The use of sources in prominent news stories  in the Netherlands Journalism and the Media Assignment 8: The impact of sour...
Content <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Research question </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>Method  </...
Introduction <ul><li>Doing a research about the news industry is an open-ended and fascinating  endeavor  </li></ul><ul><l...
Research Question <ul><li>To what extent are there differences in the number of sources used in prominent news stories pub...
Hypothesis 1 <ul><li>In the online news environment, not just the sender but also the medium and receiver can be construed...
Hypothesis 2 <ul><li>Because of under-manned newsrooms, local journalists work in a pressurized environment where they bec...
Hypothesis 3 <ul><li>According to the  Scholten en Ruijgrok (2009):  </li></ul><ul><li>Free newspaper articles rely for 55...
Method <ul><li>Manual quantitative content analysis  </li></ul><ul><li>Days of analyzing: 21, 22 and 25 October 2010 </li>...
Analysis <ul><li>Recorded in and analyzed with SPSS 15.0 </li></ul><ul><li>One-Way ANOVA for individual effects of factors...
Results: Online vs. offline media <ul><li>Less sources being uses in online media ( p <0.001) </li></ul><ul><li>Significan...
Results: Online versus off line media <ul><li>News programs on television used the most  sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Online...
Results: National versus regional news media The impact of sources <ul><li>Sources are more used in national media than in...
Results: Subscribed versus free newspapers <ul><li>There was no significant difference ( p =0.580) in the number of source...
Conclusion <ul><li>RQ: To what extent are there differences in the number of sources used in prominent news stories publis...
Limitations <ul><li>News coverage was studied only 3 days, so a small number of units of analysis ( n ), makes it hard to ...
References <ul><li>In this research we used the following literature:  </li></ul><ul><li>Deuze, M. (2003). The web and its...
SPSS syntax <ul><li>The SPSS syntax that has been used for this study can be found in the notations space of this slide in...
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Cartoon controversy; why the Danish Mohammed cartoons could be published.

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The Danish ‘Mohammed Cartoon’ crisis; Classification in Hallin & Mancini’s media system; Power relations between media and politics;

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  • DATASET DECLARE Stories. AGGREGATE /OUTFILE=&apos;Stories&apos; /BREAK=ID1 V01 V02 V04 /V05_mean = MEAN(V05) /V06_mean = MEAN(V06) /V07_mean = MEAN(V07). IF (V01 = 1 ) online = 0 . IF (V01 = 2 ) online = 0 . IF (V01 = 3 ) online = 0 . IF (V01 = 4 ) online = 0 . IF (V01 = 5 ) online = 0 . IF (V01 = 6 ) online = 0 . IF (V01 = 7 ) online = 0 . IF (V01 = 8 ) online = 0 . IF (V01 = 9 ) online = 0 . IF (V01 = 10 ) online = 0 . IF (V01 = 11 ) online = 0 . IF (V01 = 12 ) online = 0 . IF (V01 = 13 ) online = 0 . IF (V01 = 14 ) online = 0 . IF (V01 = 21 ) online = 1 . IF (V01 = 22 ) online = 1 . IF (V01 = 23 ) online = 1 . IF (V01 = 24 ) online = 1 . IF (V01 = 25 ) online = 1 . IF (V01 = 26 ) online = 1 . IF (V01 = 27 ) online = 1 . IF (V01 = 28 ) online = 1 . IF (V01 = 29 ) online = 1 . IF (V01 = 30 ) online = 1 . IF (V01 = 31 ) online = 1 . IF (V01 = 32 ) online = 1 . IF (V01 = 33 ) online = 1 . IF (V01 = 34 ) online = 1 . IF (V01 = 35 ) online = 1 . IF (V01 = 41 ) online = 0 . IF (V01 = 42 ) online = 0 . IF (V01 = 43 ) online = 0 . IF (V01 = 44 ) online = 0 . IF (V01 = 51 ) online = 1 . IF (V01 = 52 ) online = 1 . IF (V01 = 53 ) online = 1 . IF (V01 = 55 ) online = 1 . IF (V01 = 56 ) online = 1 . IF (V01 = 61 ) online = 1 . IF (V01 = 62 ) online = 1 . IF (V01 = 64 ) online = 1 . IF (V01 = 1 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 2 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 3 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 4 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 5 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 6 ) national = 0 . IF (V01 = 7 ) national = 0 . IF (V01 = 8 ) national = 0 . IF (V01 = 9 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 10 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 11 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 12 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 13 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 14 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 21 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 22 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 23 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 24 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 26 ) national = 0 . IF (V01 = 27 ) national = 0 . IF (V01 = 28 ) national = 0 . IF (V01 = 29 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 30 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 31 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 32 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 33 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 34 ) national = 0 . IF (V01 = 35 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 41 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 42 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 43 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 44 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 51 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 52 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 53 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 55 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 56 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 61 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 62 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 64 ) national = 1 . IF (V01 = 1 ) Paidnewsp = 1 . IF (V01 = 2 ) Paidnewsp = 1 . IF (V01 = 3 ) Paidnewsp = 1 . IF (V01 = 4 ) Paidnewsp = 1 . IF (V01 = 5 ) Paidnewsp = 1 . IF (V01 = 6 ) Paidnewsp = 1 . IF (V01 = 7 ) Paidnewsp = 1 . IF (V01 = 8 ) Paidnewsp = 1 . IF (V01 = 9 ) Paidnewsp = 0 . IF (V01 = 10 ) Paidnewsp = 0 . IF (V01 = 11 ) Paidnewsp = 0 . IF (V01 = 41 ) Paidnewsp = 1 . IF (V01 = 42 ) Paidnewsp = 1 . IF (V01 = 43 ) Paidnewsp = 1 . IF (V01 = 44 ) Paidnewsp = 1 . IF (V01 = 1 ) medium = 0 . IF (V01 = 2 ) medium = 0 . IF (V01 = 3 ) medium = 0 . IF (V01 = 4 ) medium = 0 . IF (V01 = 5 ) medium = 0 . IF (V01 = 6 ) medium = 0 . IF (V01 = 7 ) medium = 0 . IF (V01 = 8 ) medium = 0 . IF (V01 = 9 ) medium = 0 . IF (V01 = 10 ) medium = 0 . IF (V01 = 11 ) medium = 0 . IF (V01 = 12 ) medium = 1 . IF (V01 = 13 ) medium = 1 . IF (V01 = 14 ) medium = 1 . IF (V01 = 21 ) medium = 2 . IF (V01 = 22 ) medium = 2 . IF (V01 = 23 ) medium = 2 . IF (V01 = 24 ) medium = 2 . IF (V01 = 25 ) medium = 2 . IF (V01 = 26 ) medium = 2 . IF (V01 = 27 ) medium = 2 . IF (V01 = 28 ) medium = 2 . IF (V01 = 29 ) medium = 2 . IF (V01 = 30 ) medium = 2 . IF (V01 = 31 ) medium = 2 . IF (V01 = 32 ) medium = 2 . IF (V01 = 33 ) medium = 2 . IF (V01 = 34 ) medium = 2 . IF (V01 = 35 ) medium = 2 . IF (V01 = 41 ) medium = 0 . IF (V01 = 42 ) medium = 0 . IF (V01 = 43 ) medium = 0 . IF (V01 = 44 ) medium = 0 . IF (V01 = 51 ) medium = 2 . IF (V01 = 52 ) medium = 2 . IF (V01 = 53 ) medium = 2 . IF (V01 = 55 ) medium = 2 . IF (V01 = 56 ) medium = 2 . IF (V01 = 61 ) medium = 2 . IF (V01 = 62 ) medium = 2 . IF (V01 = 64 ) medium = 2 . USE ALL. COMPUTE filter_$=(V02 = 1 | V01 = 4). VARIABLE LABEL filter_$ &apos;V02 = 1 | V01 = 4 (FILTER)&apos;. VALUE LABELS filter_$ 0 &apos;Not Selected&apos; 1 &apos;Selected&apos;. FORMAT filter_$ (f1.0). FILTER BY filter_$. EXECUTE . ONEWAY V07_mean BY Online /STATISTICS DESCRIPTIVES /PLOT MEANS /MISSING ANALYSIS /POSTHOC = SCHEFFE ALPHA(.05). ONEWAY V07_mean BY National /STATISTICS DESCRIPTIVES /PLOT MEANS /MISSING ANALYSIS /POSTHOC = SCHEFFE ALPHA(.05). ONEWAY V07_mean BY Subscribed /STATISTICS DESCRIPTIVES /PLOT MEANS /MISSING ANALYSIS /POSTHOC = SCHEFFE ALPHA(.05). ONEWAY V07_mean BY Medium /STATISTICS DESCRIPTIVES /PLOT MEANS /MISSING ANALYSIS /POSTHOC = SCHEFFE ALPHA(.05).
  • Cartoon controversy; why the Danish Mohammed cartoons could be published.

    1. 1. The use of sources in prominent news stories in the Netherlands Journalism and the Media Assignment 8: The impact of sources October 29, 2010 Research team E: Mark Boukes, Liza de Leeuw, Femke de Koning, Jan Peters & Yasemin Smit
    2. 2. Content <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Research question </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>Method </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>The impact of sources
    3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Doing a research about the news industry is an open-ended and fascinating endeavor </li></ul><ul><li>Looking at the use of sources is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>extremely important for the construction of news stories and its understanding by the audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contributes to this merely under-investigated research field </li></ul></ul>The impact of sources
    4. 4. Research Question <ul><li>To what extent are there differences in the number of sources used in prominent news stories published in the Netherlands: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in online versus offline media (printed newspapers and television) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in national versus regional media (newspapers), and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in subscribed versus free newspapers (online and offline)? </li></ul></ul>The impact of sources
    5. 5. Hypothesis 1 <ul><li>In the online news environment, not just the sender but also the medium and receiver can be construed as a source of online news (Morris & Ogan, 1996). </li></ul><ul><li>Online journalists collect, annotate and comment upon sources of news all over the web, focusing explicitly on issues and angles that they feel the ‘mainstream’ journalists have not covered (Deuze, 2003). </li></ul><ul><li>H1: In online media the use of sources is higher than in offline media </li></ul>The impact of sources
    6. 6. Hypothesis 2 <ul><li>Because of under-manned newsrooms, local journalists work in a pressurized environment where they become dependent on the pre-fabricated news from public relations organizations, or rewrites news agency copy (O’ Neill & O’ Connor, 2008, p. 489). </li></ul><ul><li>Local journalists rely often on a single source for stories, what is possible reflecting shortage of time and resources, combined with sources’ skills in presenting positive public images. This is a significant contributory factor to uncritical local press. (O’Neill & O’ Connor, 2008, p. 493). </li></ul><ul><li>H2: National newspapers use more sources than regional newspapers </li></ul>The impact of sources
    7. 7. Hypothesis 3 <ul><li>According to the Scholten en Ruijgrok (2009): </li></ul><ul><li>Free newspaper articles rely for 55% on their own employees; Subscribed newspapers rely for 83% on their own employees </li></ul><ul><li>Half of the free newspaper’s articles rely on press agencies </li></ul><ul><li>This suggests that subscribed newspapers use more direct sources than free newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>H3: Free newspapers use less sources than subscribed newspapers </li></ul>The impact of sources
    8. 8. Method <ul><li>Manual quantitative content analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Days of analyzing: 21, 22 and 25 October 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>For those days the following media were analyzed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 national newspapers, 3 regional newspapers, 3 free newspapers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 news broadcasts (1 public, 2 commercial) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>14 news websites (online services of the media mentioned above) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Every day 10-12 news stories were coded, of which 10 or less were prominent, for a medium per day </li></ul><ul><li>Resulting in almost 900 news stories ( n= 896) </li></ul>The impact of sources
    9. 9. Analysis <ul><li>Recorded in and analyzed with SPSS 15.0 </li></ul><ul><li>One-Way ANOVA for individual effects of factors </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent variable: number of different sources </li></ul><ul><li>Independent variables: type of media outlet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online vs. offline media (newspaper or television) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National vs. regional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subscribed vs. free newspapers </li></ul></ul>The impact of sources
    10. 10. Results: Online vs. offline media <ul><li>Less sources being uses in online media ( p <0.001) </li></ul><ul><li>Significant less use of sources in online media (X=1.89, Sd=1.26) compared to newspapers (X=2.74, SD=1.98) and television (X=3.12, SD=2.31) </li></ul><ul><li>The difference between newspapers and television is not significant according to Post hoc Scheffe tests </li></ul>The impact of sources
    11. 11. Results: Online versus off line media <ul><li>News programs on television used the most sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Online news media used far less sources </li></ul>The impact of sources
    12. 12. Results: National versus regional news media The impact of sources <ul><li>Sources are more used in national media than in regional media ( p<0.001) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Results: Subscribed versus free newspapers <ul><li>There was no significant difference ( p =0.580) in the number of sources used in subscribed (X=2.78, Sd=1.95) and free newspapers (X=2.65, Sd=2.06). </li></ul>The impact of sources
    14. 14. Conclusion <ul><li>RQ: To what extent are there differences in the number of sources used in prominent news stories published in the Netherlands in online versus offline media (printed newspapers and television) , in national versus regional media, and in subscribed versus free newspapers? </li></ul><ul><li>H1: rejected - there are less sources being used in online media. News programs on TV use the most (external) sources. The difference in using sources between newspapers and television is not significant. </li></ul><ul><li>H2: found a significant effect - national newspapers use more sources than regional newspapers. </li></ul><ul><li>H3: the number of sources used in subscribed and free newspapers is not significant different. </li></ul>The impact of sources
    15. 15. Limitations <ul><li>News coverage was studied only 3 days, so a small number of units of analysis ( n ), makes it hard to find significant results </li></ul><ul><li>Can we make generalizations from the results to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>all news stories (more or less prominent)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>news coverage of a longer period? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>media in other countries? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No reliability test for the coding procedure </li></ul>The impact of sources
    16. 16. References <ul><li>In this research we used the following literature: </li></ul><ul><li>Deuze, M. (2003). The web and its journalism: Considering the consequences of different types of news media online. New media and society, 5 (2), 203-230. </li></ul><ul><li>Morris, M. & Ogan, C. (1996). The internet as mass medium. Journal of Communication, 46 (1), 39–50 </li></ul><ul><li>O’ Neill, D. & O’ Connor, C. (2008). The passive journalist. How sources dominate local news. Journalism Practice, 2 (3), 487-500. </li></ul><ul><li>Scholten, O. & Ruijgrok, N. (2009). Bronnen in het nieuws . Nederlandse Nieuwsmonitor. </li></ul>The impact of sources
    17. 17. SPSS syntax <ul><li>The SPSS syntax that has been used for this study can be found in the notations space of this slide in the PowerPoint file. </li></ul>The impact of sources
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