warm. C. BEE, WASP AND HORNET STING Bee, wasp and hornet stings occur frequent in rural areas, especially if their nests anddisturbed. The insects have a sting which is left at the site of puncture and has to be removed. If a
person is prone to allergies, a bee, wasp or hornet sting may be a serious condition because of theshock produced.Signs The site of the sting looks red, swollen and painful.First Aid Treatment 1. Remove the sting with a pair of forceps 2. Apply cold compresses to the site. 3. A paste with sodium bicarbonate (cooking soda) or washing soda can be applied or if available antihistamine ointment. 4. Treat for shock. D. JELLY FISH STING The large effects of Jelly Fish Sting vary from minor local reactions to large wheals,severe pain and sometimes death.First aid measures are: 1. A paste of sodium bicarbonate in water 2. Seek medical aid urgently if symptoms are severe 3. Sting of Portugese Man of War 4. The effects vary from slight stinging to cramps nausea and difficulty in breathing. The first aid is as follows: 5. Swab the area with methylated spirit to which a little vinegar has been added to acidity it. 6. Do not rub or apply fresh water or sand
7. Remove any gelatinous strands present in the flesh using cloth or soft paper, once symptoms subside. 8. Seek medical aid in severe cases. E. SEA URCHIN STING The spine of the sea urchin can breakoff into the skin causing local burning andnumbness. The wounds heal slowly and the rate of infection is high. 1. Wear gloves while handling the sting. 2. Remove the spine. 3. Cover the wound with dry dressing 4. Get medical aid F. CONE-SHAPED SHELLS A snail like creature is found in such shells. It injects a very potent poison through aminute hollow barhed harpoon. It can be fetal and there is no antidote. Such a shell must not behandled. In case a patient is bitten. 1. Watch the patients pulse and respiration, and give external cardiac massage and artificial respiration when necessary. 2. Get medical aid urgently.
G. CORAL CUTS Coral is razor sharp. The cuts are large and deep and get infected readily. They healslowly and tend to form ulcers. In case with coral cuts. 1. Clean with methylated spirit 2. Remove all foreign material from the cuts 3. Cover the wound with sterile dressing 4. Arrange for medical aid. H. FROST BITE This is a condition in which local tissues are frozen, usually at the extremities. They become injured by prolonged constriction of the surface blood vessels as a result of exposure to extreme cold. As with heat burns the damage may be either surficial or deep and the affected tissues may be destroyed. To prevent frost bit, wear adequate clothing and gloves, and leave as little skin exposed as possible. Symptoms and Signs 1. The affected areas tip of nose, ears, fingers or toes become at first pale, then waxy whites later a mottled blue colour, and finally black. 2. Blustering may occur. 3. Casualty may complain of pins and needles” and intensepain, but the part gradually becomes num and pain disappears as the freezing bites deeper. 4. The skin feels hard and stiff.
Aim 1. Warm the affected are slowly and naturally to prevent further tissue destruction. 2. Arrange removal to hospital.TreatmentNote:If there are signs of accompanying hypothermia, treat hypothermia before frost bite. Do notattempt to thaw out a part if the casualty will later be exposed to cold or a journey, as to freezethaw refreeze is disastrous for tissues. Simply cover the affected part in dry gauze, wool andloose bandaging, or enclose it in plastic bag. 1. At the first signs of whiteness, pain or tingling handle damaged tissues gently. Remove frozen covering carefully, together with rings or watches. Warm the part with your own hands. Alternatively, if a finger is first bitten place the casualty’s affected hand in her opposite arm pit until normal colour returns. 2. Get her to warm surroundings soon as possible. She may walk on frost bitten feet before thawing out but never after wards carry her on a stretcher. If colour does not return rapidly, place the affected part in warm water, (tested first with your elbow). 3. As the part thaws out, the colour will improve and pain will return. Dry and dress the thawed area with dry gauze or wool and lightly bandage it. 4. Elevate the limb to reduce swelling. 5. If authorized by a doctor, give the casualty two paracetamol tablets.
6. Arrange removal to hospital, transport as a stretcher case. DONT’S Do not rub the area Do not burst blisters Do not heat the part with fires or hot-water bottles Do not allow the casualty to smokeI. SNOW BLINDNESS, WELDER’S FLASH AND RADIATION When the eyes are to glare produced by the reflection of the sun on snow or concrete for too long, the cornea of the eye can be injured. This painful condition can take as long as a week to subside. It can easily be prevented by wearing dark glasses. S/s: 1. These normally appear sometime after exposure to glare, welding flash or radiation. 2. Casualty complains of intense. Pain in the affected eyes; eyes may feel gritty. 3. Affected eyes will be red, watering and sensitive light. Aim ( Cover the eyes and seek medical aid if injury is severe) 1. Bathe the eyes with cold water 2. Lightly dress both eyes with eye pads of clean, nonfully material 3. If in doubt about the severity of the injury, seek medical aid urgently.
J. RABIES Incubation period: 15 days to 8 months Symptoms in the casualty: 3 stages: 1. Invasion stage: increased irritation or pain in the region of bite; restlessness; insomnia; quickened pulse and slight fever are common. 2. Excitement stage: restlessness becomes intense with great mental excitement; hypersensitiveness to any stimulus; sets up distressing spasms of the muscles of the throat and respirations; consciousness unfortunately remains clear. 3. Paralytic stages: exhaustion; followed by heart failure; developed disease is incurable. Symptoms in the dog: 1. For domestic dogs: Hot nose’; refusal to food; restlessness ensues rapidly; the dog wanders about anxiously; accompanied by a change of expression; wrinkling of the eyebrows; and haunted look. 2. Dog tears at its bedding, chews up its water tin; altered tone in the bark. First Aid Treatment: “Prevention is everything in dealing with rabies, as the disease is always fatal.” 1. Wash the whole abraded surface with soap and water whether licked, scratched or lacerated.
2. If pure carbolic acid (phenyle) is available, paint carefully the abraded surface and edges of the wound by means of a match, or slip of split cane, dipped in pure carbolic acid.3. Don’t kill the dog.4. Refer to nearest hospital.