Management Fundamentals

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To introduce the learner to the fundamental principles of management

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Management Fundamentals

  1. 1. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals Management Fundamentals
  2. 2. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals Management Fundamentals KeyPoints to develop in your own time! Introductory concepts @ OxfordCambridge.Org all for free and free for all. The information gathered here are under KeyPoints format and may be useful under two circumstances: - To give the reader an overview before deciding for a full scale study of the subject. - To guide readers to develop the chosen topic in their own time. Some tips on how to proceed, perhaps: - Identify all the KeyPoints on which you feel a need to expand your knowledge. - Choose a good book or two and/or info from Internet. - And then work towards gaining that knowledge. Please Enjoy!
  3. 3. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals To introduce the reader to the fundamental principles of management Aim of publication
  4. 4. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals After developing the KeyPoints outlined in this publication, you should mainly be able: ☺ define management and outline the planning process ☺ describe the kinds of organizational goals by level, area, and time frame ☺ explain organizing and organization structure ☺ detail job design and job specialization ☺ specify motivation and describe its importance in the workplace ☺ define and discuss reward systems ☺ identify four levels of control within an organization Learning Objectives
  5. 5. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals Management Fundamentals – Summary ☺ Organizations are groups of people working in a structured and coordinated fashion to achieve a set of goals. ☺ Organizations have set organizational with their purposes. ☺ Organizing involves making decisions about designing and grouping jobs. ☺ Motivation is an important factor in the workplace with effect on productivity. Thus, motivating employees is a challenging task for managers. ☺ Control is the regulation of organizational activities enabling a company to anticipate and adapt to change, cope with organizational complexity, prevent the accumulation of error, and minimize costs.
  6. 6. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals (Section 1) The Management Process (Section 2) The Planning Process (Section 3) Organizing Jobs (Section 4) Motivating Employees (Section 5) The Nature and Management of Control Management Fundamentals - Sections list
  7. 7. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals (Section 1) The Management Process – Summary ☺ To outline the management process and to describe the importance and scope of management within a range of organizations ☺ After completing this section you should be able to: ☺ define management ☺ outline the basic functions of management ☺ outline the range of profit-seeking and not-for-profit organizations in which management is crucial
  8. 8. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals (Section 1) The Management Process – HighPoints ☺ The nature of management ☺ The basic functions of management ☺ The scope of management
  9. 9. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals (Section 1) HighPoints – The nature of management ☺ Organizations are groups of people working in a structured and coordinated fashion to achieve a set of goals ☺ Organizations use four types of resource: human, financial, physical, and information. ☺ Organizations should aim to be both efficient and effective
  10. 10. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals (Section 1) HighPoints – The basic functions of management ☺ Management is a set of activities (including planning and decision making, organizing, leading, and controlling). ☺ These activities are directed at an organization's resources (human, financial, physical, and information) in order to achieve organizational goals in an efficient and effective manner. ☺ The four basic functions of management are planning and decision making, organizing, leading, and controlling.
  11. 11. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals (Section 1) HighPoints – The scope of management ☺ Managers work in a range of profit-seeking organizations, from large corporations and international organizations to start-ups and small companies. ☺ Management skills are also required in not-for- profit organizations, including government, health-care, educational, and non-traditional organizations.
  12. 12. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals (Section 2) The Planning Process – Summary ☺ To explain the purposes of organizational goals. ☺ After completing this section you should be able to: ☺ outline the planning process ☺ explain purposes of organizational goals ☺ describe the kinds of organizational goals by level, area, and time frame ☺ identify who has responsibility for setting goals ☺ describe how multiple goals are managed through optimizing
  13. 13. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals (Section 2) The Planning Process – HighPoints ☺ Decision making ☺ Organizational goals ☺ Setting and managing goals
  14. 14. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals (Section 2) HighPoints – Decision making ☺ Decision making drives the planning process since the goals of an organization follow from decisions made by managers. ☺ Planning involves determining goals and defining the means of achieving them. ☺ Planning occurs in an environmental context, and understanding the environment is a first step in planning. ☺ All managers should be involved in setting goals, but the kind of goal that they set varies according to managerial level.
  15. 15. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals (Section 2) HighPoints – Organizational goals ☺ Goals vary by level, area, and time frame. ☺ The four basic levels of goals are the mission statement and strategic, tactical, and operational goals.
  16. 16. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals (Section 2) HighPoints – Setting and managing goals ☺ Four purposes of goals are to provide guidance, promote good planning, motivate employees, and provide an effective mechanism for evaluation and control. ☺ Optimizing is a way of balancing and reconciling possible conflicts between goals.
  17. 17. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals (Section 3) Organizing Jobs – Summary ☺ To define the basic elements of organizations and to describe approaches to designing and grouping jobs ☺ After completing this section you should be able to: ☺ define organizing and organization structure ☺ list the basic building blocks managers can use in constructing an organization ☺ define job design and job specialization ☺ describe advantages and disadvantages of job specialization ☺ discuss alternatives to job specialization ☺ define departmentalization ☺ describe how jobs can be grouped ☺ understand how functional departmentalization works
  18. 18. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals (Section 3) Organizing Jobs – HighPoints ☺ Basic elements of organizing ☺ Designing jobs ☺ Grouping jobs ☺ Using functional departmentalization.
  19. 19. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals (Section 3) HighPoints – Basic elements of organizing ☺ Organizing involves making decisions about how to group an organization's activities and resources. ☺ Organization structure refers to the set of processes that are used to create an organizational design.
  20. 20. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals (Section 3) HighPoints – Designing jobs ☺ Managers can build an organization by designing jobs, grouping jobs, establishing reporting relationships, distributing authority, coordinating activities, and differentiating between jobs. ☺ Job design involves defining the specific parameters of a job.
  21. 21. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals (Section 3) HighPoints – Grouping job ☺ Job specialization refers to the breakdown of the overall job of the organization into its component tasks and the assigning of these to suitably skilled employees. ☺ Job specialization has benefits and limitations. ☺ Alternatives to job specialization include job rotation, job enlargement, job enrichment, the job characteristics approach, and work teams.
  22. 22. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals (Section 3) HighPoints –Using functional departmentalization ☺ Departmentalization entails grouping jobs together in a logical way. ☺ Departmentalization can be implemented according to four different schemes: functional, product, customer, and location. ☺ Functional departmentalization is grouping people according to the particular tasks they carry out for the organization. ☺ Product departmentalization is grouping people according to the product that they produce on behalf of the organization. ☺ Customer departmentalization is grouping people according to the type of customer they serve on behalf of the organization. ☺ Location departmentalization is grouping people according to the region they serve on behalf of the organization.
  23. 23. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals (Section 4) Motivating Employees – Summary ☺ To explore historical and contemporary perspectives on motivating employees ☺ After completing this section you should be able to: ☺ define motivation and describe its importance in the workplace ☺ outline the historical perspectives on motivation ☺ describe content, process, and reinforcement perspectives on motivation ☺ outline emerging perspectives on motivation ☺ identify examples of different approaches to motivation ☺ define a reward system ☺ describe how an effective reward system is designed
  24. 24. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals (Section 4) Motivating Employees – HighPoints ☺ Define motivation ☺ Content, process and perspectives of motivation ☺ Different approaches to motivation ☺ Formulate an effective reward system
  25. 25. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals (Section 4) HighPoints – Define motivation ☺ Motivation is the set of personal forces that cause individuals to act in certain ways. ☺ Motivation is an important factor in the workplace - if employees are not motivated, or are motivated toward the wrong end, productivity will decline. ☺ Motivating employees is a challenging task for managers.
  26. 26. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals (Section 4) HighPoints – Content, process and perspectives of motivation ☺ Historical perspectives on motivation include the traditional approach, the human relations approach, and the human resource approach. ☺ The content theories of motivation focus on what motivates people in the workplace. ☺ Two well-known content perspectives are the need hierarchy and the two-factor theory. ☺ The process perspective on motivation focuses on how employees choose to behave to fulfill their needs and how they evaluate the results of their behavior.
  27. 27. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals (Section 4) HighPoints – Different approaches to motivation ☺ The main theories of the process perspective are the expectancy theory and the equity theory. ☺ The reinforcement perspective on motivation focuses on the role of rewards as they cause behavior to change or stay the same over time. ☺ Different types of reinforcement can be used in organizations: positive, avoidance, punishment, and extinction. ☺ Reinforcement can be given at fixed or variable time intervals. ☺ Two emerging perspectives on motivation are the goal-setting approach and the Japanese approach.
  28. 28. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals (Section 4) HighPoints – Formulate an effective reward system ☺ An organization's reward system determines how an employee's performance is defined, assessed, and rewarded. ☺ An effective reward system meets the basic needs of the individual, compares favorably with those of other organizations, and is equitable. ☺ An effective reward system also recognizes that different people have different needs and choose different paths to satisfy those needs. ☺ A strategy for increasing motivation is the use of behavior modification, which applies the ideas of reinforcement theory in organizational settings. ☺ Using a modified workweek can increase motivation by allowing individuals to fulfill several needs at once.
  29. 29. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals (Section 5) The Nature and Management of Control – Summary ☺ To describe the nature of control and discuss how control is managed in organizations. ☺ After completing this unit you should be able to: ☺ define control and discuss its functions ☺ describe the main areas of control and identify who is responsible for managing control systems ☺ identify four levels of control within an organization ☺ describe the steps in the control process ☺ define a control standard and characteristics of effective control ☺ discuss the reasons for resistance to control ☺ describe how managers can overcome resistance to control
  30. 30. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals (Section 5) The Nature and Management of Control – HighPoints ☺ The nature of control ☺ The steps in the control process ☺ Managing control
  31. 31. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals (Section 5) HighPoints – The nature of control ☺ Control is the regulation of organizational activities in order to keep performance within acceptable limits. ☺ Control enables a company to anticipate and adapt to change, cope with organizational complexity, prevent the accumulation of error, and minimize costs. ☺ The main areas of control are the company's physical, human, financial, and information resources. ☺ In large organizations, a controller might be hired to assist managers with controlling activities. ☺ The levels of control within an organization are operations, financial, structural, and strategic.
  32. 32. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals (Section 5) HighPoints – The steps in the control process ☺ The steps of the control process are to establish a set of control standards, measure performance, compare standards with performance, and take corrective action. ☺ A control standard is a target against which subsequent performance will be compared. ☺ For control to be effective it must be integrated into the planning process, flexible enough to accommodate change, and based on information that is accurate, timely, and impartial.
  33. 33. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals (Section 5) HighPoints – Managing control ☺ Employees resist control systems that overcontrol, are too narrowly focused, reward inefficiency, or place too great an emphasis on accountability. ☺ Managers can overcome resistance to control by encouraging employees to participate in setting control standards and by developing verification procedures that provide protection for employees.
  34. 34. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals Management Fundamentals – Conclusion ☺ At this point you should be able to be familiar with the following: • The nature of management • The basic functions of management • The scope of management • Decision making • Organizational goals and its management • Basic elements of organizing • Designing and grouping jobs • Using functional departmentalization. • Define motivation, its contents, process and perspectives • Formulate an effective reward system • The nature of control and steps in the control process; and managing control
  35. 35. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals
  36. 36. Contact Email Design Copyright 1994-2012 © OxfordCambridge.OrgManagement Fundamentals

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