Internet of things and nanothings workshop may 2014


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Internet of things and nanothings workshop may 2014

  1. 1. Internet of Things: a glimpse overview 1 Andreas Pitsillides, Networks Research Lab, Dept. of Computer Science, University of Cyprus The Second Cyprus Symposium, 'Pathways to Indefinite Lifespans‘, University of Nicosia, 24 May 2014
  2. 2. Talk Schedule • Motivation • The Internet of Things (IoT) • Indicative Application Domains and real life scenarios • Concluding Remarks • Future Challenges 2
  3. 3. Motivation 3
  4. 4. Motivation 4 20 years on, Vision or Reality?
  5. 5. Motivation It's a smart world? ‘The real and the digital worlds are converging, bringing much greater efficiency and lots of new opportunities’ WHAT if the two worlds exist, the real one and its digital reflection? • A Real world - full of sensors, picking up everything from movement to smell. • A Digital world, a construction built of software - takes in all that information and automatically acts on it. • E.g. If a door opens in the real world, so does its virtual equivalent. If the temperature in the room with the open door falls below a certain level, the digital world automatically turns on the heat. Two decades later that still sounds like science fiction. But does it? Second Life, Google Glass, Cloud 5 2010, Nov. Vision of Prof David Gelernter, Yale University, in early 1990s in his book “Mirror Worlds”.
  6. 6. Motivation 6 17388368?story_id=17388368 • emergence of connected sensors and embedded devices (currently, mostly living in their microcosm, but could be interconnected in the ‘big web’, sensing and acting on the environment) • new ubiquitous wireless networks (e.g. WSNs, Smart Phones) and communication techniques and standards • activities of humans themselves. ‘For e.g. the micro-blogging service Twitter’s 160m users send out nearly 100m tweets a day. When they see, hear or read something, they type it into their computer or smartphone, 140 characters at a time.’!! And now Tweeting Things The real and the digital worlds are converging fast due to:
  7. 7. Motivation So, • Smart devices and sensors are becoming an integral part in our life, interconnected and embedded everywhere. • New sensor and communication technologies are appearing, some with Internet support. (e.g. sensor networks, smart phones, RFIDs, short-range wireless communications, NFC, real-time localization, …) • New communication paradigms: • More things are being connected • People are connecting to Things • Things are connecting to Things • Prices for embedded computer hardware have effectively dropped. 7
  8. 8. Motivation But • High heterogeneity is present in pervasive environments. How do we bridge these technologies together? How can heterogeneous physical things communicate and interact? 8
  9. 9. Motivation The Internet is a solution! • An increasing number of embedded devices are supporting the IP protocol, thus many physical objects now have direct connectivity to the Internet. thus the Internet of Things (IoT). which includes technologies and research disciplines that enable the Internet to reach out into the real world of physical objects. 9
  10. 10. The Internet of Things: a glimpse 10
  11. 11. Internet of Things (IoTs) Thus, As we equip people, places, and commodities with Internet-connected embedded devices that can sense information about the environment and subsequently take action, we are creating the Internet of Things (IoT). The IoT is speculated that it will improve society and quality of life 11
  12. 12. Internet of Things BAN Environmental Sensors • Physical Interconnection of devices, objects……integrated with virtual interconnection of services • A large number of these devices are MINITIARIZED devices (sensors, BAN)!!! 12
  13. 13. Motivation: Is there a need? Large sums spent on smart-infrastructure projects; some countries made smart systems a priority of industrial policy. E.g. • IoT is central to European Union’s “Digital Agenda” & recently concluded a public consultation and China announced a plan with clear guidelines for IoT. There is real need for such systems • physical infrastructure is ageing • health-care costs are exploding • money is tight, .... Can use resources more intelligently, e.g. • Monitoring patients remotely  can be much cheaper and safer than keeping them in hospital. • A bridge equipped with the right sensors  can tell engineers when it needs to be serviced. • Today power grids, transport systems and water-distribution systems are essentially networks of dumb pipes  make smart. • If power grid in America were 5% more efficient, it would save greenhouse emissions equivalent to 53m cars. • congested roads cost the country, e.g. in 2007 in US 4.2 billion working hours lost and 10.6 billion litres of wasted petrol. • utilities around the world lose between 25% and 50% of treated water to leaks 13
  14. 14. Applying the IoT in Real-Life Scenarios 14
  15. 15. Wide spectrum of applications 15
  16. 16. From Smart objects: (right) (left) 16 Nabaztag Personal friend – assistant – can speak ‘common sense interesting bits, read web text, communicator, ... chumby takes your favorite parts of the internet and delivers them to you in a friendly, always- on, always-fresh format.
  17. 17. 17 Big and small smart objects DIGITAL DENTAL: The Beam Brush responds to the mouth and wirelessly sends a record of your oral hygiene habits to your smartphone. And a big smart object ..a small smart object
  18. 18. Smart Spaces (e.g. cities, urban, home) Smart Transport • Pollution control Smart Energy • Monitoring of renewable energy infrastructure • Monitoring of biofuel production Smart Water • Contamination control • Infrastructure monitoring (smart pipes) Smart Agriculture • Contamination control • Urban agriculture (hydroponics) 18
  19. 19. In the Smart Home of today 19
  20. 20. Internet-enabled SH products (‘smart objects’) 20 SMART SQUARE: Owners can drop battery- powered Twine sensors around their homes to remotely monitor conditions such as temperature and moisture. IDEA OF A SMART HOME HAS BEEN AROUND FOR decades. But until now, you had to be very wealthy—or very nerdy—to have one. A number of companies are aiming to change that, and one of them is Supermechanical, an Austin, Texas–based spin-off from MIT’s Media Lab. The company’s first product is Twine. For US $125, you get a durable rubbery square, 68.5 millimeters on a side, that can text, tweet, or e-mail alerts when specific changes occur in your home. Each Twine block incorporates Wi-Fi, internal temperature and orientation sensors, and a headset- jackstyle connector for adding an optional moisture sensor or magnetic switch.
  21. 21. A ‘smart’ fridge… ‘smart’ washing machine … etc… all interconnected into a ‘smart home’ and beyond Samsung is currently showcasing a fridge that comes with an embedded touch screen that connects to the Internet and lets users shop straight from their fridge. SM Internet-enabled products (‘smart objects’) 21
  22. 22. Smart Health 22
  23. 23. Smart wearables 23
  24. 24. So… 24
  25. 25. From Internet of Things to Internet of People “in which pervasive connectivity and embedded intelligence will enable the environment to learn about us and better cater to our needs and habits to ensure our comfort while maximizing energy efficiency,” … and even beyond Oleg Logvinov, panel member and Director Market Development Industrial & Power Conversion Division, STMicroelectronics,, IEEE-SA hosted panel the “Digital Telepathy: When Every Thing Connects”, SXSW 2013 Interactive Festival in Austin, Texas, USA 25
  26. 26. SOME APPLICATION DEVELOPED AT NetRL, UNIVERSITY OF CYPRUS 26 • The WoT in Energy-aware Smart Homes • Blending Smart Homes with Online Social Networking • Sociale Homer: Sharing Home Devices through Online Social Networking • The WoT in competitions for energy efficiency in local neighborhoods • Social Electricity (First prize award by ITU). • Smart metering • Integrating Smart Homes to the Smart Grid • Beyond the Smart Home – Urban Spaces
  27. 27. Concluding Remarks 27
  28. 28. Blending the real and virtual worlds Did we reach Gelernter’s vision of a real and virtual world? 28
  29. 29. Concluding Remarks • Potential applications are out there • Technology is maturing • Many challenges still exist, but solutions and some early deployments are appearing • Generally, it is an active research field... with many potential benefits, and perhaps potential dangers. 29
  30. 30. With so much to gain, what is there to lose? • Privacy (potentially) • Risk of abuse by a ‘malevolent’ government or IT company • ‘compared with some smart systems, the ubiquitous telescreen monitoring device in George Orwell’s novel “1984” seems a plaything. The book’s hero, Winston Smith, would soon have a much harder time finding a corner in his room to hide from big brother.’ • Fairness between those with access to smart systems, which can be better informed than those without, giving them an unfair advantage (or perhaps not, due to the clutter of information?!). • Information clutter (e.g. in Germany this year they threw out 86 million RFIDs—projected to grow to 23 billion RFIDs and sensors by 2020) and info exchanged around the globe: see our world in 60 seconds • ... And many more ... Brother. Concluding Remarks 30
  31. 31. Future Prospects and Challenges 31
  32. 32. Future prospects and challenges • Internet of Nanothings – More next • Will Google be the First to Produce a Conscious Machine? – autonomously adapt and optimise within its own environment. 32
  33. 33. Nanotechnology • Concept proposed by Richard Feyman in 1959 in his nobel prize acceptance speech • “Plenty of room at the bottom” • Nanotechnology are devices on the scale of the order of one billionth of a meter(10-9) • Example materials: Graphene, Nanocrystallites, Nanoparticles • Numerous healthcare applications – Improved monitoring of chronic diseases – Accurate drug delivery – Nanorobots that can perform surgery • Other applications include Aeronautics, Environmental Science 33
  34. 34. 34 NANOMATERIALS: GRAPHENE, NANOTUBES & NANORIBBONS Graphene: A one-atom-thick planar sheet of bonded carbon atoms in a honeycomb crystal lattice. (Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov)
 * Carbon Nanotubes (CNT): A folded nanoribbon (1991) * Graphene Nanoribbons (GNR): A thin strip of graphene (2004) 34
  35. 35. • – much, much smaller than SNs – A set of minified, wireless comm.-enabled nodes. – Node components: • CPU • MEM • Wireless module (antenna & modem) • Power supply (internal or external) – Each COMPONENT: • ≥ 900 nanometers – Final assembly: • ~ 1mm-100μmeters Nano-sensor nodes 35
  36. 36. Nanomachine to treat cancer • Issue with current chemotherapy is that drugs kill good cells • Aim – deliver drug to targeted areas • Cut the dosage down by hundred – thousand times • Honeycomb nanostructure that holds the drug particles • Valves releases particles. Numerous approaches: • Chemical agent • Light • Developed at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) 36 The Challenges of the Internet of Nano Things, Sasitharan Balasubramaniam (Sasi), Nano Communication Centre, Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Tampere University of Technology
  37. 37. DNA Nanorobot • Robotic device developed from DNA • DNA origami – 3D shapes created from folding DNA • Two halves connected with a hinge, and shut using DNA latches • The latches can be designed to recognize certain cell proteins and disease markers • Hold molecules with encoded instructions (antibody fragments) • Used on two types of cancer cells (leukemia and lymphoma) • Developed at Wyss Institute 37 The Challenges of the Internet of Nano Things, Sasitharan Balasubramaniam (Sasi), Nano Communication Centre, Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Tampere University of Technology
  38. 38. Smart Organ • Through tissue engineering we can develop various body parts • Tissues -> Organs (skin, bone) • Using nanomaterial scaffolds, we can grow cells on the scaffold into tissue • Utilizing 3D bioprinting to develop organs • Challenge – integration to the existing system within the body • Integrate sensors into the tissue (Smart tissue) • Robert Langer (BBC, October 2013) 38 The Challenges of the Internet of Nano Things, Sasitharan Balasubramaniam (Sasi), Nano Communication Centre, Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Tampere University of Technology
  39. 39. Problems and Challenges • Scale of nanodevices allows us to…. – Reach hard to access areas….. – Access vital information at a whole new level (molecular information)….. • Devices of the future will be built from nanomaterials, including programmable metamaterial • Limitation – limited functionalities!! • Communication and networking between nanomachines would further advance their capabilities and functionalities o Electromagnetic (EM) Nano Communications o Molecular Communications, Bacterial Communication 39
  40. 40. From Internet of Things BAN Environmental Sensors • Physical Interconnection of devices, objects……integrated with virtual interconnection of services • A large number of these devices are MINITIARIZED devices (sensors, BAN)!!! 40
  41. 41. To Internet of NANO Things BAN Environmental Sensors • MORE MINITIARIZED -> Interconnection of devices at Nanoscale AND connection to the wider Internet 41
  42. 42. Applications: Body Area NanoNetworks Enzyme protocols Cell Nucleus Cell Nucleus Cell Nucleus Cell Nucleus Cell Nucleus Cell Nucleus Micro- gateway Short range transmission Message biomolecule Synthetic Nanosensor Long range transmissi on • New healthcare monitoring approaches • BAN -> BAN2 • Heterogeneous molecular communication networks • Short range (Calcium signalling) • Medium range (Bacteria) • Long range (Hormones) Baris Atakan, Ozgur B. Akan, Sasitharan Balasubramaniam, Body Area NanoNetworks with Molecular Communications in Nanomedicine, IEEE Communications Magazine, January 2012. 42
  43. 43. Punch line • Would this technology enable the Pathways to comfortable, hassle free, Indefinite Lifespans? • Or will it create an unbearable clutter of information/activities/too much ‘comfort’ in an already overloaded world? –This questions I will leave for you to ponder. 43
  44. 44. Thank you for your attention! Contact Details: Andreas Pitsillides (Email: NetRL Lab: 44
  45. 45. 45 Indicative reference material As with many (generic) presentations, inspiration is drawn from the work of others and also material from presentations. This is also the case here, with too many references to list. Below is an indicative set. I apologise to those colleagues that I have missed… Andreas Pitsillides & Andreas Kamilaris, The Web of Things: Towards smart pervasive envirnoments, Mini-Symposium - The Internet of Things, Machine to Machine Communication and Smart Cities, held in Cape Town University, September 5, 2013. The Challenges of the Internet of Nano Things, Sasitharan Balasubramaniam (Sasi), Nano Communication Centre, Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Tampere University of Technology I.F. Akyildiz “The Internet of Nano-Things’’ Auia napa, ICT2012. EEEM048- Internet of Things, Lecture 1- Introduction, Dr Payam Barnaghi, Dr Chuan H Foh, Electronic Engineering Department, University of Surrey, 2013.