History of Cartography: From Ptolemy to TomTom

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  • Cave paintings at Trois-Freres in France, 18,000-15,000 BC
  • Cave paintings at Trois-Freres in France, 18,000-15,000 BC
  • Cave paintings at Trois-Freres in France, 18,000-15,000 BC
  • Sumerian Star map from Nineveh, c. 3300 BCSu Song Star map from China, c. 1020-1101 (Song Dynasty)Star Map, Albrecht Durer, 1515
  • Sumerian Star map from Nineveh, c. 3300 BCSu Song Star map from China, c. 1020-1101 (Song Dynasty)Star Map, Albrecht Durer, 1515
  • Sumerian Star map from Nineveh, c. 3300 BCSu Song Star map from China, c. 1020-1101 (Song Dynasty)Star Map, Albrecht Durer, 1515
  • Sumerian Star map from Nineveh, c. 3300 BCSu Song Star map from China, c. 1020-1101 (Song Dynasty)Star Map, Albrecht Durer, 1515
  • CartaPisanaPortolan Chart, c.1275–1300
  • Portolan Chart of Pedro Reinal, 1504
  • Gough Map, 1360
  • Gough Map, 1360 – Detail of East Anglia
  • Matthew Paris Itinerary Map
  • John Ogilvy Itinerary Map
  • John Ogilby Road Map from London to Land’s End
  • Senex Guide Map, 1719
  • Mercator World Map, 1569
  • Panoramic Genoa, 1704
  • “Rhinebeck” Panoramic London, 1810
  • “Rhinebeck” Panoramic London, 1810
  • “Rhinebeck” Panoramic London, 1810
  • London Underground Map, 1908
  • 1932 London Tube Map
  • Beck’s Map of the London Underground, 1933
  • Hunt-Lenox Globe (ca. 1503-1507)
  • Hunt-Lenox Globe (ca. 1503-1507)
  • Hunt-Lenox Globe (ca. 1503-1507)“Carta Marina” of Scandinavia (1539)
  • The Flat Earth Society (also known as the International Flat Earth Society or the International Flat Earth Research Society) is an organization that seeks to further the idea that the Earth is flat instead of an oblate spheroid. The modern organization was founded by Englishman Samuel Shenton (a signwriter from Dover) in 1956[1]and was a successor to the Universal Zetetic Society. It was later led by Charles K. Johnson, who based the organization in his home in Lancaster, California. The formal society was inactive after Johnson’s death in 2001 but was resurrected in 2004 by its new president Daniel Shenton  (not related to Samuel).Wilbur Glenn Voliva – Flat Earth Map Wilbur Glenn Voliva (March 10, 1870 – October 11, 1942[1]) was an evangelist and a prominent proponent of Flat Earth theories.
  • History of Cartography: From Ptolemy to TomTom

    1. 1. A History of CartographyFrom Ptolemy toTomTom
    2. 2. Pre-Historic MapsCave paintings ato Trois-Freres, Montesquieu-Avantès, in France – c. 13,000 BCo Lascaux, in France – c. 15,000 BCo El Castillo, in Spain – c 12,000 BC
    3. 3. Pre-Historic MapsCave paintings ato Trois-Freres, Montesquieu-Avantès, in France – c. 13,000 BCo Lascaux, in France – c. 15,000 BCo El Castillo, in Spain – c 12,000 BCRock carvings atȱ Pavlov, in the Czech Republic – c. 23,000 BCȱ Çatalhöyük, Anatolia, in Turkey – c. 15,000 BC
    4. 4. Pre-Historic Star Maps
    5. 5. Pre-Historic Star Maps
    6. 6. Pre-Historic Star Maps
    7. 7. Star MapsSumerian Star map from Nineveh, c. 3300 BC
    8. 8. Star MapsSumerian Star map from Nineveh, c. 3300 BC Su Song Star map from China, c. 1020-1101
    9. 9. Star MapsSumerian Star map from Nineveh, c. 3300 BC Su Song Star map from China, c. 1020-1101Star Map, Albrecht Durer, 1515
    10. 10. Star MapsSumerian Star map from Nineveh, c. 3300 BC Su Song Star map from China, c. 1020-1101Star Map, Albrecht Durer, 1515 Modern Star Map
    11. 11. Ancient MapsAnaximander (c. 610 - 546 BC) Strabo (c. 64 BC - 24 AD)Hecataeus of Miletus (c. 550 - 476 BC) Pomponius Mela (c. 43 AD)Eratosthenes (276 - 194 BC) Marinus of Tyre (c. 120 AD)Posidonius (c. 150 - 130 BC) Claudius Ptolemy, (90-170 AD)
    12. 12. Portolan Charts» Used for navigation at sea
    13. 13. Portolan Charts» Used for navigation at sea» They show Compass Directions and Distances
    14. 14. Portolan Charts» Used for navigation at sea» They show Compass Directions and Distances» Typically drawn on sheepskin
    15. 15. Portolan Charts» Used for navigation at sea» They show Compass Directions and Distances» Typically drawn on sheepskin» Marks the 32 directions on a Mariner’s compass
    16. 16. Portolan Charts» Used for navigation at sea» They show Compass Directions and Distances» Typically drawn on sheepskin» Marks the 32 directions on a Mariner’s compass» Show only coastline, no detail of the interior
    17. 17. Portolan Charts» Used for navigation at sea» They show Compass Directions and Distances» Typically drawn on sheepskin» Marks the 32 directions on a Mariner’s compass» Show only coastline, no detail of the interior» Medieval Portolani typically show North to the top of the map
    18. 18. Portolan Charts» Used for navigation at sea» They show Compass Directions and Distances» Typically drawn on sheepskin» Marks the 32 directions on a Mariner’s compass» Show only coastline, no detail of the interior» Medieval Portolani typically show North to the top of the map» Only useful when in sight of land
    19. 19. Portolan Charts» Used for navigation at sea» They show Compass Directions and Distances» Typically drawn on sheepskin» Marks the 32 directions on a Mariner’s compass» Show only coastline, no detail of the interior» Medieval Portolani typically show North to the top of the map» Only useful when in sight of land» Used with a pilots’ log containing records of reefs, shoals, etc.» Pilots’ log books were know as Rutter or Peripli
    20. 20. Portolan Charts» Used for navigation at sea» They show Compass Directions and Distances» Typically drawn on sheepskin» Marks the 32 directions on a Mariner’s compass» Show only coastline, no detail of the interior» Medieval Portolani typically show North to the top of the map» Only useful when in sight of land» Used with a pilots’ log containing records of reefs, shoals, etc.» Pilots’ log books were know as Rutter or Peripli» Were considered state secrets in Portugal and Spain
    21. 21. Portolan ChartsCarta Pisana Portolan Chart, c.1275–1300
    22. 22. Portolan ChartsPortolan Chart of Pedro Reinal, 1504
    23. 23. Mappa Mundi
    24. 24. Gough Map of Britain - 1360
    25. 25. Gough Map of Britain - 1360
    26. 26. Pilgrim MapsBefore the Roman came to Rye or out to Severn strode,The rolling English drunkard made the rolling English road.A reeling road, a rolling road, that rambles round the shire,And after him the parson ran, the sexton and the squire;A merry road, a mazy road, and such as we did treadThe night we went to Birmingham by way of Beachy Head.• Also called Itinerary, Journey or Strip Maps
    27. 27. Pilgrim MapsBefore the Roman came to Rye or out to Severn strode,The rolling English drunkard made the rolling English road.A reeling road, a rolling road, that rambles round the shire,And after him the parson ran, the sexton and the squire;A merry road, a mazy road, and such as we did treadThe night we went to Birmingham by way of Beachy Head.• Also called Itinerary, Journey or Strip Maps• Depict a route from one place to anothere.g. from London to Canterbury
    28. 28. Pilgrim MapsBefore the Roman came to Rye or out to Severn strode,The rolling English drunkard made the rolling English road.A reeling road, a rolling road, that rambles round the shire,And after him the parson ran, the sexton and the squire;A merry road, a mazy road, and such as we did treadThe night we went to Birmingham by way of Beachy Head.• Also called Itinerary, Journey or Strip Maps• Depict a route from one place to anothere.g. from London to Canterbury• Show the Route as a straight line
    29. 29. Pilgrim MapsBefore the Roman came to Rye or out to Severn strode,The rolling English drunkard made the rolling English road.A reeling road, a rolling road, that rambles round the shire,And after him the parson ran, the sexton and the squire;A merry road, a mazy road, and such as we did treadThe night we went to Birmingham by way of Beachy Head.• Also called Itinerary, Journey or Strip Maps• Depict a route from one place to anothere.g. from London to Canterbury• Show the Route as a straight line• Show Waypoints and Landmarks along the way
    30. 30. Pilgrim MapsI knew no harm of Bonaparte and plenty of the Squire,And for to fight the Frenchman I did not much desire;But I did bash their baggonets because they came arrayedTo straighten out the crooked road an English drunkard made,Where you and I went down the lane with ale-mugs in our hands,The night we went to Glastonbury by way of Goodwin Sands.
    31. 31. Pilgrim MapsI knew no harm of Bonaparte and plenty of the Squire,And for to fight the Frenchman I did not much desire;But I did bash their baggonets because they came arrayedTo straighten out the crooked road an English drunkard made,Where you and I went down the lane with ale-mugs in our hands,The night we went to Glastonbury by way of Goodwin Sands.
    32. 32. Pilgrim MapsHis sins they were forgiven him; or why do flowers runBehind him; and the hedges all strengthening in the sun?The wild thing went from left to right and knew not which was which,But the wild rose was above him when they found him in the ditch.God pardon us, nor harden us; we did not see so clearThe night we went to Bannockburn by way of Brighton Pier.
    33. 33. Pilgrim MapsHis sins they were forgiven him; or why do flowers runBehind him; and the hedges all strengthening in the sun?The wild thing went from left to right and knew not which was which,But the wild rose was above him when they found him in the ditch.God pardon us, nor harden us; we did not see so clearThe night we went to Bannockburn by way of Brighton Pier.
    34. 34. Pilgrim MapsMy friends, we will not go again or ape an ancient rage,Or stretch the folly of our youth to be the shame of age,But walk with clearer eyes and ears this path that wandereth,And see undrugged in evening light the decent inn of death;For there is good news yet to hear and fine things to be seen,Before we go to Paradise by way of Kensal Green.
    35. 35. “Age of Discovery”Mercator World Map, 1569
    36. 36. “Age of Discovery”Abraham Ortelius, 1570
    37. 37. Map ProjectionsCylindrical – Transverse Mercator
    38. 38. Map ProjectionsProjections - Sinusoidal
    39. 39. Map ProjectionsProjections - SinusoidalEcker IV Ecker VI Goode Homolosine
    40. 40. Map ProjectionsProjections - SinusoidalKavrayskiy VII Mollweide Tobler Hyperelliptical
    41. 41. Map ProjectionsProjections – Albers Conical
    42. 42. Map ProjectionsProjections – Albers Conical
    43. 43. Map ProjectionsProjections – Azimuthal Equidistant
    44. 44. Map ProjectionsProjections – Azimuthal Equidistant
    45. 45. Map ProjectionsProjections – Azimuthal EquidistantShow the globe as it appears from space
    46. 46. Map ProjectionsProjections – Gnomic
    47. 47. Map ProjectionsProjections – Gnomic
    48. 48. Map ProjectionsProjections – GnomicOften used by Seismologists,because seismic waves tend to travel alonggreat circles.Used by navies in plotting direction finding bearings,since radio signals travel along great circles
    49. 49. Panoramic Maps
    50. 50. Panoramic Maps
    51. 51. Panoramic Maps
    52. 52. Panoramic Maps
    53. 53. The London Underground
    54. 54. The London Underground
    55. 55. The London Underground
    56. 56. The London Underground
    57. 57. Facebook World Map
    58. 58. Political MapsBritish Empire 1897
    59. 59. Social Maps
    60. 60. Scully: On the old mariner maps, the cartographers woulddesignate unexplored territories by simply writing “Here BeMonsters”.Mulder: Ive seen the same thing on maps of New York City.— The X-Files, "Quagmire"
    61. 61. Scully: On the old mariner maps, the cartographers woulddesignate unexplored territories by simply writing “Here BeMonsters”.Mulder: Ive seen the same thing on maps of New York City.— The X-Files, "Quagmire"~ “Here be Dragons” – “HIC SVNT DRACONES” in Latin.
    62. 62. Scully: On the old mariner maps, the cartographers woulddesignate unexplored territories by simply writing “Here BeMonsters”.Mulder: Ive seen the same thing on maps of New York City.— The X-Files, "Quagmire"~ “Here be Dragons” – “HIC SVNT DRACONES” in Latin.~ Phrase first appears on the Hunt-Lenox Globe (ca. 1503-1507).~ Map Location is Indonesia, so may refer to Komodo Dragons.
    63. 63. Scully: On the old mariner maps, the cartographers woulddesignate unexplored territories by simply writing “Here BeMonsters”.Mulder: Ive seen the same thing on maps of New York City.— The X-Files, "Quagmire"~ “Here be Dragons” – “HIC SVNT DRACONES” in Latin.~ Phrase first appears on the Hunt-Lenox Globe (ca. 1503-1507).~ Map Location is Indonesia, so may refer to Komodo Dragons.~ “HIC SVNT LEONES” was the traditional phrase.
    64. 64. Scully: On the old mariner maps, the cartographers woulddesignate unexplored territories by simply writing “Here BeMonsters”.Mulder: Ive seen the same thing on maps of New York City.— The X-Files, "Quagmire"~ “Here be Dragons” – “HIC SVNT DRACONES” in Latin.~ Phrase first appears on the Hunt-Lenox Globe (ca. 1503-1507).~ Map Location is Indonesia, so may refer to Komodo Dragons.~ “HIC SVNT LEONES” was the traditional phrase.~ Pictures of dragons and serpents did appear on older maps.
    65. 65. Moon MapsLeonardo da Vinci, c. 1500
    66. 66. Moon MapsLeonardo da Vinci, c. 1500 Johannes Hevelius, 1647
    67. 67. Moon MapsHomann and Doppelmayr, 1707
    68. 68. Wilbur Glenn VolivaFlat Earth Map
    69. 69. “Inner Earth”Map from c. 1730
    70. 70. Fictional Maps

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