PEF training 20140113-14


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This slides deck includes the training materials used for the first face-to-face trainings on Product Environmental Footprint of the European Commission Environmental Footprint Pilot Phase.

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PEF training 20140113-14

  1. 1. Training on Product Environmental Footprint European Commission, Brussels 13 and 14 January 2014 1
  2. 2. Agenda • • • • Introductory round table Objectives of the training The process of creating a PEFCR Phases of a PEF study – Goal of the PEF study – Scope of the PEF study o Definition of the PEF category o Definition of “representative product” model – Resource use and emissions profile – Environmental Footprint Impact Assessment – Interpretation of PEF results 2
  3. 3. Introduction 3
  4. 4. Objectives of the training • Provide guidance on how to conduct a Product Environmental  Footprint (PEF) study following the PEF Guide with focus on the  development of the draft PEFCR • Provide guidance for defining the PEF product category • Provide guidance for defining the “representative product” model • Special attention to the PEF screening 2nd face to face training will focus on conducting PEF studies  following the specific PEFCR developed for each pilot 4
  5. 5. The Single Market for Green Products Initiative Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the  Council COM(2013) 196 published on 9 April 2013 • • • • Establishes and recommends two methods to measure environmental  performance throughout the life cycle, the Product Environmental  Footprint (PEF) and the Organisation Environmental Footprint (OEF) Provides principles for communicating environmental performance, such  as transparency, reliability, completeness, comparability and clarity Supports international efforts towards more coordination in  methodological development and data availability Announces a three‐year testing period to develop product‐ and sector‐ specific rules (PEFCRs and OEFSRs) through a multi‐stakeholder process 5
  6. 6. Purpose of PEFCRs Definition: • PEFCR ‐ acronym of Product Environmental Footprint Category Rules • “Product category specific, life‐cycle‐based rules that complement general  methodological guidance for PEF studies by providing further specification  at the level of a specific product category.” Purpose:  • To provide specific guidance for calculating and reporting products’ life  cycle environmental impacts • To focus in the most important parameters in determining the  environmental performace of a given product • To allow the comparability between PEF calculations within the same product category 6
  7. 7. The process of creating a PEFCR Focus during this training Define PEF product category Define product “model” based on  representative product PEF screening Draft PEFCR PEFCR supporting study Confirmation of benchmark(s) and determination of performance classes Final PEFCR 7
  8. 8. The Product Environmental Footprint (PEF) • • A multi‐criteria measure of the environmental performance of a good or  service throughout its life cycle To reduce the environmental impacts of goods and services taking into  account value chain activities.  The PEF Guide provides   a method for modelling the environmental impacts of the flows  of material/energy and the emissions and waste streams  associated with a product throughout its life cycle.   guidance on how to calculate a PEF, as well as how to develop  product category‐specific methodological requirements for use in  Product Environmental Footprint Category Rules (PEFCRs). 8
  9. 9. Environmental Footprint  Review Phases of a PEF study Define goals of PEF study Define scope of PEF study Create the Resource Use and Emissions Profile Conduct the Environmental Footprint Impact  Assessment Environmental Footprint  Interpretation and Reporting 9
  10. 10. Environmental Footprint  Review Relation between PEF study & PEFCR development Define goals of PEF study Define scope of PEF study Define PEF product category Define product “model” based on representative product Create the Resource Use and Emissions Profile Conduct the Environmental Footprint Impact  Assessment Environmental Footprint  Interpretation and Reporting PEF screening Draft PEFCR 10
  11. 11. Goal of the PEF study Phase in which the aims, breadth and depth  of the study are established. Define goals of PEF study Intended application(s) Reason(s) for carrying out  the study Target audience(s) Comparative study disclosed to the public? Commissioner Review procedure and requirements (if applicable) 11 Goal Scope RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  12. 12. Goal of the PEF study ‐ example Aspects Intended application(s): Detail Provide product information to customer  Reasons for carrying out the  Respond to a request from a customer study Target audience External, technical audience, business‐to‐business Comparative study to be  disclosed to the public? No Commissioner of the study G company limited Review Independent external reviewer, Mr. Y 12 Goal Scope RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  13. 13. Goal of the PEF study –requirements For PEF study • • • • • • For developing PEFCRs Intended application(s) • Reasons for carrying out the study and  decision context Target audience Whether comparisons and/or comparative  assertions are to be disclosed to the public Commissioner of the study Review procedure (if applicable) Specification of review requirements for a  PEF study 13 Goal Scope RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  14. 14. Scope of the PEF study Define scope of PEF study Phase in which the scope of the  PEF study, the system to be  evaluated and the associated  analytical specifications are  described in detail. Unit of analysis and reference flow(s) System boundaries Select EF Impact Categories Select additional  environmental information  Assumptions/Limitations 14 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  15. 15. Unit of analysis and reference flow • The unit of analysis shall be defined according to the following aspects: The function(s)/service(s) provided  The magnitude of the function or service The duration of the service provided or service life time The expected level of quality The CPA/NACE code(s) WHAT HOW MUCH HOW LONG HOW WELL Mattress (average size) One mattress Use daily for 10 years Firm shape 31.03 Unit of analysis: 1 m2 of mattress fit for daily use during 10 years • • A declared unit, e.g. mass (kg), should be applied for the situations where a  unit of analysis cannot be assigned due to the fact that the whole life cycle  of the product is not included (i.e. cradle‐to‐gate). For example,  intermediate products, e.g. inner springs. The reference flow is the amount of product needed to provide the defined  function. The quantitative input and output data collected in support of the  analysis shall be calculated in relation to this flow. Reference flow 11.0 kg of spring mattress 15 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  16. 16. Definition of PEF product category • For developing a PEFCR, one must first define a unit of analysis and then  identify the related CPA code (at least 2 digits). – Products having similar functions and applications should be grouped under one  product category, e.g. spring and polyether mattresses. • Product category for which the PEFCR apply − by using descriptive language and − with the relevant CPA/NACE code. Products providing a surface to sleep or rest upon, that are fit for use by human beings for a long period of  time, consisting of a strong cloth cover filled with materials, and that can be placed on an existing supporting bed structure. Sections: an alphabetical code Divisions: a two‐digit numerical code  Groups: a three‐digit numerical code  Classes: a four‐digit numerical code  C: Manufactured products 31: Furniture 31.0: Furniture 31.03: Mattresses Guidance for selection: 31.0: Too broad; it includes all kinds of  furniture 31.03.1: Too narrow; 31.03 already refers to mattresses 16 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  17. 17. Classification systems 17 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  18. 18. Unit of analysis and reference flow – requirements For PEF study • • For developing PEFCRs The unit of analysis for a PEF study shall be  • defined according to the following aspects:  the function(s)/service(s) provided:  “what”; the magnitude of the function or  service: “how much”; the expected level of  quality: “how well”; the duration/life time  of the product: “how long”; the NACE  code(s).  An appropriate reference flow shall be  determined in relation to the unit of  analysis. The quantitative input and output  data collected in support of the analysis  shall be calculated in relation to this flow.  The PEFCR shall specify the unit(s) of  analysis  The unit of analysis and the related CPA codes will be validated by the  Steering Committee in the first physical consultation meetings.  18 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  19. 19. Definition of “representative product” • • Representative product existing in the EU market and belonging to the  product category defined May or may not be a real product that is sold on the market – when the market is made up of different technologies, the “representative product”  may be a virtual (non‐existing) product with the average EU‐sales weighted  characteristics of all technologies around – if the market and technical information is incomplete, a real product may be chosen Type of mattress Sales market share in the EU Spring (with spring interior or with pocket springs) 64% Polyether (also called PUR foam or cellular plastics) 22% Latex (also called latex foam or cellular rubber) 14% Others (among others combinations of the above‐mentioned types and water‐mattresses) < 1% Reference: E.J.M. Deliege, D.S.C. Nijdam. European Ecolabel Bed Matresses. Report number: R3535924.W05/EJD. 19 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  20. 20. Definition of “representative product” model • The “representative product” model report should include: 1. Bill of materials (BOM) or if more suitable, ingredients Spring Bill of materials Steel PUR foam Latex foam Cotton, woven Cotton, non‐woven Wool Polyester, non‐woven Coconut fibre Felt Wood Total weight: Polyether Latex Representative product kg/m2 mattress 4.0 1.3 0.2 0.6 2.0 0.4 0.5 1.0 1.0 0.6 0.2 0.2 9.0 0.6 0.2 0.2 11.0 x 64% 5.8 x 22% 2.56 1.89 1.39 0.60 1.35 0.33 0.32 0.64 0.64 10.0 x 14% 4.8 9.7 Reference: E.J.M. Deliege, D.S.C. Nijdam. European Ecolabel Bed Matresses. Report number: R3535924.W05/EJD. Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA 20 Interpretation
  21. 21. Definition of “representative product” model • The “representative product” model report should include: 1. Bill of materials (BOM) or if more suitable, ingredients 2. A flow diagram (system boundaries) covering the entire life cycle Covering the whole life cycle is  the rule, excluding downstream  is the exception.  Consumption and end of life  need to be included when it is  possible to model use and waste  scenarios. An acceptable justification for  excluding downstream processes  would be e.g. intermediate  product fit for many uses,  impossible to construct realistic  consumption and waste  scenarios. Reference: Glew D, Stringer LC, Acquaye AA, McQueen‐Mason S. How do end of life scenarios influence the environmental impact of product  supply chains? Comparing biochemical and petrochemical products. J. Clean Prod. 2012 29‐30: 122‐131. 21
  22. 22. Definition of “representative product” model • The “representative product” model report should include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Bill of materials (BOM) or if more suitable, ingredients A flow diagram (system boundaries) covering the entire life cycle Assumptions related to transportation systems Assumptions related to use scenario (if relevant) Assumptions related to End of Life (if relevant) 22 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  23. 23. Definition of “representative product” model • The “representative product” model report should include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. • Bill of materials (BOM) or if more suitable, ingredients A flow diagram (system boundaries) covering the entire life cycle Assumptions related to transportation systems Assumptions related to use scenario (if relevant) Assumptions related to end of life (if relevant) The screening shall be carried out by the Technical Secretariat based on  the “representative product”. The choice and modelling of the representative product shall be discussed with  the relevant stakeholders during the first physical consultation meeting. 23 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  24. 24. System boundaries • Define which parts of the life cycle and which processes belong to the  analysed system – Cradle‐to‐grave as default approach • Define the boundary between the analysed system and the ecosphere 24 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  25. 25. System boundaries ‐ example Foreground processes Background processes Reference: Glew D, Stringer LC, Acquaye AA, McQueen‐Mason S. How do end of life scenarios influence the environmental impact of product supply chains? Comparing biochemical and petrochemical products. J. Clean Prod. 2012 29‐30: 122‐131. 25 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  26. 26. System boundaries –requirements For PEF study • • • • • For developing PEFCRs To include all stages from raw material  • extraction through processing, production,  distribution, storage, use stage and end‐of‐ life treatment of the product (i.e. cradle‐ to‐grave), as appropriate to the intended  • application of the study.  To include all processes linked to the  product supply chain relative to the unit of  • analysis.  To divide the processes included into  foreground and background processes To specify the system boundaries for  product category PEF studies, including  specification of relevant life‐cycle stages  and processes Any deviation from the cradle‐to‐grave  approach shall be explicitly specified and  justified To specify downstream scenarios so as to  ensure comparability and consistency  among PEF studies Offsets not to be included in the PEF study Offsets may be reported separately as  “additional environmental information”.  26 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  27. 27. EF impact categories and assessment methods • A default set of 14 midpoint impact  categories shall be considered • Default set of midpoint LCIA methods  recommended in the ILCD Handbook shall be  used 27 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  28. 28. EF impact categories and assessment methods – requirements For PEF study • • For developing PEFCRs All of the specified default EF impact  • categories and associated specified EF  impact assessment models shall be applied Any exclusion shall be explicitly  documented, justified, reported in the PEF  report and supported by appropriate  documents. The influence of any exclusion  on the final results, especially related to  limitations in terms of comparability with  other PEF studies, shall be discussed in the  interpretation phase and reported. Such  exclusions are subject to review.  PEFCRs shall specify and justify any  exclusion of the default EF impact  categories, especially those related to the  aspects of comparability. 28 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  29. 29. Additional environmental information • If the default set of EF impact categories or the default impact assessment  models do not properly cover the potential environmental impacts of the  product being evaluated, all related relevant (qualitative/quantitative)  environmental aspects shall be additionally included.  • The supporting models of these additional categories shall be clearly  referenced and documented with the corresponding indicators. 29 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  30. 30. Additional environmental information – requirements For PEF study • • • • • • For developing PEFCRs Based on information that is substantiated • and has been reviewed or verified, in accordance with the requirements of ISO • 14020 and Clause 5 of ISO 14021:1999 Specific, accurate and not misleading Relevant to the particular product category Emissions made directly into marine water shall be included in the additional environmental information (at inventory level) All data needed to produce additional environmental information shall meet the same quality requirements established for the data used to calculate the PEF results Shall only be related to environmental issues To specify and justify additional  environmental information that is to be  included in the PEF study Additional information to be reported  separately from the life‐cycle based PEF  results, with all methods and assumptions  clearly documented 30 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  31. 31. Assumptions and limitations –requirements For PEF study • For developing PEFCRs • All limitations and assumptions shall be  transparently reported. The PEFCRs shall report product category‐ specific limitations and define the  assumptions necessary to overcome the  limitations. 31 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  32. 32. Resource use and emissions profile Phase involving the compilation and  quantification of inputs and outputs,  for a given product system throughout  its life cycle Resource use and emission profile Screening step  (recommended) Data management  plan (optional) Resource use and emissions profile data Data quality requirements Specific vs generic data collection Data gaps Multi‐functional processes 32 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  33. 33. Resource use and emissions profile • An inventory (profile) of all material/energy resource inputs/outputs and  emissions into air, water and soil for the product supply chain shall be  compiled. • The flows included can be categorised as:  – Elementary flows ‐ “material or energy entering the system being studied that  has been drawn from the environment without previous human  transformation, or material or energy leaving the system being studied that is  released into the environment without subsequent human transformation.”  (ISO 14040:2006, 3.12) – Non‐elementary (or complex) flows ‐ all the remaining inputs (e.g. electricity,  materials, transport processes) and outputs (e.g. waste, by‐products) in a  system that require further modelling efforts to be transformed into  elementary flows. These shall be transformed into elementary flows. 33 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  34. 34. Two steps to compile the Resource Use and  Emissions Profile 1. Screening step 2. • Use readily available specific or generic data  to populate the  Resource Use and Emissions Profile • Apply the environmental footprint impact assessment methods Completing the  Resource Use and  Emissions Profile • Ensure that the data collected  meet the data quality  requirements and, where  necessary, collect better data • Transform any remaining non‐ elementary flows into elementary  flows 34 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  35. 35. RU&EP – 1. Screening step • Identify the processes contributing to at least 90% of the  environmental impact because these will need to meet data  quality requirements 35 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  36. 36. RU&EP – 1. Screening step – requirements For PEF study • • For developing PEFCRs Readily available specific and/or generic  data shall be used All processes and activities to be  considered in the RU&EP shall be included • • Specify processes to be included Specify for which processes specific data  are required, and for which the use of  generic data is either permissible or  required 36 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  37. 37. Resource use and emissions profile data Raw material acquisition and pre‐processing • Starts when resources are extracted from nature and ends when the product components enter the  product’s production facility Capital goods • Linear depreciation shall be used. The expected service life of the capital goods shall be taken into account. Production • Begins when the product components enter the production site and ends when the finished product leaves  the production facility  Product distribution and storage Use stage • Begins when the consumer or end user takes possession of the product and ends when the used product is  discarded for transport to a recycling or waste treatment facility  Logistics End‐of‐life • Begins when the used product is discarded by the user and ends when the product is returned to nature as  a waste product or enters another product’s life cycle 37 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  38. 38. RU&EP ‐ Capital goods • Linear depreciation shall be used. • Example of springs shaping machine: – – – – Technical lifetime of springs shaping machine is 25 years Impact in reporting year: RU&EP of springs forming machine/25 years Productivity of machine: e.g. 1 million springs per year RU&EP of the machine = proportion of machine for nr of springs  needed for the reference flow of the product 38 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  39. 39. RU&EP ‐ Logistics 1. Transport type Land, water, air Land 2. Vehicle type & fuel consumption Lorry, van, car Lorry > 16 t 3. Loading rate actual /full load = 0% to 100% 0.95 4. Number of empty returns distance travelled empty/ distance  travelled for product 0.5 5. Transport distance Average transport distance in  specific context 150 km 6. Allocation – goods transport Based on load‐limiting factor: mass  or volume  volume 7. Fuel production Apply default values from database ELCD 8 & 9. Infrastructure, resources  and tools Road, rail and water infr. + resources  ELCD & tools for logistic operations 32l diesel on 100km 39 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  40. 40. RU&EP – End of life • The RU&EP per unit of analysis of products where reuse, recycling or  energy recovery of one (or more) of these products is involved is  calculated with the following formula: RU&EP from virgin material acquisition and pre‐processing RU&EP associated to the  recycled material input The RU&EP arising from the energy recovery process from which avoided emissions arising from the  substituted energy source have been subtracted RU&EP from the recycling (or reuse)  process from which the credit from avoided virgin material input are subtracted The net RU&EP from the disposal of the fraction of  material that has not been recycled (or reused) at  EoL or handed over to an energy recovery process 40
  41. 41. Resource use and emissions profile –requirements For PEF study • • For developing PEFCRs All resource use and emissions associated  • with the life‐cycle stages included in the  defined system boundaries shall be  included in the Resource Use and  Emissions Profile.  The following elements shall be considered  for inclusion: raw material acquisition and  pre‐processing; capital goods; production;  product distribution and storage; use  stage; logistics; end‐of‐life.  • For modelling processes/activities within  gate‐to‐gate stage, the PEFCRs shall  specify: processes/activities included;  specifications for compiling data for key  processes, including averaging data across  facilities; any site‐specific data required for  reporting as “additional environmental  information”; specific data quality  requirements. If deviations from the default cradle‐to‐ grave system boundary, the PEFCRs shall  specify how material/energy balances in  the Resource Use and Emissions Profile  shall be accounted for. 41 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  42. 42. Resource use and emissions profile –requirements For PEF study For developing PEFCRs • Relevant influences on other systems due  to the use of the products shall be  included.  • Transport parameters that shall be taken  • into account are: transport type, vehicle  type and fuel consumption, loading rate,  number of empty returns (when relevant),  transport distance, allocation for goods  transport based on load‐limiting factor and  fuel production.  The impacts due to transport shall be  expressed in tkm for goods and person‐km  for passenger transport.  • • Waste flows arising from processes  included in the system boundaries shall be  modelled to the level of elementary flows.  • • The PEFCRs shall specify: the use stage  scenarios to be included in the study, if  any; the timespan to be considered for the  use stage.  The PEFCRs shall specify transport,  distribution and storage scenarios to be  included in the study, if any.  The end‐of‐life scenarios, if any, shall be  defined in the PEFCRs and shall be based  on the year of analysis, technology and  data.  42 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  43. 43. Data quality requirements Data quality compliance criteria Data quality criteria       Documentation  Nomenclature  Review  Technological representativeness Geographical representativeness Time‐related representativeness   Completeness;  Precision/uncertainty;  Methodological Appropriateness and  Consistency Compliant with ILCD format  Compliance with ILCD nomenclature  document (e.g. use of ILCD reference  elementary flows for IT compatible  inventories) Compliance with ILCD format  43 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  44. 44. Data quality assessment • Secondary data to represent dyeing process in Germany, year 2010  Quality  level Quality  rating Completeness Time  representativeness Technology  representativeness Geographical  representativeness Precision /  uncertainty  Very good 1  90 % 2009‐2012 Discontinuous with airflow  dyeing machines Central Europe mix 7% Good 2 [80 % to 90 %) 2006‐2008 e.g. "Consumption mix in  EU: 30% Semi‐continuous,  50% exhaust dyeing and  20% Continuous dyeing"  EU 27 mix; UK, DE; IT; FR (7 % to 10 %] Fair 3 [70 % to 80 %) 1999‐2005 e.g. "Production mix in EU:  35% Semi‐continuous, 40%  exhaust dyeing and 25%  Continuous dyeing" Scandinavian Europe; other EU27 countries (10 % to 15 %] Poor 4 [50 % to 70 %) 1990‐1999 e.g. "Exhaust dyeing" Middle east; US; JP (15 % to 25 %] 44 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  45. 45. Data quality calculation DQR  TeR  GR  TiR  C  P  M 6 DQR : Data Quality Rating of the data set; TeR: Technological Representativeness GR: Geographical Representativeness TiR: Time-related Representativeness C: Completeness; P: Precision/uncertainty; M: Methodological appropriateness and consistency 45 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  46. 46. Data quality rating Overall data quality rating (DQR)  1.6 “Excellent quality” >1.6 to 2.0 “Very good quality" >2.0 to 3.0 “Good quality” >3 to 4.0 “Fair quality" >4 “Poor quality” 46 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  47. 47. Data quality requirements for PEF screening • 90% of the environmentally relevant data shall be at  least of “fair” quality • Identify the processes contributing to at least 90%  of the environmental impact • Do the data quality assessment of those 47 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  48. 48. Data quality requirements for PEF study Minimum data quality Environmentally significant data  covering at least 70% contribution  to environmental impacts in each  impact category considered Overall “Good” data  quality (DQR 2‐3) Overall “Fair” data  quality Additional environmentally  significant data accounting for  contributions to environmental  impacts (i.e. 20%‐30%) (DQR 3‐4) Data used for approximation and filling  identified gaps (less than 10%  contribution to environmental  impacts) Best available data 48 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  49. 49. Data quality –requirements For PEF study • • • • • • For developing PEFCRs • DQR shall be met by PEF studies intended for  external communication.  Six criteria for a semi‐quantitative assessment of  data quality: technological representativeness,  geographical representativeness, time‐related  representativeness, completeness, parameter  uncertainty and methodological appropriateness  and consistency.  For screening ‘fair’ rating required for data  contributing to 90% of each impact. For RU&EP ‘good’ rating required for data  contributing to 70% of  each impact and ‘fair’ for   2/3 of the remaining 30%. Data of less than fair  quality rating shall not account for more than 10  % contributions to each EF impact category.  Data quality assessment of generic data  conducted at level of input flows Data quality assessment of specific data  conducted at level of individual process or  aggregated process or individual input flows PEFCRs shall provide further guidance on data  quality assessment scoring for the considered  product category with respect to time,  geographical and technological  representativeness.  49 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  50. 50. Data collection • Different ways to obtain data – Specific data • measurements • interviews • annual reports – Generic data • previous LCA studies • LCA databases 50 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  51. 51. Generic data source hierarchy – PEFCR development Free and public LCA database  compliant with PEF DQR Commercial LCA database compliant with PEF  DQR Other free and public LCA database that is part  of the ILCD Data Network Other commercial LCA database that  is part of the ILCD Data Network As default data (provided by  the Technical Secretariat) 51 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  52. 52. Data gaps Data gaps may exist when:  Data does not exist for a specific input/output, or  Data exists for a similar process but: − The data has been generated in a different region − The data has been generated using a different technology − The data has been generated in a different time period 52 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  53. 53. Data collection –requirements For PEF study For developing PEFCRs • Specific data must be obtained for all  significant/relevant foreground processes  and for significant background processes • Specify for which processes specific data  must be collected and the data collection  requirements • Generic data  should be used only for  background processes but can be used for  foreground processes if they are more  representative/appropriate than specific  data.  • Specify where the use of generic data is  permitted • Data gaps must be filled using the  best  available generic/extrapolated data. Such  processes shall not account for more than  10% of the overall contribution to each   impact • Specify potential data gaps and ;provide  guidance for filling these gaps. 53 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  54. 54. Multi‐functionality ‐ Example meat milk cow bones skin 54 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  55. 55. Multi‐functionality 55 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  56. 56. Multi functionality–requirements For PEF study • For developing PEFSRs Multifunctional hierarchy: • − Subdivision/system expansion − Allocation based on relevant physical  relationship  − Allocation based on some other  relationship Specify multi‐functionality solutions 56 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  57. 57. Phase undertaken to calculate the  environmental performance of the  product  Environmental Footprint  Impact Assessment Environmental Footprint Impact Assessment Classification Characterisation Normalisation Weighting 57 EFIA Goal Scope RU&EP Interpretation
  58. 58. Resource Use and Emissions Profile • • RU&EP results in a long list with inputs from and outputs  to the environment Not easy to draw conclusions from this RU&EP Land Water Oil Cu CFC Pb N2O P PM2.5 … Reference: Glew D, Stringer LC, Acquaye AA, McQueen‐Mason S. How do end of life scenarios influence the environmental impact of product  supply chains? Comparing biochemical and petrochemical products. J. Clean Prod. 2012 29‐30: 122‐131. EFIA Goal Scope RU&EP Interpretation 58
  59. 59. Steps of Environmental Footprint Impact Assessment RU&EP Classification EF IA results Characterization Normalization Mandatory Weighting Optional Normalisation and weighting is optional in PEF but mandatory in the  context of the PEF pilot phase. 59 EFIA Goal Scope RU&EP Interpretation
  60. 60. 1. Classification RU&EP Impacts Land Land use Water Resource depletion, Water use Oil Resource depletion Cu Climate change CFC Ozone layer depletion Pb Human toxicity CO2 Eutrophication P Particulate matter formation PM2.5 … 60 EFIA Goal Scope RU&EP Interpretation
  61. 61. 2. Characterisation • Example: climate change Emissions into the atmosphere Time integrated concentration Radiative forcing Climate change Effects on ecosystems Net primary production Changing biomes Effects on humans Wild  fires Other  impacts Mal‐ nutrition Flooding Infectious diseases Heat  stress Decreasing biodiversity 61 EFIA Goal Scope RU&EP Interpretation
  62. 62. 2. Characterisation RU&EP Climate change 1.0 kg CO2 0.01 kg SO2 0.005 kg N2O 0.004 kg x1 Acidification Particulate matter =  1.0 PM2.5 x 1.31 X 298 x 0.061 = 0.00061 x 0.74 = 1.49 = 0.0131 = 0.0037 x 0.0072 = 0.000036 x 1 + Characterised results 2.49 kg CO2‐eq. = 0.004 + 0.0168 + 0.0046 mol H+‐eq. kg PM2.5‐eq. 62 EFIA Goal Scope RU&EP Interpretation
  63. 63. 3. Normalisation RU&EP Climate change 1.0 kg 0.01 kg SO2 0.005 kg N2O 0.004 kg x1 CO2 Acidification Particulate matter =  1.0 PM2.5 x 1.31 X 298 x 0.061 = 0.00061 x 0.74 = 1.49 = 0.0131 = 0.0037 x 0.0072 = 0.000036 x 1 + Characterised results 2.49 Normalisation factor / 6803 Normalised results 0.000366 person*year + + kg CO2‐eq. kg CO2‐eq./ person*year = 0.004 0.0168 49.44 mol H+‐eq./ person*year 0.00034 / mol H+‐eq. 0.0046 person*year 2.746 kg PM2.5‐eq./ person*year 0.00169 / kg PM2.5‐eq. person*year 63 EFIA Goal Scope RU&EP Interpretation
  64. 64. 4. Weighting LCI results Climate change 1.0 kg CO2 0.01 kg SO2 0.005 kg N2O 0.004k g x1 Acidification Particulate matter =  1.0 PM2.5 x 1.31 x 298 x 0.061 = 0.00061 x 0.74 = 1.49 = 0.0131 = 0.0037 x 0.0072 = 0.000036 x 1 + Characterised results Normalised results Weighting factor = 0.004 + + 2.49 kg CO2‐eq. 0.0168 mol H+‐eq. 0.0046 kg PM2.5‐eq. 0.000366 person*year 0.00034 person*year 0.00169 person*year x1 x1 x1 + Weighted results 0.0024 64 EFIA Goal Scope RU&EP Interpretation
  65. 65. Phase that serves to ensure that the  performance of the PEF model  corresponds to the goals and quality  requirements of the study and to  derive robust conclusions and  recommendations from the analysis Interpretation of PEF results Interpretation of PEF results Model robustness Identification of hotspots Estimation of uncertainty Conclusions,  recommendations and limitations Interpretation Goal Scope RU&EP EFIA 65
  66. 66. Robustness of model • Completeness check – To ensure the resource use and emissions profile is complete i.e.  completeness of process coverage and input/output coverage • Sensitivity check – To assess to what extent the results are determined by specific  methodological choices and the impact of implementing alternative  choices • Consistency check – To determine whether the assumptions, methods and data are  consistent with the goal and scope Interpretation Goal Scope RU&EP EFIA 66
  67. 67. Identification of hotspots • • Important contributions from inputs/outputs, from processes and from  supply chain stages These can be identified by analysing the contributions for each EF impact  category The PEF screening shall pre‐identify the following information:  Most relevant life cycle stages  Most relevant processes  Most relevant impact categories Interpretation Goal Scope RU&EP EFIA 67
  68. 68. Identification of hotspots The PEF screening shall pre‐identify  the following information:  Most relevant life cycle stages  Most relevant processes  Natural fibre mattress: natural fibres such as wool, cotton,  animal hair and viscose are the biggest contributors making up  51% of the total climate change impacts.  Memory foam mattress: 30% of the total GHG emissions are  caused by natural fibre and 23% by foam Reference: Glew D, Stringer LC, Acquaye AA, McQueen‐Mason S. How do end of life  scenarios influence the environmental impact of product supply chains? Comparing biochemical and petrochemical products. J. Clean Prod. 2012 29‐30: 122‐131. Goal Interpretation Scope RU&EP EFIA 68
  69. 69. Identification of hotspots The results of the PEFCR supporting studies will be used to identify the most  relevant impact categories. Normalisation and weighting may be used to achieve such prioritisation. 0.0018 Normalised results (person*year) • 0.0016 0.0014 0.0012 0.001 End of life Use phase Production 0.0008 0.0006 0.0004 0.0002 0       Climate change          Acidification Impact categories     Particulate matter Interpretation Goal Scope RU&EP EFIA 69
  70. 70. Estimation of uncertainty • Stochastic uncertainty 50 – Variance in data 40 • Interpretation: understand  variance in specific output  result 30 – ‘120 kg CO2’ would then  become something like ‘120  kg CO2 with standard  deviation of 10 kg CO2’ 10 20 0 product A product B Interpretation Goal Scope RU&EP EFIA 70
  71. 71. Estimation of uncertainty • Choice‐related uncertainties – Arise from methodological choices. These can be assessed via scenario  model assessments and sensitivity analyses Reference: Glew D, Stringer LC, Acquaye AA, McQueen‐Mason S. How do end of life scenarios influence the environmental impact of product supply chains? Comparing biochemical and petrochemical products. J. Clean Prod. 2012 29‐30: 122‐131. Goal Scope RU&EP EFIA Interpretation 71
  72. 72. Conclusions • • • • Draw conclusions based on the analytical results Answer the questions posed at the onset of the study Advance recommendations Communicate limitations Interpretation Goal Scope RU&EP EFIA 72
  73. 73. Interpretation of PEF results –requirements For PEF study For developing PEFCRs • Assessment of model robustness using  completeness, sensitivity and consistency  checks • Identification of hotspots at level of  • inputs/outputs, processes and supply chain Identify most relevant environmental  impact categories for the sector by  applying normalisation and weighting.  • Description of choice related  uncertainties  • and inventory data Describe the uncertainties common to the  product category and identify the range  results could be seen as being significantly  different Interpretation Goal Scope RU&EP EFIA 73
  74. 74. Template for PEFCR • Annex B of the document “Guidance for the implementation of the EU PEF during the EF pilot phase” – Version 3.2  provided by the Commission Environmental Footprint team 74
  75. 75. Interpretation Goal Scope RU&EP EFIA 75
  76. 76. Contact details Marisa Vieira | vieira@pre‐ Annemarie Kerkhof | Rimousky Menkveld | menkveld@pre‐ 76