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OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
OEF training 20140115
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OEF training 20140115

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This slides deck includes the training materials used for the first face-to-face trainings on Organisational Environmental Footprint of the European Commission Environmental Footprint Pilot Phase.

This slides deck includes the training materials used for the first face-to-face trainings on Organisational Environmental Footprint of the European Commission Environmental Footprint Pilot Phase.

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  • 1. Training on Organisation Environmental Footprint European Commission, Brussels 15 January 2014 1
  • 2. Agenda • • • • Introductory round table Objectives of the training The process of creating a OEFSR Phases of a OEF study – Goal of the OEF study – Scope of the OEF study o Definition of the OEF sector o Definition of the “representative organisation” model – Resource use and emissions profile – Environmental Footprint Impact Assessment – Interpretation of OEF results 2
  • 3. Introduction 3
  • 4. Objectives of the training • Provide guidance on how to conduct an Organisation Environmental  Footprint (OEF) study following the OEF Guide with focus on the  development of the draft OEFSR • Provide guidance for defining the OEF sector • Provide guidance for defining the “representative organisation”  model • Special attention to the OEF screening 2nd face to face training will focus on conducting OEF studies  following the specific OEFSR developed for each pilot 4
  • 5. The Single Market for Green Products Initiative Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the  Council COM(2013) 196 published on 9 April 2013 • • • • Establishes and recommends two methods to measure environmental  performance throughout the life cycle, the Product Environmental  Footprint (PEF) and the Organisation Environmental Footprint (OEF) Provides principles for communicating environmental performance, such  as transparency, reliability, completeness, comparability and clarity Supports international efforts towards more coordination in  methodological development and data availability Announces a three‐year testing period to develop product‐ and sector‐ specific rules (PEFCRs and OEFSRs) through a multi‐stakeholder process 5
  • 6. Purpose of OEFSRs Definition: • OEFSR ‐ acronym of Organisation Environmental Footprint Sector Rules • “Sector‐specific, life cycle based rules that complement general  methodological guidance for OEF studies by providing further specification  at the sectorial level.” Purpose:  • To provide sector‐specific guidance for calculating and reporting an organisation’s life cycle environmental impacts • To focus in the most important parameters in determining the  environmental performace of an organisation in the given sector • To allow the comparability between OEF calculations within the same sector 6
  • 7. The process of creating a OEFSR Focus during this training Define OEF sector From PEFCR guidance document until revised version of OEFSR guidance is  available Define the “model” organisation based on  representative organisation OEF screening Draft OEFSR OEFSR supporting study Confirmation of benchmark(s) and determination of performance classes Final OEFSR 7
  • 8. The Organisation Environmental Footprint (OEF) • is a multi‐criteria measure of the environmental performance of a  goods/service‐providing organisation from a life cycle perspective The OEF Guide provides   a method for modelling the environmental impacts of the flows  of material/energy and the emissions and waste streams  associated with an organisation from a life cycle perspective.   guidance on how to calculate a OEF, as well as how to develop  sector‐specific methodological requirements for use in  Organisation Environmental Footprint Category Rules (OEFSRs). 8
  • 9. Environmental Footprint  Review Phases of a OEF study Define goals of OEF study Define scope of OEF study Create the Resource Use and Emissions Profile Conduct the Environmental Footprint Impact  Assessment Environmental Footprint  Interpretation and Reporting 9
  • 10. Environmental Footprint  Review Relation between OEF study & OEFSR development Define goals of OEF study Define the sector Define scope of OEF study Define Organisation “model”  based on representative organisation Create the Resource Use and Emissions Profile Conduct the Environmental Footprint Impact  Assessment Environmental Footprint  Interpretation and Reporting OEF screening Draft OEFSR 10
  • 11. Goal of the OEF study Phase in which the aims, breadth and  depth of the study are established. Define goals of OEF study Intended application(s) Reason(s) for carrying out  the study Target audience(s) Comparative study disclosed to the public? Commissioner Review procedure and requirements (if applicable) 11 Goal Scope RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  • 12. Goal of the OEF study ‐ Example Aspects Intended application(s): Detail Corporate sustainability reporting Reasons for carrying out the  Demonstrate commitment to and practice of  study continuous improvement Target audience Customers Comparative study to be  disclosed to the public? No, it will be publicly available but it is not intended  to be used for comparisons or comparative assertions Commissioner of the study G Company Ltd. Review Independent external reviewer, Mr. Y 12 Goal Scope RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  • 13. Goal of the OEF study – requirements For OEF study For developing OEFSRs • Intended application(s) • Reasons for carrying out the study  and decision context • Target audience • Whether comparisons and/or  comparative assertions are to be  disclosed to the public • Commissioner of the study • Review procedure (if applicable) • Specification of review requirements  for a OEF study • Communication is automatically part  of the goals, given the obligatory  communication phase 13 Goal Scope RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  • 14. Scope of the OEF study Define scope of OEF study Definition of organisation and product portfolio Phase in which the scope of the OEF study,  the system to be evaluated and the  associated analytical specifications are  described in detail. System boundaries for OEF  studies Select EF Impact Categories Select additional environmental information Assumptions/Limitations 14 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  • 15. Definition of Organisation and product portfolio What is the “Unit of Analysis” for an Organisational Environmental Footprint? • The Organisation… • … as goods/service provider… • … one year reporting interval Unit of Analysis: Organisation with reference to  the Product Portfolio and reporting year  15 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  • 16. Defining the Organisation – Example 1 • • • • Organisation: Goods/Services provided:  Location(s):  NACE code(s):  Sections: an alphabetical code Divisions: a two‐digit numerical code  Groups: a three‐digit numerical code  Classes: a four‐digit numerical code  Company X T‐shirts and trousers Paris, Berlin, Milan 14 C: Manufactured products 14: Wearing apparel 16 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  • 17. Product Portfolio • The product portfolio is the amount and nature of goods and  services provided by the Organisation in the reporting year in  terms of “what” and “how much”. • For modeling use and end‐of‐life scenarios, information on  “how well” and “for how long” with respect to product  performance shall also be provided. 17 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  • 18. Product Portfolio – Example 1 18 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  • 19. Defining the Organisation – Example 2 • • • • Organisation: Goods/Services provided:  Location(s):  NACE code(s):  Company X T‐shirts, trousers, handbags, shoes Paris, Berlin, Milan 14 & 15 C: Manufactured products 14: Wearing apparel AND  15: Leather and related products Sections: an alphabetical code Divisions: a two‐digit numerical code  Groups: a three‐digit numerical code  Classes: a four‐digit numerical code  19 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  • 20. Product Portfolio – Example 2 Part of product portfolio for  which OEF study is carried out Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  • 21. Defining the organisation (Unit of Analysis) ‐ requirements For OEF study The Organisation shall be defined according to the following: • The name of the Organisation • The kinds of goods/services the Organisation produces • The NACE code(s) 21 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  • 22. Product Portfolio ‐ requirements For OEF study For developing OEFSRs • Product Portfolio shall be defined  • OEFSR shall further specify how  as the amount and nature of  the Product Portfolio is defined,  goods and services provided by  with respect to “how well” and  the Organisation over the  “for how long”.  reporting interval in terms of  “what” and “how much”.  • It shall be justified and reported if  an OEF is limited to a subset of the  Product Portfolio. 22 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  • 23. Definition of OEF sector  For developing an OEFSR, one must first define a unit of analysis and  then identify the related NACE code (at least 2 digits). – The sector shall be defined with reference to the characteristic  sectorial Product Portfolio using NACE codes  Sector for which the OEFSR apply • by using descriptive language and • with the relevant CPA/NACE code. 23 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  • 24. Definition of sector – Example of wearing apparel Description of sector:  What: Manufacture of all tailoring (ready‐to‐wear or made‐to‐measure), in all  materials (e.g. fabric, knitted and crocheted fabrics etc.), except fur and leather, of  outerwear and underwear for men, women or children; city or casual clothing.  How well: Wear once a week and use washing machine at 30 degrees for cleaning  once weekly, the energy use of the washing machine equals 0.72 MJ/kg of clothing  and the water use 10 l/kg clothing  for one wash cycle. How long: Use stage of five years Sections: an alphabetical code Divisions: a two‐digit numerical code  Groups: a three‐digit numerical code Classes: a four‐digit numerical code  C: Manufacturing 14: Manufacture of wearing apparel 14.1: Manufacture of wearing apparel, except for fur apparel 14.13  Manufacture of other outerwear  14.14  Manufacture of underwear 24 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  • 25. Classification systems 25 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  • 26. System boundaries for OEF studies • System boundaries shall include both: – Organisational boundaries – OEF boundaries 26 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  • 27. Why Organisational Boundaries and OEF boundaries? • Why define Organisational AND OEF boundaries? – Defining Organisational boundaries is a necessary component of  defining the unit of analysis (functional unit and Product Portfolio) – Very helpful in structuring data collection (must collect specific data  for all facilities within Organisational boundaries) • OEF boundaries necessary for modeling the supply chain 27 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  • 28. System boundaries ‐ Example of garment manufacturer 28 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  • 29. Organisational Boundaries Organisational boundaries shall encompass all of the facilities and activities that the  Organisation owns and/or operates that contribute to the Product Portfolio during the  reporting interval. 29 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  • 30. OEF boundaries ‐ Example of garment manufacturer Shall be  included Covering the whole value chain is  the rule, excluding downstream  is the exception.  Consumption and end of life  need to be included when it is  possible to model use and waste  scenarios. An acceptable justification for  excluding downstream activities  would be e.g. intermediate  product fit for many uses,  impossible to construct realistic  consumption and waste  scenarios. Should be  included  (exclusion shall  be justified) 30 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  • 31. Organisational Boundaries For OEF study • For developing OEFSRs Organisational boundaries for  • calculating the OEF shall encompass all   the facilities/activities that the  Organisation owns and/or operates  AND that contribute to the Product  • Portfolio during the reporting interval. OEFSR shall specify the characteristic  processes/activities/facilities of the sector  to be included in the Organisational  boundaries.  OEFSR shall also specify characteristic  processes/activities within the  Organisational boundaries, but which are  not necessary for the functioning of the  Organisation. These shall be included in  the analysis, but reported separately. 31 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  • 32. OEF Boundaries For OEF study For developing OEFSRs • OEF boundaries shall include site level  and upstream activities associated with  Product Portfolio. Justification shall be  provided if downstream activities are  excluded. • For Organisations producing  intermediate products, the use stage  may be excluded from the analysis.  • Employee transport shall be included in  the analysis, even if these are indirect  activities. • OEFSR shall specify the OEF boundary of the  supply chain stages to be included; and the  direct and indirect processes/activities to be  included in OEF study. Any deviation from  the default cradle‐to‐grave approach shall  explicitly be specified and justified.  32 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  • 33. EF impact categories and assessment methods • A default set of 14 midpoint impact  categories shall be considered • Default set of midpoint LCIA methods  recommended in the ILCD Handbook shall be  used 33 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  • 34. EF impact categories and assessment methods – requirements For OEF study For developing OEFSRs • All of the specified default EF impact  categories and associated specified EF  impact assessment models shall be applied • Any exclusion shall be explicitly  documented, justified, reported in the OEF  report and supported by appropriate  documents. The influence of any exclusion  on the final results, especially related to  limitations in terms of comparability with  other OEF studies, shall be discussed in the  interpretation phase and reported. Such  exclusions are subject to review.  • OEFSRs shall specify and justify any  exclusion of the default EF impact  categories, especially those related to the  aspects of comparability. 34 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  • 35. Additional environmental information • If the default set of EF impact categories or the default impact assessment  models do not properly cover the potential environmental impacts of the  Organisation being evaluated, all related relevant  (qualitative/quantitative) environmental aspects shall be additionally  included.  • The supporting models of these additional categories shall be clearly  referenced and documented with the corresponding indicators. 35 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  • 36. Additional environmental information – requirements For OEF study • • • • • • For developing OEFSRs Based on information that is substantiated  • and has been reviewed or verified, in  accordance with the requirements of ISO  14020 and Clause 5 of ISO 14021:1999 • Specific, accurate and not misleading Relevant to the particular Organisation category Emissions made directly into marine water  shall be included in the additional  environmental information (at inventory  level) All data needed to produce additional  environmental information shall meet the  same quality requirements established for  the data used to calculate the OEF results Shall only be related to environmental  issues To specify and justify additional  environmental information that is to be  included in the OEF study Additional information to be reported  separately from the life‐cycle based OEF  results, with all methods and assumptions  clearly documented 36 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  • 37. Assumptions and limitations – requirements For OEF study • For developing OEFSRs • All limitations and assumptions shall be  transparently reported. The OEFSRs shall report Organisation category‐specific limitations and define the  assumptions necessary to overcome the  limitations. 37 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  • 38. Definition of the “representative organisation” • Representative organisation existing in the EU market and belonging to  the OEF sector defined • May or may not be a real organisation active on the market – when technologies and the composition of Production Portfolios within the sector are  varied, the “representative organisation” may be a virtual (non‐existing) organisation with the average EU sales‐weighted characteristics of all technologies around, using the  Product Portfolio as a reference – if the market and technical information is incomplete, a real organisation may be chosen 38 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  • 39. Definition of “representative organisation” model • The “representative organisation” model report should include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. • Specify if it is a real or a virtual organisation Description of the Product Portfolio Bill of materials (BOM) if appropriate System boundary diagram  Assumptions related to transportation systems Assumptions related to use scenario (if relevant) Assumptions related to end of life (if relevant) The screening shall be carried out by the Technical Secretariat based on  the “representative organisation”. The choice and modelling of the representative organisation shall be discussed  with the relevant stakeholders during the first physical consultation meeting. 39 Scope Goal RU&EP EFIA Interpretation
  • 40. Representative Organisation ‐ Example The “representative organisation”: 1. Virtual Organisation 2. Product Portfolio:  – What and how much:  • 20.000 t‐shirts made of polyester, 30.000 t‐shirts made of cotton, etc. • 30.000 trousers made of polyester, 20.000 trousers made of polyester,  etc. • …suits …  jackets …pyjamas – How long: use stage of 5 years – How well: wear once per week and use washing machine at 30 degrees Celsius  for cleaning once weekly, the energy use of the washing machine equals 0.72  MJ/kg clothing and the water use 10 litres/kg clothing for one wash cycle.  3. Bill of materials (BOM): x ton of polyester, y ton of cotton, etc. 40
  • 41. Representative Organisation ‐ Example The “representative organisation”: 4. System boundary diagram 5. Assumptions related to transportation  scenario: transported by truck within Europe, z  tkm 6. Assumptions related to use scenario: wear  once per week and use washing machine at  30oC for cleaning once weekly, the energy use  of the washing machine equals 0.72 MJ/kg  clothing and the water use 10 litres/kg clothing  for one wash cycle 6. Assumptions related to End of Life: 10% re‐use,  15% recycling, 75% incineration and 5% landfill  (average Europe) 41
  • 42. Resource use and emissions profile Phase involving the compilation and  quantification of inputs and outputs,  for a given Organisation system  throughout its life cycle Resource use and emission profile Screening step  (recommended) Data management  plan (optional) Resource use and emissions profile data Data quality requirements Specific vs generic data collection Data gaps Multi‐functional processes 42 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 43. Resource use and emissions profile • An inventory (profile) of all material/energy resource inputs/outputs and  emissions into air, water and soil for the Organisation supply chain shall be  compiled. • The flows included can be categorised as:  – Elementary flows ‐ “material or energy entering the system being studied that  has been drawn from the environment without previous human  transformation, or material or energy leaving the system being studied that is  released into the environment without subsequent human transformation.”  (ISO 14040:2006, 3.12) – Non‐elementary (or complex) flows ‐ all the remaining inputs (e.g. electricity,  materials, transport processes) and outputs (e.g. waste, by‐Organisations) in a  system that require further modelling efforts to be transformed into  elementary flows. These shall be transformed into elementary flows. 43 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 44. Two steps to compile the Resource Use and  Emissions Profile 1. Screening step 2. • Use readily available specific or generic data  to populate the  Resource Use and Emissions Profile • Apply the environmental footprint impact assessment methods Completing the  Resource Use and  Emissions Profile • Ensure that the data collected  meet the data quality  requirements and, where  necessary, collect better data • Transform any remaining non‐ elementary flows into elementary  flows 44 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 45. RU&EP – 1. Screening step • Identify the processes contributing to at least 90% of the environmental impact because these will need to meet data quality requirements 45 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 46. RU&EP – 1. Screening step – requirements For OEF study For developing OEFSRs • Readily available specific and/or  generic data shall be used • All processes and activities to be  considered in the RU&EP shall be  included • Specify processes to be included • Specify for which processes specific  data are required, and for which the  use of generic data is either  permissible or required 46 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 47. Direct activities and impacts Direct impacts: impacts from resources that are owned/operated by the  Organisation (i.e. site level activities) • • • • • • • Capital equipment when built/produced by the Organisation  Generation of energy from combustion of fuels in stationary sources Physical or chemical processing  Disposal and treatment of waste  Emissions from intentional or unintentional releases  Other site‐specific activities Transportation in vehicles owned and/or operated by the Organisation,  including transport of materials from supplier, business travel, employee  commuting, etc. 47 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 48. Linear depreciation of capital goods • Example of yarn machine: – Technical lifetime of yarn roasting machine is 15 years – Impact in reporting year: life cycle impact of yarn machine/15 years 48 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 49. Accounting for electricity use from the grid • Electricity use from the grid upstream or within the defined  Organisational boundaries shall be modeled as precisely as  possible: 1. Using supplier‐specific data, if available 2. Country‐specific consumption mix in which life cycle stages occur • Green electricity: avoid double counting! A statement of the supplier shall be included as Annex to the OEF report 49 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 50. Transport scenarios – mandatory parameters 1. Transport mode Land, water, air Land 2. Vehicle type + fuel cons. Lorry, van, car Lorry > 16 t 3. Load rate actual /full load = 0 to 1 0.95 4. Number of empty returns distance travelled empty/  distance travelled for product 0.5 5. Transport distance Average transport distance in  certain context 150 km 6. Allocation – goods  transport Based on load limiting factor:  mass or volume  N/A 7. Fuel production Default values from database ELCD 32 l diesel on 100 km 50 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 51. Requirements for transport scenarios For OEF study For developing OEFSRs • Transport parameters that shall be taken  • The OEFSRs shall specify transport,  into account:  distribution and storage scenarios  − transport type to be included in the OEF study, if  − vehicle type and fuel consumption any.  − load rate − number of empty returns − transport distance − allocation for goods transport  based on load‐ limiting factor − fuel production • Impacts shall be expressed in tkm for  goods and person‐km for passenger  transport.  51 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 52. Indirectly Attributable Upstream Activities Indirect impacts of upstream activities refer to use of materials, energy and  emissions associated with goods/services sourced upstream of the  Organisation in support of producing the Product Portfolio. • • • • • • • Extraction of raw materials  Extraction, production and transportation of purchased capital equipment Extraction, production and transportation of purchased electricity, steam and  heating/cooling energy; Extraction, production and transportation of purchased materials and fuels Disposal and treatment of waste generated on site when processed in facilities not  owned and/or operated by the Organisation; Transportation in vehicles NOT owned and/or operated by the Organisation,  including transport of materials from supplier, business travel, employee  commuting, etc. Any other upstream process/activity 52 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 53. Indirectly Attributable Downstream Activities Indirect impacts of downstream activities refer to use of materials, energy  and emissions associated with goods/services occurring downstream of the  Organisation in relation to the Product Portfolio. • • • • • Transportation and distribution of goods/services provided to the client,  where means of transport are not owned and/or operated by the  Organisation; Processing of goods/services provided; Use of goods/services provided  End‐of‐Life treatment of goods/services provided  Any other downstream process/activity 53 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 54. Scenarios for use stage Published technical  information on use stage Use stage begins when the consumer takes possession of the product and ends  when the used product is discarded. International  standards National guidelines Industry guidelines Market survey or data 54 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 55. Example of use stage scenario for t‐shirts • Service life of t‐shirt: 5 years – Scenario: wear once per week and use washing machine at 30 degrees  Celsius for cleaning once weekly, the energy use of the washing  machine equals 0.72 MJ/kg clothing and the water use 10 litres/kg  clothing for one wash cycle. One t‐shirt weighs 0.16 kg which results in  an energy use of  0.12 MJ/week and a water consumption of 1.6  litres/week. – T‐shirt is sold in France, Belgium and the UK with each its own  electricity mix • Scenario based on market survey 55 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 56. Requirements for use stage scenarios For OEF study • Method for determining the  use stage should be based on  technical publications.  For developing OEFSRs • The OEFSR shall specify:  − The use scenario(s) to be included in  the study, if any;  − The time span to be considered for the  use stage. • If no publications are available  the Organisation carrying out  the study shall establish the use  • Published technical information should be  taken into account for the definition of the  stage. use‐stage scenarios.  • Definition of the use profile should also take  into account consumption patterns,  location, time, and assumed service life for  the use stage of products. The actual usage  pattern of the products should be used if  available.  56 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 57. Scenarios for End‐of‐Life modeling End‐of‐Life stage begins when the used product is discarded by the user and  ends when the products are returned to nature as a waste or enter other  products’ life cycles Example of EOL scenario for t‐shirts: 5% reused in industry 15% recycled 75% incineration 5% landfill 57 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 58. RU&EP – End of life • The RU&EP per unit of analysis of products where reuse, recycling or  energy recovery of one (or more) of these products is involved is  calculated with the following formula: RU&EP from virgin material acquisition and pre‐processing RU&EP associated to the  recycled material input The RU&EP arising from the energy recovery process from which avoided emissions arising from the  substituted energy source have been subtracted RU&EP from the recycling (or reuse)  process from which the credit from avoided virgin material input are subtracted The net RU&EP from the disposal of the fraction of  material that has not been recycled (or reused) at  EoL or handed over to an energy recovery process 58
  • 59. Requirements for End‐of‐Life stage scenarios For OEF study • Waste flows arising from processes  included in the system boundaries  shall be modeled to the level of  elementary flows.  For developing OEFSRs • The OEFSR shall define the EOL  scenario(s) to be included in the OEF  study, if any.  • These scenarios shall be based on  current (year of analysed time interval)  practice, technology and data.  59 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 60. Direct and indirect activities and impacts ‐ requirements OEF requirements The following elements shall be considered for inclusion in the Resource Use and  Emissions Profile: • Direct activities and impacts of sources owned and/or operated by the  Organisation; • Indirectly attributable upstream activities; • Indirectly attributable downstream activities. 60 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 61. Data quality Data quality compliance criteria Data quality criteria       Documentation  Nomenclature  Review  Technological representativeness Geographical representativeness Time‐related representativeness   Completeness;  Precision/uncertainty;  Methodological Appropriateness and  Consistency Compliant with ILCD format  Compliance with ILCD nomenclature  document (e.g. use of ILCD reference  elementary flows for IT compatible  inventories) Compliance with ILCD format  61 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 62. Data quality assessment • Secondary data to represent dyeing process in Germany, year 2010  Quality  level Quality  rating Completeness Time  representativeness Technology  representativeness Geographical  representativeness Precision /  uncertainty  Very good 1  90 % 2009‐2012 Discontinuous with airflow  dyeing machines Central Europe mix 7% Good 2 [80 % to 90 %) 2006‐2008 e.g. "Consumption mix in  EU: 30% Semi‐continuous,  50% exhaust dyeing and  20% Continuous dyeing"  EU 27 mix; UK, DE; IT; FR (7 % to 10 %] Fair 3 [70 % to 80 %) 1999‐2005 e.g. "Production mix in EU:  35% Semi‐continuous, 40%  exhaust dyeing and 25%  Continuous dyeing" Scandinavian Europe; other EU27 countries (10 % to 15 %] Poor 4 [50 % to 70 %) 1990‐1999 e.g. "Exhaust dyeing" Middle east; US; JP (15 % to 25 %] 62 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 63. Data quality calculation DQR  TeR  GR  TiR  C  P  M 6 DQR : Data Quality Rating of the data set; TeR: Technological Representativeness GR: Geographical Representativeness TiR: Time-related Representativeness C: Completeness; P: Precision/uncertainty; M: Methodological appropriateness and consistency 63 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 64. Data quality rating Overall data quality rating (DQR)  1.6 “Excellent quality” >1.6 to 2.0 “Very good quality" >2.0 to 3.0 “Good quality” >3 to 4.0 “Fair quality" >4 “Poor quality” 64 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 65. Data quality requirements for OEF screening • 90% of the environmentally relevant data shall be at least of  “fair” quality • Identify the processes contributing to at least 90% of  the environmental impact • Do the data quality assessment of  those 65 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 66. Data quality requirements for OEF study Minimum data quality Environmentally significant data  covering at least 70% contribution  to environmental impacts in each  impact category considered Overall “Good” data  quality (DQR 2‐3) Overall “Fair” data  quality Additional environmentally  significant data accounting for  contributions to environmental  impacts (i.e. 20%‐30%) (DQR 3‐4) Data used for approximation and filling  identified gaps (less than 10%  contribution to environmental  impacts) Best available data 66 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 67. Data quality – requirements For OEF study For developing OEFSRs • ‘Good’ rating required for data  contributing to 70% of  each impact  and ‘fair’ for  2/3 of the remaining  30%.  • Specify more stringent data quality  requirements for:  − foreground/background  processes − key supply chain  processes/activities − key impact categories 67 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 68. Data collection • Different ways to obtain data – Specific data • measurements • interviews • annual reports – Generic data • previous LCA studies • LCA databases 68 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 69. Generic data source hierarchy – OEFSR development Free and public LCA database  compliant with OEF DQR Commercial LCA database compliant with OEF  DQR Other free and public LCA database that is part  of the ILCD Data Network Other commercial LCA database that  is part of the ILCD Data Network As default data (provided by  the Technical Secretariat) 69 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 70. Data gaps Data gaps may exist when:  Data does not exist for a specific input/output, or  Data exists for a similar process but: – The data has been generated in a different region – The data has been generated using a different technology – The data has been generated in a different time period 70 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 71. Data and data gaps–requirements For OEF study For developing OEFSRs • Specific data must be obtained for all  significant/relevant foreground  processes and for significant  background processes • Specify for which processes specific  data must be collected and the data  collection requirements • Generic data  should be used only for  background processes but can be  used for foreground processes if they  are more representative/appropriate  than specific data.  • Specify where the use of generic data  is permitted • Data gaps must be filled using the   • Specify potential data gaps and  best available generic/extrapolated  provide guidance for filling these  data. Such processes shall not account  gaps. for more than 10% of the overall  contribution to each  impact 71 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 72. Multi‐functionality • If a process or facility provides more than one function, i.e. it  delivers several goods and/or services ("co‐products"), it is  “multifunctional”  • Must be addressed in OEF studies where: – Jointly owned and/or operated facilities produce goods/services marketed by  more than one organisation – A partial OEF study is undertaken – Sourcing data sets for inputs from multi‐functional processes – Disaggregating data to the product level for “downstream” modelling 72 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 73. Multi‐functionality ‐ Example 1 Multi‐functionality solutions in a jointly owned textile factory • Y Co. manufactures trousers, X Co. manufactures t‐shirts 1. 2. 3. Can the lines be subdivided (i.e. trousers and t‐shirts produced on  separate production lines, hence inventories can be isolated)? Is system expansion + substitution feasible/suitable (can  independent production of t‐shirts elsewhere be modelled?) Is allocation based on a relevant, underlying physical relationship  feasible/suitable? • Mass of fabric used • Production time required • Other? 4. Is allocation based on some other relationship feasible/suitable? 73 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 74. Multi‐functionality ‐ Example 2 Multi‐functionality solutions in a textile factory producing  various products • Y Co. manufactures trousers and t‐shirts – – Electricity used at the manufacturing facility would constitute a  multi‐functionality issue in a PEF study on trousers or t‐shirts Because OEF needs aggregated data for the company’s product  portfolio, it is not forced to disaggregate per specific product 74 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 75. Multi‐functionality – requirements For OEF study For developing OEFSRs • Multifunctional hierarchy: − Subdivision/system expansion − Allocation based on relevant  physical relationship − Allocation based on some other  relationship (economic value)  • Specify multi‐functionality solutions 75 RU&EP Goal Scope EFIA Interpretation
  • 76. Phase undertaken to calculate the  environmental performance of the  Organisation Environmental Footprint  Impact Assessment Environmental Footprint Impact Assessment Classification Characterisation Normalisation Weighting 76 EFIA Goal Scope RU&EP Interpretation
  • 77. Resource Use and Emissions Profile • • RU&EP results in a long list with inputs from and outputs  to the environment Not easy to draw conclusions from this RU&EP Land Water Oil Cu CFC Pb N2O P PM2.5 … 77 EFIA Goal Scope RU&EP Interpretation
  • 78. Steps of Environmental Footprint Impac Assessment RU&EP Classification EF IA results Characterization Normalization Mandatory Weighting Optional Normalisation and weighting are optional in OEF studies but mandatory in  the context of the OEF pilot phase. 78 EFIA Goal Scope RU&EP Interpretation
  • 79. 1. Classification RU&EP Impacts Land Land use Water Resource depletion, Water use Oil Resource depletion Cu Climate change CFC Ozone layer depletion Pb Human toxicity CO2 Eutrophication P Particulate matter formation PM2.5 … 79 EFIA Goal Scope RU&EP Interpretation
  • 80. 2. Characterisation • Example: climate change Emissions into the atmosphere Time integrated concentration Radiative forcing Climate change Effects on ecosystems Net primary Organisation ion Changing biomes Effects on humans Wild  fires Other  impacts Mal‐ nutrition Flooding Infectious diseases Heat  stress Decreasing biodiversity 80 EFIA Goal Scope RU&EP Interpretation
  • 81. 2. Characterisation RU&EP Climate change 1.0 kg CO2 0.01 kg SO2 0.005 kg N2O 0.004 kg x1 Acidification Particulate matter =  1.0 PM2.5 x 1.31 X 298 x 0.061 = 0.00061 x 0.74 = 1.49 = 0.0131 = 0.0037 x 0.0072 = 0.000036 x 1 + Characterised results 2.49 kg CO2‐eq. = 0.004 + 0.0168 + 0.0046 mol H+‐eq. kg PM2.5‐eq. 81 EFIA Goal Scope RU&EP Interpretation
  • 82. 3. Normalisation RU&EP Climate change 1.0 kg 0.01 kg SO2 0.005 kg N2O 0.004 kg x1 CO2 Acidification Particulate matter =  1.0 PM2.5 x 1.31 X 298 x 0.061 = 0.00061 x 0.74 = 1.49 = 0.0131 = 0.0037 x 0.0072 = 0.000036 x 1 + Characterised results 2.49 Normalisation factor / 6803 Normalised results 0.000366 person*year + + kg CO2‐eq. kg CO2‐eq./ person*year = 0.004 0.0168 49.44 mol H+‐eq./ person*year 0.00034 / mol H+‐eq. 0.0046 person*year 2.746 kg PM2.5‐eq./ person*year 0.00169 / kg PM2.5‐eq. person*year 82 EFIA Goal Scope RU&EP Interpretation
  • 83. 4. Weighting LCI results Climate change 1.0 kg CO2 0.01 kg SO2 0.005 kg N2O 0.004k g x1 Acidification Particulate matter =  1.0 PM2.5 x 1.31 x 298 x 0.061 = 0.00061 x 0.74 = 1.49 = 0.0131 = 0.0037 x 0.0072 = 0.000036 x 1 + Characterised results Normalised results Weighting factor = 0.004 + + 2.49 kg CO2‐eq. 0.0168 mol H+‐eq. 0.0046 kg PM2.5‐eq. 0.000366 person*year 0.00034 person*year 0.00169 person*year x1 x1 x1 + Weighted results 0.0024 83 EFIA Goal Scope RU&EP Interpretation
  • 84. Phase that serves to ensure that the  performance of the OEF model  corresponds to the goals and quality  requirements of the study and to  derive robust conclusions and  recommendations from the analysis. Interpretation of PEF results Interpretation of OEF results Model robustness Identification of hotspots Estimation of uncertainty Conclusions,  recommendations and limitations Interpretation Goal Scope RU&EP EFIA 84
  • 85. Robustness of model • Completeness check – To ensure the resource use and emissions profile is complete i.e.  completeness of process coverage and input/output coverage • Sensitivity check – To assess to what extent the results are determined by specific  methodological choices and the impact of implementing alternative  choices • Consistency check – To determine whether the assumptions, methods and data are  consistent with the goal and scope. Interpretation Goal Scope RU&EP EFIA 85
  • 86. Identification of hotspots • • Important contributions from inputs/outputs, from processes and from  supply chain stages These can be identified by analysing the contributions for each EF impact  category The OEF screening shall pre‐identify the following information:  Most relevant life cycle stages  Most relevant processes  Most relevant impact categories Interpretation Goal Scope RU&EP EFIA 86
  • 87. Identification of hotspots‐ Example The OEF screening shall pre‐identify the following information:  Most relevant life cycle stages  Most relevant processes T‐shirt creation T‐shirt use Reference: http://www.bren.ucsb.edu/research/documents/missionlinen_brief.pdf Interpretation Goal Scope RU&EP EFIA 87
  • 88. Identification of hotspots ‐ Example The results of the OEFSR supporting studies will be used to identify the most  relevant impact categories. Normalisation and weighting may be used to achieve such prioritisation. 0.0018 Normalised results (person*year) • 0.0016 0.0014 0.0012 0.001 End of life Use phase Production 0.0008 0.0006 0.0004 0.0002 0       Climate change          Acidification Impact categories     Particulate matter Interpretation Goal Scope RU&EP EFIA 88
  • 89. Uncertainty sources • Stochastic uncertainty – Variance in data • Choice‐related uncertainties – Arise from methodological choices. These can be assessed via scenario  model assessments and sensitivity analyses Interpretation Goal Scope RU&EP EFIA 89
  • 90. Uncertainty analysis • Understand variance in  specific output result 50 – ‘120 kg CO2’ would then become  something like ‘120 kg CO2 with  standard deviation of 10 kg’ • Understand if differences  between Organisations is  statistically significant 40 30 20 10 – difference should be 90%  0 product A product B Interpretation Goal Scope RU&EP EFIA 90
  • 91. Conclusions • • • • Draw conclusions based on the analytical results Answer the questions posed at the onset of the study Advance recommendations Communicate limitations Interpretation Goal Scope RU&EP EFIA 91
  • 92. Interpretation of OEF results – requirements For OEF study For developing OEFSRs • Assessment of model robustness  using completeness, sensitivity and  consistency checks • Identification of hotspots at level of  • Identify most relevant environmental  inputs/outputs, processes and supply  impact categories for the sector.  chain • Description of choice related   uncertainties and inventory data • Describe the uncertainties common to  the Organisation category and identify  the range results could be seen as  being significantly different Interpretation Goal Scope RU&EP EFIA 92
  • 93. Template for OEFSR • It will soon be provided by the Commission Environmental Footprint team in an update of the document “Guidance for the implementation of the EU PEF during the EF pilot phase” Interpretation Goal Scope RU&EP EFIA 93
  • 94. 94
  • 95. Contact details Marisa Vieira | vieira@pre‐sustainability.com Annemarie Kerkhof | a.kerkhof@ecofys.com Rimousky Menkveld | menkveld@pre‐sustainability.com 95

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