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Moving Cloud from Hype To Reality
 

Moving Cloud from Hype To Reality

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I delivered this talk at PHP-Tek 12 in Chicago in May 2012.

I delivered this talk at PHP-Tek 12 in Chicago in May 2012.

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  • So my goal in this session is to give you a big broad perspective on this space.So for full disclosure I in fact do work for Microsoft.HOWEVER, my goal here today is not to convince you that Windows Azure is exactly what you need in every situation.Rather my goal here is to give you some perspective on some of the things that made the cloud possible today.I will talk about how the cloud is different than traditional hosting which all of you are familiar with.I will talk about just a few scenarios that cloud provides or makes very easy.Then I’ll walk through the differences between IaaS and PaaS then talk about a number of different cloud vendors and about their offers, goods, bads, etc.
  • So what changes when you think about cloud computing from traditional hosting?
  • BandwidthCheaperMore of itYou can do far more on a server and deliver that to clients rather than relying on the clients processing power alone (or at all)
  • In 1998 the average price paid by content owners to deliver video on the web was around $0.15 per MB delivered. That's per bit delivered, not sustained.In 1998 if you wanted to stream a movie at 3Mbs it would cost you $270.Today you Netflix pays about 5 cents to stream the same movie.Sourceshttp://blog.streamingmedia.com/the_business_of_online_vi/2010/01/bandwidth-pricing-trends-cost-to-stream-a-movie-today-five-cents-cost-in-1998-270.htmlNumbershttp://drpeering.net/white-papers/Internet-Transit-Pricing-Historical-And-Projected.php
  • Back then you couldn’t even stream a 3Mbs movie the best you could get would have been 37kbs.Fast forward to today where guys like Netflix are encoding their content at a bitrate that is 90x what it was in 1998.
  • Cheaper & Better HardwareProcessorsStorageRAM
  • Moore’s Law is still running strong.
  • Sourcehttp://ns1758.ca/winch/winchest.htmlIn 2000 the250GB hard drive on this Macbook Air would have cost $5000. That’s more than double what the entire machine costs today.Not only that but this Macbook Air has a solid state drive. The figures here only apply to regular spinning storage media, not SSD’s.
  • Today memory is cheaper and faster too.Back in 2000 the 4GB of RAM on this Macbook Air would have cost over $4000.
  • Virtualization technology has improved greatlyQuick, cheap and easy to spin up VM’sAdvances by VMWare , Xen, Microsoft
  • Sourcehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_virtualization_development
  • Adoption of REST greatly simplified cloud management and accessing resources such as storageCloud management & provisioning via browserOr provisioning within your application itselfREST is the final piece that takes the ability to provision and manage all this cheap hardware completely self-service.
  • Instagram is a classic example of a service that could not exist without the cloud.These guys grew by 10 million new users in just a few days time when they released their Andoid application earlier this year.
  • Sourcehttp://instagram-engineering.tumblr.com/Instagram is a tiny company. They have only three engineers who manage all of their infrastructure.Yet with just three people they were able to manage the incredible growth of their service with no loss in performance.
  • I know we’d all like to be building the next Instagram so we can get bought by Facebook but let’s look at a scenario that’s more down to earth.So companies that build software have to build test labs that they use to run unit tests, integration and load testing before they push it live.If you think what does the load look like for this workload it would look something like this.Load your app, run your tests, tests pass, push your updates live. Done.Then your servers sit idle until your next release.
  • If I run my own test lab, how many servers do I need?If I need a 100 servers to run the job in 12 hours then I need to buy 100 servers.
  • Note this doesn’t include ANYTHING else. People to maintain it, etc.
  • The concept is simple. You want to scale vertically then deploy your app on a bigger server.In some cases you can simply throw larger or more VM’s at a solution and scale.But in reality for real scale you need to design your apps for scale and for the cloud.
  • Let’s look back at that You Tube example.For instance what if I had an app that consisted of a website with the ability to upload videos, encode them then make them available for people to view.If you had a single app like this one sitting on a single server and tried to scale it by replicating it across many different VM’s it wouldn’t work.You can’t scale an app of this type by simply throwing more hardware at it.Performance is still going to suck.
  • You need to design for the cloud.Let’s look back at that Cat You Tube example.For instance what if I had an app that consisted of a website with the ability to upload videos, encode them then make them available for people to view.You need to separate the various computation pieces of your site into discreet and separate apps or services. This includes:A website that your users visit to view videos and select to upload their own videos.A service that injests new videos being uploaded.A service that then encodes them.Then a cache to stage them up for quick retrieval by other users coming to watch videos of cats.With each logical part of the app you can enable monitoring to allow it to scale independently of the other components to provide for more efficiency and higher performance.
  • You can deal with issues of inconsistency in various ways.For instance if your service has a workflow for new users to sign up then you’ll have a consistency issue when the webserver goes back to the slave db for user data.One way of getting around this is to have the system send an email when the replication is complete. Many large sites/services use this exact technique.
  • Good blog post on thishttp://blog.maxindelicato.com/2008/12/scalability-strategies-primer-database-sharding.html
  • You use SaaS services today!!!How many of you use Gmail?Well if you use Gmail or any online email service you are a user of SaaS applications.Many companies, especially smaller newer ones are also big fans of SalesForce.Installing and maintaining CRM software is very resource intensive, both in dollars to purchase as well as in manpower to maintain it.Providing CRM software over the browser means zero installation, configuration or maintenance. It also makes licensing easier since you only pay for what you use.So the appeal for SaaS is that it lowers the barrier to entry down to the user level.But since we are all developers I’m not going to spend too much time talking about SaaS.What I will say is that as an application developer it is a very appealing way to deliver services to customers for what are normally complex applications to install or maintain. If you build software that requires some sort of on premise installation this is definitely a good option to consider.
  • So since we are developers I want to spend the bulk of my time talking about non SaaS providers.So Iaas or Infrastructure as a Service is basically the ability to self provision virtual machines on demand.
  • Far fewer options than AmazonLB supports, round robin, weighted round robin, least connections, weighted least connections and random
  • Primarily a ruby platform, now includejavascript support.*There are some examples on github for how to do PHP but they are unsupported
  • Engine Yard, similar in many ways to Heruku.Also runs on EC2.Btw, they also have a version that is designed for Enterprises and it runs on TerraMark which is an Operations Cloud Provider.

Moving Cloud from Hype To Reality Moving Cloud from Hype To Reality Presentation Transcript

  • Mark Brown Community Manager Windows AzureMicrosoft Corporation @markjbrown
  • • What is the cloud/characteristics• Differences between cloud and hosting• Why makes the cloud possible today?• Considerations for building cloud apps• IaaS Offerings• PaaS Offerings
  • What is the Cloud? Place to run apps, store data, and more Offers self-service provisioning of resources Provides granular, elastic allocation of resources Charged for the resources you use
  • Cloud Characteristics Provides high reliability Runs on commodity hardware Should allow for elasticity Should provide economies of scale Resources Cost
  • From Hosting to Cloud ComputingCapability Hosting Cloud Capacity Reserved On Demand Payment Per Month Per Hour Provisioning Managed Self-Service
  • We’ve had hosting forever.What has changed?
  • Bandwidth
  • Want to stream a Movie in 1998? US Internet Transit Prices per Mbs$1,400$1,200 $270$1,000 $800 $600 per Mbs $400 $200 .05₵ $0 2003 2006 2002 2005 2009 2001 2004 2010 1998 2000 2011 2008 2007 2012 1999
  • There’s more bandwidth too Average bitrates for streaming media40003500 90x300025002000 Avg BitRates15001000 500 0 1998 2003 2007 2011
  • Hardware
  • Storage Prices252015 $/GB10 50 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
  • Memory Prices Cost for RAM $/MB1.2 10.80.6 $/MB0.40.2 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 20052006200720082009 2010 2011 2012
  • Virtualization
  • Virtualization 2000 – Free BSD jails released 2001 – VMWare first server virtualization 2003  Xen: first open source x86 hypervisor  Microsoft releases Virtual PC for Windows 2006 –  VMWare Server offered for free  Microsoft: Virtual PC offered for free  Microsoft – Xen Hypervisor compatibility
  • REST
  • REST/Services Simplified managing resources Provisioning:  via a browser  inside your app Monitoring and management Makes self-service possible Final piece that ties it altogether
  • Before the Cloud. Could I… Create an iPhone app that could support exponential user growth? Do big data or scientific computing without investing in a massive data center? Create the next hot game on Facebook? YouTube Blog:  Today 72 hours of video are uploaded to the site every minute Could NetFlix or YouTube even exist?
  • Insane user growth Instagram Users450000004000000035000000300000002500000020000000 Users 1500000010000000 5000000 0 Oct Dec Feb Apr Jun Sept Nov Jan Mar May 2010 2010 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2012 2012 2012
  • 3 engineers + Cloud• 100+ instances running: – 3 nginx load balancers – 25 Django app servers – 12 hot Postgres, 12 replica – Redis, memcached, solr, workers, monitor, etc.• Not possible with traditional hosting or on- premise!!!
  • Test Lab Utilization12010080604020 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan
  • How Many Servers do I buy? Utilization120 This Many!!!10080604020 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan
  • Some quick math Comparing just the servers themselves Assume: Test needs to run in 12 hr once a month Requires: 100 - 8 core, x64, 68 GB RAM If you bought servers yourself:  $5000 * 100 = $500,000 Cloud Spot Instances:  100 quad, XL High CPU, 12 hr/mo = $2200  $2200/month * 3 Years = $80K
  • Scale?
  • Design for the Cloud Build loosely coupled apps Service enabled Use Messaging & Queues Other Considerations:  Database replication  Database sharding  noSQL for high performance storage
  • Cat VideoDesign for the Cloud Load Balancers My Site  Serves videos  Injests Web Servers  Encodes Cache  Caches
  • Cat VideoDesign for the Cloud Load Balancers Loosely Coupled Service Enabled Messaging/Queues Web Servers Cache Scales independently No blocking Ingest Servers Encoding Servers
  • Database Replication Writes Master-Slave replication Writes on Master Reads on Slaves Master Heavy read, light write Not always consistent (lag) Slave Slave Slave Reads Reads Reads
  • Database Sharding Horizontal partitioning Name State Zipcode  Country/Continent Marco Ontario M4B 2E1  Postal Codes Cal Tennessee 37201  Date Range Keith Texas 73301 Mark Washington 98034  Consistent hashing
  • MarcoDatabase Sharding Shard Index:  Shard Id, Partitioned Data, Connection String  Consistent w/lazy writes or batch Lots of support:  Redis Shard Index  MongoDB  Win Azure DB Shards
  • noSQL Non-relational data store Super fast Good partitioning support Types:  Wide column  Hadoop, Casandra  Document store  mongoDB, CouchDB, ravenDB  Key/value  membase, redis, DynamoDB
  • IaaS – Infrastructure as a ServicePaaS – Platform as a ServiceSaaS – Software as a Service IaaS = Bring your own OS PaaS = Bring your own App SaaS = Bring your own Customers
  • SaaS You use this today Your mom might use it too Also very popular for mom
  • IaaS Virtualized OS Images Storage, Load Balancing, Databases, CDN, identity, caching, messagi ng + other value-add services
  • Iaas Strengths/Weaknesses Strengths:  Familiar technologies  Supports many scenarios  Limited code lock-in  Can control and configure environment Weaknesses:  Must control and configure environment  Requires administrative skills to use
  • Amazon Web Services Select an OS from massive library of images  Many flavors of Linux, Windows SQS: Queue hosted as a service on AWS  Unlimited queues & messages  64k message size, 14 day TTL Elastic Load Balancing:  Distributes traffic across your EC2 instances  Detects/removes unhealthy instances & reroutes  Works in a single AZ or across Availability Zones
  • Amazon Web Services Auto Scaling:  Monitor instance health  Provision/de-provision EC2 instances  Use with ELB to monitor latency to ensure adequate compute to handle demand Content Delivery Network:  Edge cache site and resources  Supports dynamic (per user) content  Pay for only what you use  Push everything, pay for what’s accessed.
  • Amazon Web Services RDS: MySQL, Oracle, MSSQL DynamoDB: noSQL, SSD, auto-scale, auto-replicated ElastiCache: Memcached compliant S3: Raw data storage, unlimited objects 1k-5TB Elastic BeanStalk (PaaS): VM-based  Java: Tomcat, AWS Toolkit for Eclipse, WAR, CLI  PHP: Apache, git  .NET: IIS, AWS Toolkit for VS or WebDeploy 2.0
  • RackSpace Far fewer services than AWS Number of services building on OpenStack (in beta) Load Balancing:  Supports: RR, WRR, LC, WLC, random  Supports SSL Termination  Detects/removes unhealthy instances & reroutes  Connection throttling  Available in UK for geo-scale Database: MySQL (beta)
  • RackSpace Files:  Built on OpenStack (beta).  RackSpace hosted and Akamai option as well Monitoring: (also beta) Web Sites:  PHP: Apache, MySQL, Linux  .NET: IIS, MSSQL, Windows
  • PaaS Virtualized OS or multi-tenant instance Load Balancing, DB, CDN, Storage (sometimes) Varies widely from vendor to vendor
  • The Benefits of PaaS Less Complex  There’s less work for developers to do  Go from idea to availability more quickly Less Expensive  Less admin work to do  Hire fewer ops support Less Risky  PaaS platforms do more  Have to design for the PaaS  Fewer opportunities for designing apps incorrectly
  • The Drawbacks of PaaS Learning curve  You have to learn their PaaS platform Less control  Platform does more, you do less, thus less control Vendor lock-in  Doesn’t match your on-premise test servers Migration  Moving existing apps is difficult
  • Heroku Built on AWS (XL High Mem Instances) Nginx reverse proxy (SSL Term) extra $ for SSL Varnish cache Languages: Ruby, Node.js, Clojure, Java, Python, PHP* Dynamically spins up and shut down apps (dynos) Dyno gets 512MB memory Deploy: git->(app, gem’s)->slug->compiled->deploy Database: PostgreSQL Addons: Memcached, SSL Read only FS
  • Engine Yard Also built on AWS Languages: Ruby, node.js, PHP (Orchestra) Free: shared multi-tenant. Paid: VM’s Nginx: reverse proxy, cache & web server (no htaccess) Deploy: git & SVN Read only FS, use S3 Addons: couchDB, memcached, MongoDB, solr, ZeroMQ… Frameworks: Zend, Lithium, Symfony/2, FRAPI, Solar
  • PHPCloud Dev environment in the cloud (different than others) Apps hosted in Zend App Fabric Choice of clouds to deploy production app to  AWS, RackSpace, IBM, HP Snapshot – cool for sharing environments Lots of features from Zend Server available:  Monitoring  Autoscaling  CodeTracing  Queues
  • PHPFog Built on AWS Cloud Foundry: PHP, .NET, Ruby, Java, Node.js… Varnish cache, Nginx LB, Apache web server SSH support S3 for storage Handy Jumpstarts  Apps: Drupal, WordPress, Sugar, Facebook…  Fx: Cake, Zend, CodeIgniter, Kohana, Silex, FuelPHP… Addons: MongoDB, IronMQ, NewRelic…
  • Windows Azure Compute:  Web Role, Worker Role  Non-persistent VM Database: SQL Azure  Access from cloud or on-premise  OLAP  Sharding via Federation  Data Sync (uni/bi-directional)
  • Windows Azure Storage:  Blob: Unstructured/binary (video, images, etc.)  Table: key/value (noSQL)  Drives: blob mounted as single volume NTFS VHD 3x auto-replication within DC Blobs & Tables geo-replicated automatically Simple CDN integration
  • Windows Azure Service Bus:  Queues  Topics/Subscriptions: pub/sub Caching, CDN Traffic Manager: (Load Balancer)  Same or different DC’s, geo-scale  Auto-failover SDK’s:  .NET, Java, Node.js, PHP
  • The Event Join us at Madrone Studios in San Francisco on June 7th. Youll connect with senior technologists from Microsoft and the Bay area who will introduce you to Windows Azure. Come see the unveiling of the latest in Microsofts cloud-based technology and be part of a dynamic live experience.http://meetwindowsazure.com