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  1. 1. 华中科技大学 硕士学位论文无源RFID标签芯片能量获取技术的研究 姓名:惠雪梅 申请学位级别:硕士 专业:微电子学与固体电子学 指导教师:刘政林 20080520
  2. 2. Õª Òª ÉäƵʶ±©¨ ð£ RFID£ÊÇÒ»ÖÖÀûÓÃÉäƵÐźÅ×Ô¶¯Ê¶±ðÄ¿±ê¶ÔÏó²¢»ñ È¡Ïà¹ØÐÅÏ¢µÄ¼¼Êõ¡£RFID ϵͳÖ÷ÒªÓÉÁ½¸ö²¿·Ö×é³É£ºÔĶÁÆ÷£¨ÓÖ³ÆѯÎÊ»ú¡¢¶Á¿¨Æ÷¡¢×Ó±êÇ©£¨ÓÖ³ÆÓ¦´ðÆ÷¡¢ÐźŽÓÊÕ»ú£ £ ±êǩоƬÖеĹؼü²¿·Ö£¬ ÄÜÁ¿»ñÈ¡ÊÇÎÞÔ´ ©RFID ¡ËüÊDZêǩоƬÓëÍâ½çµÄ½Ó¿Ú£¬Ëü½«ÌìÏßÉϸÐÓ¦µ½µÄ´Å³¡ÄÜÁ¿»òµçÓ¦ÓõĵçÄÜ£¬Í¬Ê±£¬ÕâÒ²ÊÇÒ»¸ö½»Á÷µ½Ö±Á÷µÄת»»¡£ Ê×ÏÈ£¬±¾ÎÄϵͳµÄÑо¿ÁË RFID ±êÇ©µÄÁ½ÖÖÄÜÁ¿»ñÈ¡·½Ê½Ê½ºÍµç´Å ¡ª¡ª ñîºÏ µç¸ÐñîºÏ ʽ£¬·ÖÎöÁËгÕñÍøÂçºÍÆ¥ÅäÍøÂçµÄÖØÒª×÷Ó㬲¢¶ÔÆ·ÖÊÒòÊýºÍÏìÒòËؽøÐÐÁËÖصã·ÖÎö¡£ Æä´Î£¬ÔÚÕâÁ½ÖÖÄÜÁ¿»ñÈ¡·½Ê½µÄ»ù´¡ÉÏ£¬·Ö±ðÑо¿ÁË¸ß ÆµRFID µç×Ó±êÇ©ºÍ³¬¸ßƵRFID µç×Ó±êÇ©µÄÕûÁ÷µç·£¬½¨Á¢ÁËÇ¡µ±µÄÀíÂÛÄ£ÐÍ£¬¶ÔÀíÂÛÄ£ÐÎö£¬Ñо¿ÁËÊä³öµçѹºÍÄÜÁ¿×ª»»Ð§ÂʵÄÓ°ÏìÒòËØ¡£ÔÚÀíÂÛÑо¿µISO15693 Ð-ÒéµÄ¸ßƵ µç×Ó±êÇ©µÄÕûÁ÷µç·ºÍ»ùÓÚ RFID ISO18000-6C Ð-ÒéµÄ³¬¸ßƵRFID µç×Ó±êÇ©µÄµçºÉ±Ã±¶Ñ¹ÕûÁ÷µç·µÄÉè¼Æ¡£¶ÔÉè¼ÆµÄµç·½øÐÐÓëÀíÂÛ·ÖÎöµÄ½á¹û½øÐбȽϷÖÎö£¬ÑéÖ¤ÁËÀíÂÛÄ£Ð͵ÄʵÓÃÐÔ¡£ ×îºó£¬ÒÔ¸ßƵ RFID ±êǩоƬΪÀý£¬Ñо¿ÁË RFID ÄÜÁ¿»ñÈ¡µÄºó¶ËÉè¼Æ£¬Õë¶ÔÔëÉù¡¢Æ÷¼þÆ¥Åä¡¢¹¤ÒյȶԵç·ÐÔÄܵÄÓ°Ï죬ÔÚ°æ ͼÉè¼ÆÉÏÌá³öÁË¿ÉÐÐÐÔ½¨Òé¡£¸ø³±êǩоƬµÄ²âÊÔ½á¹û¡£¹Ø¼ü´Ê£º ÉäƵʶ±ð £¬ ÄÜÁ¿»ñÈ¡ £¬ ×迹ƥÅä £¬ ¹¦ÂÊ´«ÊäϵÊý£¬ÄÜÁ¿×ª»»Ð§ÂÊ -I-
  3. 3. Abstract Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a kind of Technology which canautomatically identify objects and get their information. RFID system is composed of twoparts, one is reader (it is also called interrogator or signal transmitter), the other is tag (it isalso called transponder or signal acceptor). The energy conversion is one of the mostimportant parts in passive RFID tag. It is the interface between the RFID tag chip and theoutside, and it converts the magnetic field energy in the antenna to the electrical energy fortag chip. Meanwhile, it implemented the conversation of AC to DC. Firstly, this paper systematically stud ied two energy conversion methods of RFID tag.One is inductance coupling, and the other is electromagnetic coupling. The importance ofresonance circuit and the impedance matching circuit has been analyzed. Additional effectfactors on quality factor and power transmission coefficient are analyzed deeply. Secondly, on the basis of this two energy generation methods, rectifiers of the HF andthe UHF RFID tag are studied. Their theory models are built, studied and analyzed deeply.The paper also stud ied the output voltage and the energy conversation efficiency. Therectifier circuit of the HF RFID tag based upon the ISO15693 protocol and the pumpmulti- voltage rectifier circuit of UHF RFID tag based upon the ISO18000-6C protocol aredesigned. After comparing the simulation result and the theory analysis result of the circuits,it can be concluded that the theory models are correct. At last, taking the HF RFID tag for example, the paper studied the back-end of theenergy conversion, and supplied the feasible advices about the layout design aiming at theinfluence of noise, device matching and process. The test results of the chip are presented.Keywords: RFID Energy Conversion Impedance Matching Power Transmission Coefficient Power Conversation Efficiency - II -
  4. 4. ¶À ´´ ÐÔ Éù Ã÷ ±¾ÈËÉùÃ÷Ëù³Ê½»µÄѧλÂÛÎÄÊÇÎÒ¸öÈËÔÚµ¼Ê¦µÄÖ¸µ¼Ï½øÐеÄÑо¿¹¤×÷¼°È¡µÃµÄÑо¿³É¹û¡£¾¡ÎÒËùÖª£¬³ýÎÄÖÐÒѱêÃ÷ÒýÓõÄÄÚÈÝÍ⣬±¾ÂÛÎIJ»°üº¬ÈκÎÆäËûÈË»ò¼¯ÌåÒѾ-·¢±í»ò׫д¹ýµÄÑо¿³É¹û¡ £ ¶Ô±¾ÎĵÄÑо¿×ö³ö¹±Ï׵ĸöÈ˺ͼ¯Ì壬¾ùÒÑÔÚÎÄÖÐÒÔÃ÷È··½Ê½±êÃ÷¡£±¾ÈËÍêÈ«Òâʶµ½±¾ÉùÃ÷µÄ·¨Âɽá¹ûÓɱ¾È˳е£¡£ ѧλÂÛÎÄ×÷ÕßÇ©Ãû£º Äê Ô ÈÕ Ñ§Î»ÂÛÎÄ°æȨʹÓÃÊÚȨÊé ±¾Ñ§Î»ÂÛÎÄ×÷ÕßÍêÈ«Á˽âѧУÓйر£Áô¡¢Ê¹ÓÃѧλÂÛѧУÓÐȨ±£Áô²¢Ïò¹ú¼ÒÓйز¿ÃÅ»ò»ú¹¹Ëͽ»ÂÛÎĵĸ´Ó¡ÂÛÎı»²éÔĺͽè ÔÄ¡±¾ÈËÊÚȨ»ªÖпƼ¼´óѧ¿ÉÒÔ½«±¾Ñ§Î»ÂÛÎÄ £·ÖÄÚÈݱàÈëÓйØÊý¾Ý¿â½øÐмìË÷£¬¿ÉÒÔ²ÉÓÃÓ°Ó¡¡¢ËõÓ¡»±£´æºÍ»ã±à±¾Ñ§Î»ÂÛÎÄ¡£ ±£ ÃÜ¡õ ______Äê½âÃܺóÊÊÓñ¾ÊÚȨÊé¡£ £¬ÔÚ ±¾ÂÛÎÄÊôÓÚ ²»±£ÃÜ ¡õ¡£ £¨ÇëÔÚÒÔÉÏ·½¿òÄÚ´ò¡°¡Ì¡© ±£ ѧλÂÛÎÄ×÷ÕßÇ©Ãû£ºÖ¸µ¼½ÌʦǩÃû£º Äê Ô ÈÕ Äê Ô ÈÕ
  5. 5. 1 Ð÷ ÂÛ1.1 Ñо¿±³¾° ÉäƵʶ±ð£¨ Radio Frequency Identification£¬ RFID£©ÊÇÒ»ÖÖÀûÓÃÉäƵÐźÅ×Ô¶¯Ê¶±ðÄ¿±ê¶ÔÏó²¢»ñÈ¡Ïà¹ØÐÅÏ¢µÄ¼¼Êõ¡£ RFID ×îÔçµÄÓ¦ÓÿÉ×·Ëݵ½µÚ¶þ´ÎÊÀ½ç´óÕ½ [1]ÓÃÓÚÇø·ÖÁª¾üºÍÄÉ´â·É»úµÄ¡°µÐÎÒ±æʶ¡±ÏµÍ³ ¡£ Ò»¸öµäÐ͵ıêǩоƬһ°ã°üº¬Ëĸö²¿·Ö£ºÄÜÁ¿»ñÈ¡²¿·Ö£¬Ä£ Äⲿ·Ö¡¢»ù´ø¿ØÖƲ¿·Ö£¬´æ´¢Æ÷²¿·Ö ¡£ÆäÖÐ ÄÜÁ¿»ñÈ¡ÊÇ ±êǩоƬÖеĹؼü²¿·Ö£¬ËüÊDZêǩо RFIDÓëÍâ½çµÄ½Ó¿Ú£ ¬Ëü½«ÌìÏßÉϸÐÓ¦µ½µÄ´Å³¡ÄÜÁ¿»òµç´ÅÄÜת»¯ÎªÄÚ²±êǩоƬ¹¤×÷µÄÄÜÁ¿ ͬʱ£¬ÕâÒ²ÊÇÒ»¸ö½»Á÷µ½Ö±Á÷µÄת»»¡£×ª» ½« À´Ô´ÓÚËü£¬µÄ¸ßµÍÖ±½ÓÓ°Ïì×űêǩоƬµÄ¹¤×÷¾àÀëºÍͨÐŵÄ׼ȷÐÔ¡£µ«ÊÇ£¬Í¬£¬²»Í¬µÄ±êǩоƬÄÜÁ¿»ñÈ¡µÄÔ-ÀíºÍʵÏÖ·½·¨²»Í¬ RFID ¡£ ¸ù¾Ýµç×Ó±êÇ©¹©µç·½Ê½µÄ²»Í¬£¿É·ÖΪÎÞÔ´±êÇ© (Passive tag )£°ëÓÐÔ´±êÇ© ¬ ¬ (Semiactive tag)¼°ÓÐÔ´±êÇ© tag )[2]¡£ÎÞÔ´±êǩûÓÐÄÚ×°µç³Ø£¬ÔÚÔĶÁÆ÷µÄÔĶÁ·¶Î§ (ActiveÖ®Íâʱ£¬±êÇ©´¦ÓÚÎÞԴ״̬£¬ÔÚÔĶÁÆ÷µÄÔĶÁ·¶Î§Ö®ÄÚʱ±êÇ©´ÓÔĶÁÆ÷·¢³öµÄÉäƵÄÜÁ¿ÖÐÌáÈ¡Æ乤×÷ËùÐèµÄµçÄÜ¡£°ëÎÞÔ´±êÇ©ÄÚ×°Óеç³Ø£¬µ«µç³Ø½ö¶Ô±êÇ©ÄÚÒªÇ󹩵çά³ÖÊý¾ÝµÄµç·»ò±êǩоƬ¹¤×÷ËùÐèµÄµçѹ×÷¸¨ÖúÖ§³Ö£ êÇ©µç·±¾ÉíºÄµçºÜÉÙ¡£ ¬ ±±êǩδ½øÈ빤×÷״̬ǰ£¬Ò»Ö±´¦ÓÚÐÝÃß״̬£¬Ï൱ÓÚÎÞÔ´±êÇ©¡£±êÇ©½øÈëÔĶÁÆ÷µÄÔĶÁ·¶Î§Ê±£¬Êܵ½ÔĶÁÆ÷·¢³öµÄÉäƵÄÜÁ¿µÄ¼¤Àø£¬½øÈ빤×÷״̬ʱ£¬ÓÃÓÚ´«ÊäͨÐŵÄÉäƵÄÜÁ¿ÓëÎÞÔ´±êÇ©Ò»ÑùÔ´×ÔÔĶÁÆ÷¡ ÐÔ´±êÇ©µÄ¹¤×÷µçÔ´ÍêÈ«ÓÉÄÚ²¿µç³Ø¹©¸ø£¬ £ Ó [3][4]ͬʱ±êÇ©µç³ØµÄÄÜÁ¿¹©Ó¦ Ò²²¿·ÖµØת»»Îª±êÇ©ÓëÔĶÁÆ÷ͨÐÅËùÐèµÄÉäƵÄÜÁ¿ ¡£ÓÉÓÚÐèÍâ´øµç³Ø£¬ÓÐÔ´±êÇ©µÄ³É±¾¸ßÓÚÎÞÔ´±êÇ©¡£ ÎÞÔ´ ±êǩоƬµÄ ¿ÉÒÔ·ÖΪ ÄÜÁ¿»ñÈ¡ Èý ¸ö²½Ö裺 1£©ÌìÏ߸ÐÖªÄÜÁ¿¡£ ÔĶÁÆ÷ÌìÏߺͱêÇ©ÌìÏßÖ÷Ҫͨ¹ý µç´Å À´½øÐÐÄÜÁ¿´«µÝ¡£ ñîºÏ¶ø³¬¸ßƵÉäƵʶ±ðϵͳÖ÷Òª¹¤×÷ÔÚÔ¶³¡£¬ÔĶÁÆ÷ÌìÏߺͱêÇ©ÌìÏß 1
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  7. 7. 1.3 Ñ¡ÌâÒâÒå RFID ¼¼ÊõÊÇÒ»¸öոеļ¼ÊõÓ¦ÓÃÁìÓò£¬Ëü²»½öº-¸ÇÁË΢²¨¼¼Êõ¶øÇÒ»¹°üÀ¨Í¨ÐÅÔ-Àí¼°°ëµ¼Ì弯³Éµç·¼¼Êõ£¬ÊÇ Ò»¸ö¶àѧ¿Æ×ۺϵÄÐÂÐËѧ¿Æ¡£Í¬ÆËüһЩʶ±ð¼¼ÊõÏà±È£¬ÉäƵʶ±ð¼¼Êõ¾ßÓиßЧ¿ì½Ý¡¢·Ç½Ó´¥¡¢ÎÞ [10]Í»³öÓŵ㠡£Òò´Ë£¬¶ÔRFID ¼¼ÊõµÄÈÏʶºÍÑо¿¾ßÓÐÉîÔ¶µÄÀíÂÛÒâÒå¡£ ÄÜÁ¿»ñÈ¡ÊÇ ±êǩоƬÖеĹؼü²¿·Ö£¬ËüÊDZêǩоƬÓëÍâ½çµÄ½ RFIDÌìÏßÉϸÐÓ¦µ½µÄ´Å³¡ÄÜÁ¿»òµç´ÅÄÜת»¯ÎªÄÚ²¿¿ÉÒÔÓ¦ÓõĵçÄÜ£¬½»Á÷µ½Ö±Á÷µÄת»»¡£×ª»»Ð§ÂʵĸߵÍÖ±½ÓÓ°Ïì×űêǩоƬµÄ¹¤×÷ÐÔ¡£µ«ÊÇ£¬ÓÉÓÚʵ¼ÊÇé¿öµÄ²»Í¬£¬²»Í¬µÄ RFID ±êǩоƬ ÄÜÁ¿»ñÈ¡µÄÔ-ÀíºÍʵÏÖ·½·¨²»Í¬£¬Òò´Ë±È½ÏºÍÑо¿ÎÞÔ´ RFID ±êǩоƬÄÜÁ¿»ñÈ¡ ¼¼Êõ¾ßÓзdz£ÖØÒªµÄÏÖʵÒâÒå¡£ Ä¿Ç°£¬´ó¶àÑо¿¶¼ÊÇ´Ó¹¤ÒյĽǶȿ¼ÂǽµµÍ¹¦ºÄ£¬´Ó¶øÌá¸ßÄܵ«ÊÇÏȽøµÄ¹¤ÒÕ´øÀ´ ½Ï ¸ßµÄ³É±¾£¬Õâ¶Ô RFID ±êǩоƬµÄÓ¦ÓÃÓëÍƹã·Ç³£²»Àû¡£³ÓÚ ³É±¾µÄ¿¼ÂÇ£¬±¾ÂÛÎIJÉÓñê×¼µÄ ½ÚÔ¼ CMOS ¹¤ÒÕʵÏÖÄÜÁ¿»ñÈ¡µç·µÄÉè¼Æ£¬²¢´½á¹¹ÉÏÓÅ»¯ÆäÐÔÄÜ¡£1.4 ÂÛÎĵÄÖ÷Òª¹¤×÷ ±¾ÂÛÎĵÄÄ¿µÄÊÇ£º¶Ô²»Í¬Æµ¶Î£¨¸ßƵºÍ³¬¸ßƵ£©µÄÎ RFID ±êǩоƬµÄÄÜÁ¿»ñÈ¡·½Ê½ºÍµç·ʵÏÖ½øÐÐÑо¿£¬²¢Éè¼ÆÆäÕûÁ÷µç·£¬ÒÔÖ§³Å±êÇ©Ð ÂÛÎĵÄÖ÷Òª¹¤×÷°üÀ¨ÒÔϼ¸¸ö·½Ãæ 1£©ÔÚµç¸ÐñîºÏÀíÂ۵Ļù´¡ÉÏ·ÖÎöгÕñÍøÂçµÄÖØ Òª×÷Óã¬Ñо¿ Ó°Ïì гÕñÍøÂçÐÔÄܵÄÒòËØ£» 2£©ÔÚµç´ÅñîºÏÀíÂ۵Ļù´¡ÉÏ·ÖÎöÆ¥ÅäÍøÂçµÄÖØÒª×÷Óã¬Ñо¿ Ó°Ïì Æ¥ÅäÍøÂçÐÔÄܵÄÒòËØ£» 3£©½¨Á¢¸ßƵ ÕûÁ÷µç·µÄÀíÂÛÄ£ÐÍ£¬Ñо¿ÆäÊä³öµçѹºÍÄÜÁ¿×ª RFID 3
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  13. 13. i1 Rr Lr Lt RL Ct Cr Rt ͼ2-3 ÌìÏß½Ó¿ÚµÈЧµç·2.2 µç´Å³¡ñîºÏ ÔĶÁÆ÷ÓëÓ¦´ðÆ÷Ö®¼äµÄ×÷ ÓþàÀëÔÚ 1 m ÒÔÉϵÄÉäƵʶ±ðϵͳ±»³Æ×÷Ô¶¾àÀëϵ¶ÔÓÚÔ¶¾àÀëµÄ RFID ϵͳ£¬²ÉÓõç´Å³¡ñîºÏ£¨À×´ïÔ-Àí£©µÄ·½Ê½£¬ÔĶÁÆÌìÏßÖ÷Ҫͨ¹ýµç´Å²¨·øÉäÀ´´«µÝÄÜÁ¿¡£ ÔÚÔ¶¾àÀ볡ÖУ¬´æÔÚ×ŵç´Å³¡µÄµç³¡Ç¿¶ÈÓë´Å³¡Ç¿¶ÈÖ®¼äµÄ¹Ì ËüÃÇ Í¨¹ý Z F »¥Ïà¹ØÁª£º²¨×迹 = µ 0 ε = 376.73 Ω E ZF = £¨ 2-10£© H 0 ¾-¹ýһЩ¼òµ¥»»ËãÖ®ºó¿ÉÒԵõ½Æä¶ÔÊý±íʾÐÎʽ£º H [dBµA/m] = E [dBµV/m] − 51.5 [dB¦¸ ] £¨ 2-11£©2.2.1 ÌìÏߵķøÉ䳡 ³¬¸ßƵ ͨ³£¹¤×÷ÔÚµç´Å²¨µÄÔ¶³¡ÇøÓò£¬ÆäÌìÏßÏ൱ÓÚÒ»¸öµç RFID Ëùνµç i(t ) = I cos (ωt ) ∝⊗®≈∂∈∝…⊂∑≤←∪⊆…Á÷Ôª£¬Êdz¤¶ÈԶСÓÚ²¨³¤£¬²¢ÔØÓиßƵµçÁ÷µÄ 2-4 Ëùʾ£¬ÉèÔĶÁÆ÷ÌìÏßλÓÚÇò×ø±êϵµÄÔ-µã£¬²¢ÑØ×Å O ÖÁµã Z Öá·½Ïò·ÅÖ㬠r Ϊ×ø±êÔ-µã r θ £¬P µ Ä ¾ à À ë Ϊ Óë Z Ö á µ Ä ¼ Ð ½ Ç Î ª µ ç Á ÷ Ô ª µ Äk Î ª ´ « ² ¥ ³ £ Ê ý r dZ £ ¬ ³¤¶È£¬ 9
  14. 14. £¨k = ω µ 0ε 0 = 2π λ £ £ÄÇô£¬ËüÔÚÖÜΧ²úÉúµÄ·øÉ䳡Ϊ ©¡ [20] £º Z r S P dH φ θ r IdZ r dEθ O Y φ X ͼ2-4 ÌìÏߵķøÉ䳡ʾÒâͼ  IdZ j k − jkr  dEr = 2πωε cosθ (− r 3 + r 2 ) e  0 dE = IdZ j k jk 2 − jkr  θ sin θ ( − 3 + 2 + )e  4πωε0 r r r £¨ 2-12£©  dEφ = dH r = dHθ = 0   dHφ = IdZ 1 jk sin θ ( 2 + )e − jkr   4π r r r << λ £¬ << 1 µ±P µãλÓÚÌìÏߵĽü³¡Çøʱ£¬¼´ ʱ£¬Ê½£¨ kr 1 / r µÄ 2-12£©ÖÐÕý±ÈÓÚÏî¿ÉÒÔºöÂÔ²»¼Æ£¬Òò´Ë½ü³¡Çø¹«Ê½¿ÉÒÔ½üËÆÈÏΪֻÓÐÕý±ÈÓÚ 1 / r ×î¸ß´ÎÃݵÄÏî¡£ÓÉÓÚ£º e − jkr = 1 − jkr − (kr )2 + ... ≈ 1 £¨ 2-13£© 2 ËùÒÔ½ü³¡ÇøµÄ±í´ïʽ¿ÉÒÔ¼ò»¯Îª£º 10
  15. 15.  IdZ dEr = − j 2π ⋅ r 3ωε cosθ  0  dE = − j  θ IdZ sin θ  4π ⋅ r 3ωε 0 £¨ 2-14£©  dE = dH = dH = 0 φ θ  r  dH = IdZ sin θ   φ 4π ⋅ r 2 P r >> λ £¬ >> µ± µãλÓÚÌìÏßµÄÔ¶³¡Çøʱ£¬¼´1 ʱ£¬Ê½£¨ kr 1 / r 2 ºÍ 2-12£©ÖÐÕý±ÈÓÚ1 / r 3 µÄÏî¿ÉÒÔºöÂÔ²»¼Æ£¬Òò´Ë½ü³¡Çø¹«Ê½¿ÉÒÔ½üËÆÈÏΪֻÓÐÕý±ÈÓÚ 1 / r µÄÏî¡£ËùÒÔÔ¶³¡Çø·øÉ䳡µÄ±í´ïʽ¿ÉÒÔ±íʾΪ£º  k 2 IdZ  dEθ = j sin θ ⋅ e − jkr  4π ⋅ r ωε 0 dEφ = dH r = dHθ = dEr = 0 £¨ 2-15£©  kIdZ  dH φ = j sin θ ⋅ e − jkr  4π ⋅ r ÓÉÓÚ  k = ω µ0 ε0   ω = 2πc / λ  1 ε 0 = * 10 −9 f / m £¨ 2-16£©  36π  c = 3 × 108 m / s  µ = 4π × 10 − 7 H / m  0 ½«Ê½£¨ 2-16£©´øÈëʽ£¨ 2-15£ ©£¬µÃµ½£º  60πIdZ − jkr  dEθ = j rλ sin θ ⋅ e  dEφ = dH r = dHθ = dEr = 0 £¨ 2-17£©  IdZ  dHφ = j sin θ ⋅ e − jkr  2rλ ÓÉʽ£¨ 2-17£©¿ÉÒÔ¿´³ö£¬Ô¶³¡ÇøÓÐÏàλÏàͬµÄÁ½¸ö·ÖÁ¿ dEθ ºÍ φ ¡£ dH Òò´Ë£¬ÌìÏßµÄÔ¶³¡Çø¾ßÓм¸¸öÐÔÖÊ£º 1£©Ô¶³¡ÇøÊÇÒ»¸öÑØ×Ű뾶ÏòÍâ·øÉäµÄºáÏòµç´Å²¨£» 11
  16. 16. 2£©µç³¡ºÍ´Å³¡µÄ±ÈÖµÊÇÒ»¸ö³£Êý£¬¼´£º dEθ µ0 = = 120π ≈ 377Ω dHφ ε0 (2-18) Õâ¾ÍÊÇʽ£¨ 2-10£©ÖÐÌáµ½µÄ×ÔÓÉ¿Õ¼äµÄ²¨×迹£» 3£©·øÉ䳡µÄ³¡Ç¿ÓëÌìÏßÉϵĵçÁ÷³ÉÕý±È£¬Óë¾àÀë³É·´±È¡£Òò´RFID ϵͳ»ñµÃ½ÏÔ¶µÄ¶Áд¾àÀ룬±ØÐëÔÚ¶Á¿¨Æ÷ÌìÏßÉϲúÉú½Ï´óµÄÐëÓµÓÐÒ»¶¨µÄ·¢É书ÂÊ¡£ËùÒÔ³¬¸ßƵ RFID ¶ÁдÆ÷µÄ·¢É书ÂÊÔ¶Ô¶´óÓÚµÍƵϵͳÉ书ÂÊ£» 4£©ÌìÏߵķøÉ䳡ÔÚÔ¶³¡Çø¾ßÓз½ÏòÐÔ£¬ÔÚÖáÏßÉÏûÓзøÉ䣬Եķ½ÏòÉÏ·øÉä×îÇ¿¡£ ¸ù¾Ýʽ£¨ 2-14£©ºÍʽ£¨ 2-17£©»æ³ö´Å³¡ÓɽüÏòÔ¶¹ý¶ÉϵĴų¡Ç¿¶È H µÄ¼òµ¥ÇúÏß¼ûͼ Ëùʾ¡£ 2-5 ³¡Ç¿dBµ A / m) ( 60d B /10 ± ¶à ¾À ë 2 0dB/1 0±¶ à ¾À ë R λ / 2π ¾àÀ룩 £¨ m ͼ2-5 ´Å³¡ÓɽüÏòÔ¶¹ý¶ÉϵĴų¡Ç¿¶ÈµÄÇúÏß RFID ϵͳµÄÄÜÁ¿´«µÝÊÇ»ùÓÚÌìÏß·øÉ䳡µÄÔ¶³¡ÇøÌØÐÔ¡£µç ³¬¸ßƵ¼ä·øÉäÓöµ½²»Í¬µÄÄ¿±ê£¬Ò»²¿·ÖÄÜÁ¿±»Ä¿±êÎüÊÕ£¬²¢×ª»»³ÉµçÄܣǿ¶ÈÉ¢Éäµ½¸÷¸ö·½ÏòÉÏÈ¥£¬É¢ÉäµÄһС²¿·ÖÄÜÁ¿»á·µ»Ø¶Á¿¨Æ÷ÌìµÄÕⲿ·ÖÄÜÁ¿¶ÁÈ¡±êǩоƬ·µ»ØµÄÊý¾Ý¡£ 12
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  23. 23. 3-2£¨½ÓÐÎʽ²»Í¬¡£Í¼ a£©ÖÐµÄ ºÍ M3 M4 ÊÇ×÷Ϊ¶þ¼«¹ÜÁ¬Èëµç·£¬ÕâÁ½¸ö¹Ü×Óµ½á·´Æ« µçѹ½Ï¸ß£»¶øͼ 3-2£¨ b£©ÖÐËùʾµÄ M4 ¹ÜÊÇ×÷Ϊ¿ª¹Ø¹ÜÁ¬Èëµç·£¬ÕâÁ M3 ºÍ¸ö¹Ü×ÓÔÚ¸÷×Եĵ¼Í¨Ê±¼äÄÚ©Դµçѹ½ÏС¡£ [30] ÕâÖֽṹ½ÏÒ»°ãµÄÈ«ÇÅÕûÁ÷ÓÐÒÔϼ¸¸öÓŵ㠣º 1£©Õ¤¼«½»²æµÄÁ¬½ÓÐÎʽʹÆ乤×÷ÔÚÒ»¸ö½üËÆÏßÐÔµÄÇøÓò£¬¼õÐ×裬´Ó¶ø½µµÍÁËËÀÇøµçѹ¡£ÕâÖֽṹµÄËÀÇøµçѹÉÔ΢´óÓÚÒ»¸ö NMOS µÄãÐÖµµçѹ£» 2£©ÓÉÓÚµç×ÓµÄǨÒÆÂÊ´óÓÚ¿ÕѨµÄǨÒÆÂÊ£¬ËùÒÔÏàͬµÄÕ¤Ô´µçÑNMOS µÄ¿í³¤±ÈҪСÓÚ PMOS£¬¶ÔÓÚÕâÑù´ó³ß´çµÄÕûÁ÷¹Ü£¬Ê¹Óà NMOS ¿ÉÒÔ½ÚÊ¡´óÔ¼Ò»°ëµÄÃæ»ý£» 3£©ÓÉÓÚÕ¤¼«½»²æÁ¬½ÓµÄ M3¡¢ ×÷Ϊ¿ª¹ØµÄ¹¦ºÄԶСÓÚ¶þ¼«¹ÜÐÎʽÁ M4NMOS µÄ¹¦ºÄ£¬ËùÒÔÕâÖֽṹµÄÄÜÁ¿×ª»»Ð§ÂÊ PCE ½Ï¸ß¡£3.1.1 NMOS ÕûÁ÷¹ÜµÄ·ÇÏßÐÔ·Ö¶ÎÄ£ÐÍ M1 V0 Vin C1 I0 ͼ 3-3 °ë²¨ÕûÁ÷µç· 3-3 ËùʾµÄ ÓÉÓÚÈ«²¨ÕûÁ÷¿ÉÒÔ¿´×÷ÊÇÁ½¸ö°ë²¨ÕûÁ÷µÄµþ¼Ó£¬ËùÒÔÎÒÃÇÏÈÑо¿Èçͼ U in = V0 cos (ωt ) ϒ≤⊆…°ë²¨ÕûÁ÷µç·¡£ÉèÊäÈëµÄÓàÏÒ²¨ÐÎΪ£º ΪÆäÔÚÎȶ¨×´Ì¬Ï嵀 3-4µçѹ¡¢µçÁ÷ºÍ¹¦Âʲ¨ÐΡ£ÉèÊä³öµÄƽ¾ùµçѹΪ U L ϒ≤∉ℜ℘∂™ ∆ U L £¬ÆäÎƲ¨µÄ·å·åֵΪNMOS ÕûÁ÷¹ÜµÄ¹¤×÷״̬·ÖÀàÌÖÂÛ¡£ 19
  24. 24. £¨ a£©ÎÈ̬ϵĵçѹ²¨ÐÎ £¨ b£©ÎÈ̬Ï µÄµçÁ÷²¨ÐÎ £¨ c£©ÎÈ̬ÏµĹ¦Âʲ¨ÐΠͼ3-4 °ë²¨ÕûÁ÷µç·ÎÈ̬²¨ÐÎ 1£© t ∈ [t 1 ,t 2 ) µ± = t1 (t1 < 0 ) ʱ£¬ = U L − ∆U L / 2 ≤ ∂…↔≠⇐∠∈⊇ℑ←©∝⊗ M1 ¿ªÊ¼µ¼Í¨£¬ t U in ← NMOS ¹Ü´ËʱËü´¦ÔÚÑÇãÐÖµÇø£¬¸ù¾Ý BSIM3 Ä£ÐÍ£¬ÆäµçÁ÷Ϊ£º W ( ) I dsub = I s 0 * eVGS / nVT 1 − e −Vds / VT * (1 + λsubVds ) £¨ 3-1£© L ÆäÖУº qε si Nch ( −V −V ) / nVT Is 0 = µn 2 * VT * e th off £¨ 3-2£© 2φs Vth ÊÇNMOS µÄãÐÖµµçѹ£¬ VT ΪÈȵç n ÊÇÑÇãÐÖµÇøµÄ»Øת²ÎÊý£¬ Voff Ϊ½ØÖ¹µçѹ£¬Ñ¹£¬ ⊇∩≠∝∝ℵ∝√∅®∫⋅©≤← λ sub µ n ⊇∩∝⋅©∩♦®∅ℜ⊇≤← q ⊇∩∝≡⊃≥≤ ≤←si ⊇∩≠″⊗ℑ∉∝⊗∝≥≤⊇≤← ℑ↵ ε 20
  25. 25. φ s ±⊇≠∝⊗±℘⊇∅ϒ≤N ch ÊǹµµÀ²ôÔÓŨ¶È£¬ 2£© t ∈ [t 2 , t 3 ) µ± = t 2 (t 2 < 0) ʱ£¬ t ÊäÈëµçѹ±ÈÊä³öµçѹ¸ß Vth £¬ 1 ½øÈë±¥ºÍÇø£¬Ö±µ½ÊäÈëµçѹÔÙ M Vth µÄʱ¿Ì£¬≤← À뿪±¥ºÍÇø¡£ < t 3 ⊇±…™⊗∨≤←´Î¸ß³öÊä³öµçѹ t = t 3 M1 ÔÚ2 ≤ t t M1 ÉϵĵçÁ÷Ϊ£º W  I d = β (VGS − Vth ) = 1 µ nC ox   2 £¨ 3-3£© 2 L 3£© t ∈ [t 3 ,t 4 ) M1 ¹¤×÷ÔÚÑÇãÐÖµÇø£¬µçÁ÷±í´ïʽÓ루 3-1£©Ïàͬ¡£ 4£© t ∈ [t 4 , t1 + T ] £¬ Ô´¶Ëµçѹ¸ßÓÚ©¶Ë£¬µ«ÊÇÕâʱ M1 ûÓÐÍêÈ«¹Ø±Õ£¬¶øÊÇÓз´ÏòµçÁ÷Á÷¹ý£MOS ¹ÜµÄԴ©ÊǵÈЧµÄ£¬¹Ê¿ÉÒÔ»¥»»£¬·´Ïò©µçÁ÷Óþ§Ìå¹ÜÑÇãбíʾ¡£ I leak = I s0 * W ( ) 1 − e −Vds / VT * (1 + λsubVds ) £¨ 3-4£© L Ôڵ͹¦ºÄÓ¦ÓÃÖУ¬ I leak ²»ÄܺöÂÔ£¬ÓÐÁ½¸öÔ-Òò£ºµÚÒ»¡¢ µÄ¼õС I s 0 ËæãÐÖµµçѹ Vth³ÊÖ¸ÊýÔö¼Ó£¬¶ÔÓÚµÍãÐÖµºÍÁããÐÖµÆ÷¼þ£¬ I leak ¸ß´ï΢°²£¬¹Ê²»ÄܺöÂÔ£»µÚ¶þ¡¢ÔÚÒÖÜÆÚÄÚ£¬ M1 ´¦Óڴ˹¤×÷Çø¼äµÄʱ¼ä½Ï³¤£¬¼¸ºõΪһ¸öÖÜÆÚ¡£3.1.2 NMOS Õ¤½»²æñîºÏÕûÁ÷µç·µÄÊä³öµçѹ ʵ¼ÊÉÏ£¬Èçͼ 3-2£¨ b£©Ëù ʾµÄÕ¤½»²æñîºÏÈ«ÇÅÕûÁ÷µç·£¬ÒòΪÔÚÒ»¸öÖܹܹ¤×÷ÓÚ²»Í¬µÄ״̬£¬¶øÇÒËüµÄ¼ÄÉúµçÈÝ¡¢µç×èÒ²Òª¿¼ÂÇ£¬Òò´ËµÔӵĶ࣬ÏÂÃæµÄÑо¿ÊÇ»ùÓÚÒÔÏÂËĵã¼ÙÉ裺 £¨ 1£©ÓÉÓÚ M4 ¹Ü´ó²¿·Öʱ¼ä¹¤×÷ÔÚÏßÐÔÇø£¬Æ书ºÄԶԶСÓÚ M3¡¢ M1 ºÍ µÄ M2¹¦ºÄ£¬¹Ê½«ÆäºöÂÔ£» 21
  26. 26. £¨2£©²»¿¼ÂÇ M2 M1¡¢ µÄ³Äµ×Æ«ÖÃЧӦ£» £¨ 3£©ºöÂÔ¼ÄÉú²ÎÊýµÄÓ°Ï죻 £¨ U L ¡£ 4£©Êä³öµçѹµÄÎƲ¨ºÜС£¬Êä³öµçѹ½üËÆΪ ∆Qin ≤←ℑ≠÷≡™¬∝⊗∝≡⊃≡⊆♣⊂∑≠⇐∝⊗•×∉∫ℜ♥ Éè´ÓÊäÈë¶ËÁ÷³öµÄµçºÉΪ ∝≡⊃√→≡⊆∈♠∆Qout ≤←÷⇑∝≡⊃⊇¬≡©©∠≤≡∆Qout ϒ≤∆Qin ©⊃∪÷″↵•√⋅≥⊃ϒ≤ ∆Qin = ∆Q in = ∆Q sub1 + ∆Q saturation + ∆Q sub2 = 2∫ I dsubdt + 2 ∫ I d dt + 2 ∫ I dsub dt £¨ t2 t3 t4 3-5£© t1 t2 t3 t1 +T ∆Q out = ∆Q load + ∆Qleak = I 0T + 2 ∫ I leak dt £¨ 3-6£© t4 ÆäÖÐϵÊý¡° 2¡±±íʾȫÇÅÕûÁ÷£¬ÏêϸµÄ¼ÆËã¹ý³ÌÈçÏ£º 1£© t ∈ [t 1 ,t 2 ) M1 ¹¤×÷ÑÇãÐÖµÇø£¬µçÁ÷½Ï±¥ºÍÇø ÓÚ µçÁ÷СµÃ¶à£¬²¢ÇÒ³ÖÐøʱ¼ä·Ç³£¶Ì£¬ËµçºÉÁ¿·Ç³£Ð¡£¬¼´£º ∆Qsub1 ∆Qsub2 ≈ << 1 £¨ 3-7£© ∆Qin ∆Qin ËùÒÔºöÂÔÕâÒ»²¿·Ö²»»á´øÀ´Ì«´óµÄÎó²î¡£ 2£© t ∈ [t 2 , t 3 ) M1 ¹¤×÷ÔÚ±¥ºÍÇø£¬ÔÚÕâ¸öÇøÓò M1 Ïò¸ºÔØÒÔ¼°µçÈÝÌṩµÄµçºÉÁ¿Îª£º ∆Qsaturation = 2∫ I d dt = 2∫ β (VGS − Vth )2 dt t3 t3 t2 t2 £¨ 3-8£© = 2 ∫ β (V0 cos (ωt ) − U L − Vth ) dt t3 2 t2 ÓÉÓÚ cos (ωt ) − U L − Vth ≤ ∆U L 2 ≤←″′∩®÷≡™¬⊃∉∝⊗∈∅″♦≡⇐∠ϒ≤←⊄®™©∠∪∉ℜ∝⊗∂ V0 [31]Taylor ½üËÆ £º ω 2t 2 cos (ω t ) ≈ 1 − £¨ 3-9£© 2 ÀíÂÛÖ¤Ã÷£ºµ± 7 , T 7] ⊇±≤←⊇≤♦ t ∈ [− T 3-9£©µÄÎó²îСÓÚ t ∈ [− T 6 , T 6 ] ⊇±≤← 5%£»µ± 22
  27. 27. 10%ÒÔÄÚ¡£ 3-9£©´øÈëʽ£¨ÉÏʽµÄÎó²îÔÚ ½«Ê½£¨ 3-8£©µÃµ½Èçʽ£¨ 3-10£©ËùʾµÄ±í´ïʽ¡£ 2  ω 2t 2 t3  ∆Q saturation = 2∫ β V£¨−  0 1 £© L − Vth  dt −U  £¨ 3-10£© t2  2  ÓÉÓÚ (ωt2£¬2 3) ∆U L V£¨ − 0 1 £© U L − Vth = m − ≈0 £¨ 3-11£© 2 2 ËùÒÔ£º W  16Tµ n Cox   ∆Qsaturation =  L  * (V − U − V ) 5 2 £¨ 3-12£© 0 L th 15π 2V0 3£© t ∈ [t 3 ,t 4 ) M1 ¹¤×÷ÔÚÑÇãÐÖµÇø£¬Ó루 1£©ÀàËÆ£¬½«ÕâÒ»²¿·ÖºöÂÔ¡£ 4£© t ∈ [t 4 , t1 + T ] Դ©»¥»»£¬ M1 ´¦ÓÚÑÇãÐÖµÇø¡£ t1 +T Qleak = 2 ∫t I leak dt 4 £¨ 3-13£© = 2∫ t1 +T t4 W L ( ) I s 0 * 1 − e −Vds / VT * (1 + λ subVds )dt ÆäÖУº= U L − V0 cos(ωt ) ϒ≤ Vds ¿¼Âǵ½Ê½Öк¬ÓÐÈý½Çº¯ÊýµÄÖ¸ÊýÏ»ý·ÖºÜÄѵõ½Ò»¸öͳһ ËùÒÔ½«[T 4 ,3T 4] Ò Ô Í â µ Ä Ð ¡ µ ç£ ¬ Ö » ¿ t ÔÂT 4 £¬ 4] ∝ ⊗ ″ ↵ • √ ϒ′≤  ⊄ ∅ ∪ ∉ ∈ ♠ ≤ ≡ Á ÷ º ö ¼ [ Ç 3T ∈ ″ I leak ≈ I leakp cos(ωt ) ≤←∅™√∠≤≡ Ϊ©µçÁ÷µÄ×î´óÖµ£¬¼´ ⊇±∝⊗ℜ♥∝ℑϒ≤ I leakp Vds = U L + V0 * (1 + λsub (U L + V0 )) W I leakp ≈ I s 0 * £¨ 3-14£© L ÓÉÓÚµ±= V0 ≡⇐∠ϒ⊇±≤←∅™ℜ♥∝ℑ≡⇐∠ϒ≤←© Vds Vds = 2V0 ⊇±≡∫℘≈©∠⊂↔×⌠″®≤≈∝± V0 ½Ï Vds = 2V0 ≤←⊄®™≤≡ U L Ò²ºÜ´ó£¬¿ÉÒÔ½üËÆÈÏΪ´óʱ£¬ 23
  28. 28. * (1 + λsub (2V0 )) W I leakp ≈ I s0 * £¨ 3-15£© L T/2 2T Qleak ≈ 4 ∫ I leak dt ≈ * I leakp T /4 𠣨 3-16£© I s0 * * (1 + 2λsubV0 ) 2T W ≈ π LÓÉÓÚ ∆Qsaturation = ∆Qload + ∆Qleak £¨ 3-17£©½«¸÷¸öÇøÓòµÄµçºÉÁ¿´øÈëʽ£¨ 3-17£ ©£¬µÃ£º W  16Tµ n Cox    L  * (V − U − V ) 5 2 = I * T + 2T I * W * (1 + 2λ V ) £¨ 3-18£© π 0 L th L s0 sub 0 15π 2V0 L U L Ó뻯¼òµÃ V0 Ö®¼äµÄ¹ØϵÈçʽ£¨ 3-19£©Ëùʾ¡£ 2  5    15π 2V0   U L = V0 − Vth −   I L + I s0 * * (1 + 2λ subV0 ) * 2 W  ≤♦3-19£©  π L  16 µ C  W   n ox      L Á = I L + I s0 * * (1 + 2λ subV0 ) ∈♠©∠∠♣÷≡™¬∝ℑ≤←™∫⊇≤♦ 2 W I Leff 3-19£©¿ÉÒÔ»¯¼òΪ£º π L 2  5  15π 2V0  U L = V0 − Vth −  I Leff *  £¨ 3-20£©  W   16 µ nCox      L   24
  29. 29. £¨ a£©Êä³öµçѹËæÊäÈëµçѹ·ù¶ÈµÄ±ä»¯¹Øϵ £¨ b£©Êä³öµçѹËæÆ÷¼þ¿í³¤±ÈµÄ±ä»¯¹Øϵ ͼ3-5 Êä³öµçѹÌØÐÔÇúÏß ¼ÙÉèL = 350 µ I A£¬ sub = 0.1 ≤← nCox ≈ 50 µ 2 £¬ Vth = 0.7 V£¬ÓÃATLAB »æ λ µ A/V Mͼ¹¤¾ß»æ³öÊä³öµçѹµÄÌØÐÔÇúÏßÈçͼ U L Óë 0 ½üËÆ³É 3-5 Ëùʾ£¬´ÓÇúÏßÖпÉÒÔ¿´³ö£¬ VÏßÐÔ¹Øϵ£¬ÕâÖ÷ÒªÊÇÓÉÓÚʽ£¨ 3-20£©ÖеÈʽÓұߵÚÈýÏî½ÏСµÄÔµ¹Ê¡£ ͬʱ£¬ÇúÏßҲ˵Ã÷ÁËËæ×ÅÆ÷¼þ¿í³¤±ÈµÄÔö¼Ó£¬Êä³öµçѹÖð½¥Ôö¼Ó£¬×îÖÕÇ÷ÓÚ±¥ºÍ3.1.3 NMOS Õ¤½»²æñîºÏÕûÁ÷µç·µÄת»»Ð§ÂÊ MOS ¹ÜÉÏËðºÄµÄ¹¦ÂÊ¿ÉÒÔ±íʾΪ Ploss = Psub1 + Psaturation + Psub2 + Pleak ≈ Psaturation + Pleak £¨ 3-21£© 2 t3 4 T /2 ≈ T ∫t 2 IdVdsdt + T ∫T / 4 IleakVdsdt ʹÓÃÓë ½ÚÏàͬµÄ½üËÆ·½·¨£¬µÃµ½ 3.1.2    5 2      6  15πI Leff 2V0   Psaturation ≈ 2 I Leff Vth + 7  £¨ 3-22£© W      16 µ n Cox         L   25
  30. 30. 1 2  Pleak = I leakp  V0 + U L  £¨ 3-23£© 2 π     2 5       6  15π 2V0   1 2  Ploss = 2 I Leff Vth +   + I leakp  2 V0 + π U L  £¨ 3-24£© 7 W      16 µ nCox       L    ËùÒÔ¹¦ÂÊת»»Ð§ÂÊΪ£º Pload PCE = Ploss + Pload I loadU L = £¨ 3-25£©    2 5      6  15π 2V0   + I  1V + 2 U  I loadU L + 2 I Leff Vth +   leakp  2 0 π L  7 W       16µ nCox         L    £¨ PCE ËæÊäÈëµçѹ·ù¶ÈµÄ±ä»¯ £¨ PCE ËæÆ÷¼þ³ß´çµÄ±ä»¯ a£© b£© ͼ3-6 PCE ÌØÐÔÇúÏß ¼ÙÉè = 350 µ IL A£¬ sub = 0.1 ≤← nCox ≈ 50 µ 2 £¬Vth = 0.7 V£¬ s 0 = 10 nA£¬ λ µ A/V IW / L = 100 £¬ÊäÈëµçѹ·ù¶ÈΪ 8 V£¬Óà MATLAB »æͼ¹¤¾ß»æ³öÊä³öµçѹµÄÌØÐÔÇú ÏßÈç 26
  31. 31. ͼ 3-6 Ëùʾ£¬´ÓÇúÏßÖпÉÒÔ¿´³ö£¬ÄÜÁ¿×ª»»Ð§ÂÊ PCE Ëæ×Å ·ù¶ÈµÄÔö¼Ó¶øÔö¼Ó£»Ëæ V0×ÅÆ÷¼þ¿í³¤±ÈµÄÔö¼Ó£¬ PCE ÏÈÔö¼Óºó¼õС¡£ ÕâÖÖ¹Øϵʵ¼ÊÉÏÌåÏÖÁ˸ºÔع¦ºÄÓë¶þÐÎʽÁ¬½ÓµÄ ¹¦ºÄÖ®¼äµÄ´ËÏû±Ë³¤¡£ NMOS3.2 Õ¤½»²æñîºÏÕûÁ÷µç·µÄÉè¼Æ ¿¼ÂÇ Ð¾Æ¬ÖÐÕûÁ÷µç·µÄÇý¶¯¸ºÔØÄÜÁ¦£¬Í¼ RFID 3-2£¨ b£©ÖÐÔÚµçÈÝÁ½¶Ë²¢ÁªÒ»¸öµç×踺ÔØ RL¡£ÕæʵÇé¿öÏ£¬Á÷¹ýÕâ¸ö¸ºÔصĵçÁ÷ÊDZ仯µÄ£¬ÒÔÉè¼ÆµÄ RFID ±êǩоƬΪÀý£¬²»Í¬µÄ¹¤×÷״̬£¬Æ为ÔصçÁ÷·Ö±ðÓÐÈçÏ£º½âµ÷ÆÚ¼ä 350 ¦Ì A£»·Ç½âµ÷Æڼ䣺 µ 600 A¡£Òò´ËÕûÁ÷µç·µÄÉè¼ÆÒªÂú×ãÁ½¸ö»ù±¾Ìõ¼þ£º 1£©ÓÉÓÚ±¾ÂÛÎÄËùÉè¼ÆµÄ ISO15693 ±ê×¼£¬µ±½âµ÷ RFID оƬ·ûºÏ 100£¥ ASK ÐźÅʱ£¬¸ù¾ÝÐ-ÒéÒªÇóÓÐ 9.44 µ ʱ¼ä¶Î±êÇ©ÏßȦÎÞ·¨¸ÐÓ¦»ñÈ¡Íâ½ç´Å³¡ÄÜÁ¿£¬ sʱ¼äÄÚ£¬Ð¾Æ¬ÄÚ²¿µç·¹¤×÷ËùÐèÄÜÁ¿ÊÇÓÉÕâ¸ö´¢ÄܵçÈÝÌṩµÄ£¬ËÈÝÉÏ´¢´æµÄµçºÉÒª×ã¹»±êǩоƬÄÚ²¿µç·ʹÓ᣸ù¾ÝµçºÉÊغãµÃ Q = I L × ∆t = C × ∆V £¨ 3-26£© ÆäÖÐ I L = 350 µ £º A£¬ t = 9.44 µ ∆ s¡£ÒòΪ 100%½âµ÷Êǽü¾àÀ빤×÷ģʽ£¬¼´µ±±Ç©Ð¾Æ¬Óë¶ÁдÆ÷Ö®¼ä¾àÀë½Ï½üʱ£¬±êǩоƬËù´¦µÄ³¡Ç¿½Ï´ó£¬¸Ðʱºò£¬²ÉÓà 100%½âµ÷ģʽ¡£ ÒÑÖª½ü¾àÀëģʽÏ£¬ÕûÁ÷µç·µÄÊä³öµçѹ´óÔ¼ 7 V ÒÔÉÏ£ ΪÁ˱£Ö¤±êÇ©ÄÚ²¿µç·Õý³£¹¤×÷£ ½âµ÷ÆÚ¼äÕûÁ÷µç·µÄÊä³öµç ¬ ¬ 3 V ÒÔÉÏ£¬ËùÒÔÔÊÐíµÄÊä³öµçѹ±ä»¯·ù¶ÈΪ 4 V£¬×ö±£ÊعÀ¼Æ£¬Áî ∆V = 3 V£¬ËùÒԵõ½£º I × ∆t 350µA × 9.44µS C= = = 1101 pf £¨3-27£© ∆V 3 27
  32. 32. ͼ3-7 Ô¶¾àÀëģʽÏÂÕûÁ÷µç·µÄ˲̬ɨÃè½á¹û °²È«Æð¼û£¬Õâ¸öµçÈÝÈ¡ ͼ 1.2 nf ¡£ 3-7 ÊÇ100%ģʽÏÂÕûÁ÷µç·µÄ˲̬ɨÃè½á¹£¨ Ä£ÐÍ£ TT ©¡£½âµ÷Æڼ䣬µçѹϽµ 2.73 V¡£ MOS Æ÷¼þÊܹ¤ÒÕÓ°Ïì½Ï´ó£¬±í 3-1 ÁгöÁ˳öÈëµçѹ·ù¶È 10 V ʱ£¬ 100%ģʽ²»Í¬¹¤ÒÕ½ÇÏÂÊä³öµçѹµÄ±ä»¯¡£ÆäÖУº×î´óÖµ±íʾ 100%ASK µ÷ÖÆÇ°µÄÊä³öµçѹ£¨Í¼ 3-7ÖÐ µã£ A ©£¬×îСֵ±íʾ µ÷ÖƺóµÄÊä³öµçѹ£¨Í¼ 100%ASK 3-7 ÖÐ µã£© B ±í ²»Í¬¹¤ÒÕÄ£ÐÍÏÂÊä³öµçѹµÄ±ä»¯ 3-1 Êä ³öµçѹ ×î´óÖµ£¨ V£© ×îСֵ£¨ V£© µçѹ±ä»¯·ù¶È£¨ V£© ¹¤ÒÕ½Ç TT 7.66 4.92 2.74 SS 7.40 5.10 2.30 FF 7.81 4.33 3.48 ´Ó±í Öпɼû£º¹¤ÒÕÄ£ÐͶÔÊä³öµçѹµÄ×î´óÖµºÍ×îСֵ»áÂÔÓÐÓ 3-1 28
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  34. 34. 2  5   15π 2V0   W   U L = V0 − Vth −  I L + I s0 *   * (1 + 2λsubV0 ) * 2   π  L 1£¬  16 µ C  W   n ox   2    L  1£¬ 2  15πI L 2V0 104 ≈ V0 − Vth − = 5.5 − W  W  16 µ n Cox      L  1£¬ 2  L 1£¬ 2 £¨ 3-30£© W  ËùÒÔ£º  = 70   L 1≤← 2 ͼ3-8 ½ü¾àÀëģʽÏÂÕûÁ÷µç·˲̬ɨÃè½á¹û MOS ¹Ü¼ÄÉúµÄµçÈÝʹµÃ ¿¼Âǵ½ MOS ¹ÜµÄµÈЧµç×è¼õСµÈÒòËØ£ ¬Êµ¼ÊÉϵÄÊäѹ¿ÉÄÜСÓÚ 4 V£¬×ö±£ÊعÀ¼Æ£¬È¡µÄ¿í³¤±ÈÔÚ 150 Ö®¼ä¡£ÓÉÓÚ M1¡¢ M2 100¡« M3¡¢M4 ×÷Ϊ¿ª¹Ø¹Ü£¬Æä´ó²¿·Öʱ¼ä¹¤×÷ÓÚÏßÐÔÇø£¬Ôö´óËüÃÇµÄ¿í³¤±È¿ 30
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