Introduction to research


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Introduction to research

  1. 1. Introduction to Research
  2. 2. What is a Research? “to search again, to take another more careful look, to find out more” - Selltiz, et. al., 1976 - “ a systematic quest for undiscovered truth” - Leedy, 1974 – “ research is a systematic attempt to provide answers to questions” - Tuckman, 1972 -
  3. 3. Purpose of Research To provide solutions to problems we encounter. Since problems are endless, research is a continuing process. To improve science and technology, the quality of life.
  4. 4. Characteristics of Research 1. Research is logical and objective. 2. Research is expert, systematic and accurate investigation. 3. Research gathers new knowledge and data from primary and secondary sources. 4. Research endeavors to organize data in quantitative terms if possible and to express these data in numerical measures. 5. Research require courage. 6. Research is carefully recorded and reported.
  6. 6. Based on Inquiry • Rationalistic - are the established traditional systems in systematic inquiry. The rationalistic inquiry begins with an existing theory. • Naturalistic - state that we must understand the framework within which the subjects under study interpret their environment to able to understand human behavior.
  7. 7. Based on Purpose • Basic Research - aka “ fundamental” or “pure” research, is direct towards developing new or fuller scientific knowledge or understanding of the subject rather than its practical application. • Applied Research - aka “ action research”, is directed towards the practical application of knowledge. • Developmental Research - refers to the systematic work drawing on existing knowledge gained from research and/or practical experience that is directed to producing new materials, products and devices; to installing new processes, systems and services; and to improving substantially those already produced or install.
  8. 8. Based on Method • Historical Research - is the critical investigation of events, developments and experiences of the past, the careful weighing of evidence of the validity of sources of the information on the past and the interpretation of the weighed evidence. The focus of the subject is the past. • Descriptive Research - describes the population's characteristics. Exploratory or normative surveys fall under this type of research. “it is a study where the major emphasis is on the discovery of idea and insights. Qualitative methods and quantitative research are used.
  9. 9. Based on Method • Co relational Research -“Involves the collection of two or more sets of data from a group of subjects with the attempt to determine the subsequent relationship between those sets of data” -Tuckman,1972 - • Ex Post Facto Research - is a systematic empirical inquiry in which the researcher does not have direct control of the independent variable.
  10. 10. Based on Method • Evaluation Research -It judge the value, worth or merit of an existing program. Formative and Summative are applied in training programs, textbooks, man uals or curriculums. • Experimental Research - is a study conducted in the laboratory. Field experiment and quasi-experimental research fall under this type. This type of research involved two group: the experimental group and the control group.
  11. 11. Measuring Instruments Is a device used to quantify and record information that is important to research study ( Catane, 2000). These come in the form of interviews, questionnaires, observation or unobtrusive methods and these are the tools of data collection.
  12. 12. Type of Measuring Instrument Standardized Instrumentation -has highly refined measurement procedure, carefully developed and designed for administration under carefully-prescribed condition for some specific purpose ( Catane, 2000)
  13. 13. Type of Measuring Instrument Standardized instruments share the following common properties or characteristics (Colombo, 1984) 1. They have well-defined instrument items with test administration having the same procedures and time limits. 2. Their procedures for scoring have been carefully prescribed. 3. Formative data (score obtained from administration to other group) have been prepared. 4. They include estimates of validity and reliability that ae based upon said experimental research . 5. Some standardized instruments have published and marketed by public and private enterprises. Standardized Instrumentation
  14. 14. Type of Measuring Instrument Research-Developed Instruments -are constructed when standardized instruments cannot match up as tools for a specific research. Some researcher- developed instruments are the interview schedule, observation form, document analysis form and the questionnaire. These instruments are used to test the hypothesis of the study.
  15. 15. Evaluating the Research Instrument Evaluating the research instrument places confidence on the results obtained and draws correct conclusion. Research instruments must be reliable and valid.
  16. 16. Evaluating the Research Instrument refers to the consistency of scores obtained by the same persons when they are re- examined with the same test on different occasions or with different sets of equivalent items or under other variable examining conditions. It also refers to the measuring instrument’s accuracy or precision. Reliability
  17. 17. Evaluating the Research Instrument The validity of test concerns what the test measures and how well it does so (Catane, 2000). Thus, validity refers to the degree in which a particular instruments is useful in measuring that which it is designed to measure. Validity
  18. 18. Questions: 1. According to him (who) Research is a systematic attempt to obtain adequate solution to problems. 2. What are the two types of research based on Inquiry? 3. What is the purpose of a research? 4. What type of research is also known as “action research”? 5. It is the critical investigation of event, developments and experience of the past, according to Kerlinger.
  19. 19. Answers: 1. Tuckman 2. Rationalistics, Naturalistic 3. A. To provide solutions to problems. B. To improve science and technology, the quality of life. 4. Applied Research 5. Historical Research
  20. 20. Prepared by: Mark Angelo B. Bernaldez Source: Research and Technical Writing By: Reynaldo R. Fortillo Ma. Consuelo S. Quindara Mila E. Isles Clarita O. Manzano Vivian B. Flores Imelda K. Gamboa Amelia O. Bacuñgan Carolina G. Alberca