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HORIZON
2020
research and innovation for growth ,
employment and sustainable development

September 2013 - n°29 - 10€
Club des Organismes de Recherche Associés

A pathway between French Public Research
Organisations and European Institution...
editorial
.................................................................................

Laurent ULMANN

Editor-in-chi...
TA B LE O F C O N TE N T S
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EDITORI...
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EUREKA, a Key Instrument in the Ho...
Horizon 2020: research and innovation for europe

Europe 2020 Strategy: Innovation as a Driving Force for
Growth Within th...
Horizon 2020 – Making Innovation Part and Parcel of EU
Research Policy
Máire Geoghegan-Quinn
European Commissioner for Res...
Horizon 2020: research and innovation for europe

Taking Leadership in the Digital Economy
Neelie Kroes
Vice-President and...
Horizon 2020 and Digital Innovation

David Willetts
Minister of State for Universities and Science, United Kingdom

I

nno...
Horizon 2020: research and innovation for europe

KET as Tools to Make the EU More Competitive in Knowledge
Economy
Genevi...
Unleashing Innovation in Europe

Barbara KUDRYCKA
Minister of Science and Higher Education, Poland

T

he whole world held...
Horizon 2020: research and innovation for europe

Innovation as a Factor of Growth and Employment in Europe

Dr. Philipp R...
Should We Give Priority to Private Innovation in Times of
Crisis of Public Finances?
Jan Vapaavuori
Minister of Economic A...
Horizon 2020: research and innovation for europe

Optimising the Benefits of Research Investment for European
Jobs, Growth...
focusing international cooperation in research
and innovation.”
We also hosted a key conference on how
best to promote an ...
Horizon 2020: research and innovation for europe

Horizon 2020

Carmen Vela Olmo
State Secretary for Research, Development...


...
Scientific and industrial innovation

Horizon 2020 – Making it Better and Easier!

Robert-Jan SMITS
Director General, DG R...
Encouraging Innovation Through “Horizon 2020”

Teresa RIERA MADURELL
MEP, Group of the Progressive Alliance of Socialists ...
Scientific and industrial innovation

The Role of Science and Innovation for Growth and
Employment
Dominique RISTORI
Direc...
and strengthening its high-growth and hightechnology manufacturing industries. One of
the reasons is that here, performanc...
Scientific and industrial innovation

Stairway to Excellence
Maria Da Graça Carvalho
MEP, Group of the European People’s P...
Innovation at the Centre of Economic Activity for Entreprises
Daniel Calleja
Director General of the DG Enterprise and Ind...
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  1. 1. HORIZON 2020 research and innovation for growth , employment and sustainable development September 2013 - n°29 - 10€
  2. 2. Club des Organismes de Recherche Associés A pathway between French Public Research Organisations and European Institutions www.clora.eu
  3. 3. editorial ................................................................................. Laurent ULMANN Editor-in-chief, The European Files W hile the European Union faces one of the biggest economic crises since it has been created, especially in terms of public finances, it seems more than ever vital to implement an ambitious and coordinated strategy to restart the European machine. In this context and keeping this objective in mind, the European Commission will launch Horizon 2020, the 2014-2020 Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development. Horizon 2020 is indeed the main instrument for implementing “Innovation Union”, one of the most crucial initiatives of the Europe 2020 growth strategy. With a global budget of more than 70 billion euros, this unprecedented programme of worldwide ambition is split into three pillars: excellence in science, competitive industries and tackling societal challenges. Through these three axes, in a more multidisciplinary and flexible approach than it used to be, the European Commission wants to take up scientific challenges linked to societal themes such as health and demography, food safety and agriculture, clean and safe energy, intelligent and green transports, climate change, raw materials and other resources, safety and protection of liberties, innovative and inclusive societies. This initiative fits into a global context of looking for the best cost/efficiency ratio to reduce pressure on public finances. Indeed, research and innovation being factors of employment, growth and competitiveness, the EU intends to grow a real single market for knowledge, research and innovation. To do so, several key-elements have been targeted. It is for example to simplify, clarify and thus ease the access to financings and innovation for SME’s, which are known to be one of the most significant contributors to economic activity within the EU; or to promote the appearance of new Knowledge and Innovation Communities (KIC) that gather organizations and make them collaborate on long-term projects in order to tackle major social issues, through the European Institute of Innovation and Technologies (EIT). Otherwise at the same time, Horizon 2020 should enable industries to master Key Enabling Technologies (KET) while furthering a coherent and integrated approach on innovative projects, especially on “close-to-market” projects. These technologies are indeed a solid base for innovation and a competitive lever for the European industry. Moreover, Horizon 2020 should contribute to strengthening and increasing scientific excellence in Europe, which is the base of tomorrow innovation. To make Horizon 2020 understandable for as many people as possible, simplifying the rules and procedures would have been a leitmotiv all along the preparation and negotiation phase. Upon this major change in the EU research program framework, this new issue of the European Files allows the different contributors to bring their perspective on the many subjects mentioned.
  4. 4. TA B LE O F C O N TE N T S ....................................................................................... EDITORIAL Laurent Ulmann, Editor-in-chief, The European Files Horizon 2020: research and innovation for europe Europe 2020 Strategy: Innovation as a Driving Force for Growth Within the European Union 6 Horizon 2020 – Making Innovation Part and Parcel of EU Research Policy 7 Taking Leadership in the Digital Economy 8 Horizon 2020 and Digital Innovation 9 José Manuel Barroso, President of the European Commission Máire Geoghegan-Quinn, European Commissioner for Research, Innovation and Science Neelie Kroes, Vice-President and European Commissioner for Digital Agenda David Willetts, Minister of State for Universities and Science, United Kingdom KET as Tools to Make the EU More Competitive in Knowledge Economy 10 Unleashing Innovation in Europe 11 Innovation as a Factor of Growth and Employment in Europe 12 Should We Give Priority to Private Innovation in Times of Crisis of Public Finances? 13 Optimising the Benefits of Research Investment for European Jobs, Growth and Society 14 Horizon 2020 16 Geneviève Fioraso, Minister of Research and Higher Education, France Barbara KUDRYCKA, Minister of Science and Higher Education, Poland Dr. Philipp Rösler, Vice-Chancellor, Federal Minister of Economy and Technologies, Germany Jan Vapaavuori, Minister of Economic Affairs, Finland Seán Sherlock T.D., Minister of Research and Innovation, Ireland Carmen Vela Olmo, State Secretary for Research, Development and Innovation, Spain Scientific and industrial innovation Horizon 2020 – Making it Better and Easier! 18 Encouraging Innovation Through “Horizon 2020” 19 The Role of Science and Innovation for Growth and Employment 20 Stairway to Excellence 22 Innovation at the Centre of Economic Activity for Entreprises 23 Research Organisations, From Excellent Science in Europe to Real Innovation 24 The EIT – Powering World-Class Innovation and Entrepreneurship Across Europe 25 The European Research Council: Scientific Excellence Through Frontier Research 26 Horizon 2020 and the Future of SMEs 27 Research and Technology Organisations: Key Players in Horizon 2020 28 Robert-Jan SMITS, Director General, DG Research and Innovation, European Commission Teresa RIERA MADURELL, MEP, Group of the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats, European Parliament, SD ITRE Coordinator Dominique RISTORI, Director-General Joint Research Centre (JRC), European Commission Maria Da Graça Carvalho, MEP, Group of the European People’s Party (Christian Democrats), European Parliament Daniel Calleja, Director General of the DG Enterprise and Industry, European Commission Amanda Crowfoot, Director of Science Europe Alexander von Gabain, Chairman of the EIT Governing Board Helga Nowotny, President of the European Research Council Philippe Lamberts, MEP, Group of the Greens/European Free Alliance, European Parliament, Rapporteur on the European Institute of Innovation and Technology 2014-2020 and shadow rapporteur on the Horizon 2020 package Muriel Attané, Secretary General of EARTO
  5. 5. ....................................................................................... EUREKA, a Key Instrument in the Horizon 2020’s Objective to Complete the European Research Area 30 Broadening the Innovation Landscape to Secure Jobs and Growth 32 How Horizon 2020 Improves the Competitiveness of Our Industry 33 Horizon 2020: From Research to Innovation 34 Kristin Danielsen, Chairwoman of EUREKA Malcolm Harbour, MEP, Group of the European Conservatives and Reformists, European Parliament Chairman of the Internal Market and Consumer Protection Committee (IMCO) Nathalie ERRARD, Senior Vice President, EADS Gerhard Huemer, UEAPME, Economic and Fiscal Policy Director Innovation in energetic evolutions, food safety and agriculture Putting Means in Common to Enhance Research and Innovation Jean-Pierre AUDY, MEP, Group of the European People’s Party (Christian Democrats), European Parliament 36 Maximising the Impact of European RD on the EU’s Energy, Climate and Growth Agendas: an Industrial Perspective 37 Martha Crawford-Heitzmann, Senior Executive Vice President Research, Development and Innovation, AREVA Innovations From Technological Breakthroughs: Keys to a Successful Energy Transition 38 RD and Innovation for “Green Growth” – the CIP Eco-Innovation Initiative 39 Reducing Energy Dependency by Investing in Alternative Energies 40 The Role of KETs (Key Enabling Technologies) in the 2020 European Innovation Strategy 42 The Potential of the Construction Sector for the Energy Efficiency Challenge 44 “Smart Grids”: an Evolution or a Revolution? 46 Science in Support of Innovation 49 Bernard BIGOT, Chairman of the CEA (Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives) Patrick Lambert, Director, Executive Agency for Competitiveness and Innovation (EACI) of the European Commission Fulvio Conti, Enel Group CEO and General Manager Antti Ilmari Peltomäki, Deputy Director General of the DG Enterprise and Industry, European Commission Emmanuel Forest, President Energy Efficient Building Association (E2BA), CEO Bouygues Europe Bernard DELPECH, Deputy director of RD of the EDF Group Bernhard Url, Deputising Executive Director, EFSA Innovation for citizens: employment, social inclusion, education and health Putting People at the Centre of the Knowledge Triangle: the Cases of the EIT and MSCA 50 Public Service and Innovation – an Opportunity Brought by Necessity 51 Horizon2020 and the Innovative Medicines Initiative: Promoting Public-Private Partnerships to Improve Public Health EFPIA, IMI, GSK, European Brand Council 52 KIC InnoEnergy in the H2020 Landscape Claude Ayache, KIC Innoenergy, SE, Business Development European Affairs 54 Urban Innovation: a Crucial Stake for Reworking Cities 56 Sunset for Child Poverty on the Horizon? 58 Jan TRUSZCZYŃSKI, Director General, DG Education, training, culture and youth, European Commission Edit HERCZOG, MEP, Group of the Progressive Alliance of Socialists Democrats, European Parliament, Treasurer of the SD Group Julie DE BRUX, Studies and Prospective Manager at VINCI Concessions, Associate Research Fellow at Sorbonne Business School Heather Roy, President, Social Platform Management : The European Files / Les Dossiers Européens - 19 rue Lincoln, 1180 Brussels - www.lesdossierseuropeens.fr - ISSN 1636-6085 - email: dossiers.europeens@wanadoo.fr Publication Director and Editor-in-Chief: Laurent ULMANN Assistant: Antoine LESSERTEUR
  6. 6. Horizon 2020: research and innovation for europe Europe 2020 Strategy: Innovation as a Driving Force for Growth Within the European Union José Manuel Barroso President of the European Commission E urope 2020, our common strategy for sustainable growth and employment, is our compass through the worst financial and economic storm Europe has been through since the end of the Second World War. This long term vision of cleaner, more innovative, more connected and job-rich economy provides us with a clear direction despite the many headwinds we have faced and are still facing. Europe must consolidate its public finances, but in ways that make its economy emerge stronger from the crisis. European Commission’s key message – to focus investment in areas that will support sustainable growth and employment – has been heard. The European Union budget for the next seven years is smaller than its predecessor but increases spending on research and innovation by a quarter – with around €70 billion – and foresees more targeted use of other growth-enhancing funds. This is why I welcome the choice of the Horizon 2020 programme as the focus of this edition of the European Files, which sets out in detail how the research budget will be put to work for the benefit of our citizens. Throughout the crisis, average European Union spending on Research and Development has remained remarkably stable at two percent of gross domestic product. There is a clear consensus across society that this investment is vital for our future wellbeing. Nonetheless, we are still far from the goal set a decade ago of devoting three percent of GDP to research. Our traditional competitors, 6 The European Files the United States and Japan, still spend more than us, and new economic powers, such as South Korea, considerably more as a percentage of GDP. We have great scientists and leadership positions in many industries, but there is evidence that Europe lags in turning cutting-edge ideas into patentable products and services, particularly in the emerging technologies of tomorrow. Much of the difference with our competitors can be explained by lower private sector investments in RD. Under Horizon 2020, we will join forces with industry to invest €18 billion in areas vital to the success of our economies and our Europe 2020 strategy. And there will be a significant share of dedicated European Union funds available for innovative small and medium-sized enterprises. We will support five public-private partnerships in innovative medicines, aeronautics, bio-based industries, fuel cells and hydrogen, and electronics, as well as several public-public partnerships, with a leverage effect amounting to an overall investment of €22 billion over the next seven years. By working together, these research partnerships will boost the competitiveness of European Union businesses in sectors that already provide more than four million jobs. They will also help accelerate the search for solutions to societal challenges such as reducing carbon emissions or providing new antibiotics. But investment is only part of the story. We must also continuously work to improve the framework conditions in which our innovators and companies do business and to make our research systems more efficient, ending wasteful duplication across borders and joining forces where is makes sense. For example, we are committed through the SESAR research programme to reduce congestion in our airspace, a problem which costs airlines and their customers some €5 billion a year. This is why the aim of building a true “Innovation Union” is as valid today as it was when we presented it in 2010 as one of the seven Europe 2020 flagship initiatives. It is about fostering an environment, an ecosystem, that rewards and encourages new solutions for today’s challenges, as well as those we will face tomorrow, as our populations age and global competition increases for finite natural resources. More than 80 percent of the initiatives are on track – from last year’s agreement on a unitary patent to a capital increase at the European Investment Bank, to expand the finance on offer for innovative firms. But we cannot afford to stand still. We must also be alert to new challenges as they arise and stand ready to respond. The 2013 Innovation Union Scoreboard shows that, as a result of the crisis, innovation and growth disparities between some European regions have increased. We need to unleash a fresh wave of reforms to make national higher education, research and innovation systems more effective and close the “innovation divide” between Member States, with the aim of building a true European Research Area. As Europe shows signs of recovery, we need to bring fresh dynamism to its economy. Traditional industries in which Europe excels need to develop new applications and new business models in order to grow and maintain their competitive advantage, while in ICT-based businesses and in emerging sectors Europe needs more high-growth firms and innovation-based entrepreneurship. This calls for and innovation-driven structural change. Horizon 2020 can help drive this process for the benefit of all European citizens.
  7. 7. Horizon 2020 – Making Innovation Part and Parcel of EU Research Policy Máire Geoghegan-Quinn European Commissioner for Research, Innovation and Science K nowledge is the currency of the 21st century, but to truly have an impact on our economy good ideas have to be put to good use. That is why when we set out to design a new research programme for the European Union we thought hard about how to support the whole innovation chain, from scientific breakthrough to real-world application. The result is Horizon 2020 – the EU programme for research and innovation. Research aims to generate new knowledge, either to solve specific challenges or simply to satisfy human curiosity. These goals are equally valuable. Intellectual inquiry is a worthwhile pursuit in itself, and science helps satisfy our desire to understand the world around us. It reveals to us the most profound ideas. Innovation is then about creating economic value out of the knowledge gained, by turning it into new products, processes or services or, more simply, new ways of doing things. With Horizon 2020, we have brought both these sides together within a single framework programme. Europe has always been strong at advancing science, thanks to its centuries old university system and the cultural values that have underpinned our society since the Enlightenment. But too often in recent years we have seen our bright ideas taken up more quickly by other regions in the world to the detriment of growth and employment here. It sometimes seems that we are happier dreaming about the future than building it. This is why the European Commission has called for the European Union to become an ‘Innovation Union’, the name of our flagship initiative under the Europe 2020 strategy. Our goal is to create a sustainable economy fuelled by ideas and creativity, capable of linking into global value chains, seizing opportunities, capturing new markets and creating highquality jobs. Horizon 2020 will help us meet these objectives in multiple ways through its three interconnected pillars. Firstly, more money than ever will go to fundamental research, or “blue sky” thinking. Thanks to European Research Council and Marie Skłodowska-Curie grants, introduced in 2007, Europe has slowed the flood of top talent to other regions of the world. Mobility is to be welcomed when it is driven by scientific opportunity, but not when the root cause is personal frustration with one’s career chances at home. This is why in parallel we are determined to put in place a European Research Area founded on more transparent and open opportunities for all. Secondly, significant resources will go to projects that support Europe’s industrial competitiveness. One example is our investment in Key Enabling Technologies. These technologies, such as advanced manufacturing, nanotechnology and biotechnology, underpin innovation across many industries and sectors. We will invest to establish a lead in these areas. We will also build on the industrial partnerships launched in recent years and provide more funding than ever before for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). We need to match our competitors’ level of business expenditure on RD. Through a dedicated SME Instrument we will provide funding for small firms to bridge the gap between research and innovation. Support will be provided for all types of innovation, including service, non-technological and social innovations. We will also expand access to finance for companies through loans, loan guarantees or equity provided by financial intermediaries such as the European Investment Fund. Thirdly, we will encourage cross-disciplinary, innovative thinking to tackle the big societal challenges that confront us, from ageing populations to climate change to secure energy supplies. The European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) – under the Horizon umbrella – will contribute through its Knowledge and Innovation Communities, fostering links between higher education, research and innovation and the creation of start-ups and spin offs. In Horizon 2020, more money will be available for testing, prototyping, demonstration and pilot type activities, for business driven RD, for promoting entrepreneurship and risk taking, and for shaping demand for innovative products and services. We will provide more awards and prizes, encouragement for the most innovative public authorities and the most creative thinkers. Most importantly, we will make participation easier by cutting red tape for our researchers and businesses. We also want to widen participation in Horizon 2020 to bridge Europe’s innovation divide. The Commission’s Regional Innovation Scoreboard for 2012 shows that many countries and regions in Europe need to do more. While research excellence may not be everywhere, I firmly believe that it can develop and thrive anywhere, and Horizon 2020 will lend a helping hand by encouraging links between institutions in strong and under-performing regions. But countries must also use the possibilities offered by the new European Structural and Investment Funds to build up their own RI infrastructures. We all need to think innovatively to thrive in today’s world. No single programme will make this happen alone, but Horizon 2020 is an important piece of the puzzle. The European Files 7
  8. 8. Horizon 2020: research and innovation for europe Taking Leadership in the Digital Economy Neelie Kroes Vice-President and European Commissioner for Digital Agenda T he internet is profoundly shaping our modern society and has become a vital infrastructure for the world’s economy. The web only started two decades ago as an important tool for improving communication. Since then it has rapidly transformed society, as well as all sectors of the economy and gave rise to the emergence of new markets. By now it is widely accepted that the growth of the so called ‘digital economy’ not only has a wide impact on the traditional economy, but also has become more and more intertwined with it. One simply does not exist without the other. The secret of its success has been the combination of widespread network coverage, sufficient data transfer capacity, affordable devices for citizens and connectivity options. This has encouraged innovation in digital products and services, with a clear impact on economic growth, social behaviour and addressing societal challenges. Today we cannot imagine our logistic and transport systems, financial services, telecommunications, healthcare, security services, the energy sector or modern agriculture to function without the use of digital technologies and the network infrastructure to support these. From Bosch to Schneider Electric, from Siemens to Alcatel and Telefonica, from STMicroelectronics, ARM to HBSC, Thales or Philips, Danone, Shell or Unilever and media giants like Bertelsmann: the European RD intensive industry, SME’s, research institutes, mass media corporations and telecom operators are all part of the same digital value chain. Further growth and development of the digital economy and society will not only depend on investments in networks and technological progress, but also whether citizens, businesses and research organisations can rely on the internet and feel that their data are secure. All these stakeholders, as one could say, participate 8 The European Files in the digital ecosystem and together they define the future of our European society and economy. The digital economic value chain is part of a digital ecosystem in the broadest sense of the word. And this value chain has the potential to take global leadership in the digital economy in key sectors, under the right conditions. That Europe can achieve this digital leadership has been proven in the 90’s, when Europe held a strong position in ICT – supported by a procompetitive EU telecommunications framework, stimulated by investments in innovation and standards like GSM, 3G and strengthening the position of world leading companies such as Nokia and Ericsson. The situation nowadays, as we all now, is quite different from then. As a result of the digital economy, competition has become more global, faster and much more intense. And Europe is lagging behind, even more so because of the threat that the economic crisis and constraints on investments are eroding European competitiveness. This crisis calls for industry and governments to make structural reforms and at the same time to embrace digital technology to the full. The future of our key economic sectors depends on improving connectivity through the availability of fast, reliable and secure networks for its stakeholders, the use of digital technologies, an open internet and reinforcing cooperation on the whole digital value chain. Why is this important? The development of the internet is entering its third phase. After having evolved from a data network connecting PC’s with wires, currently wireless connections between smart phones or tablets are the key source of recent internet expansions, product and service innovations and an exponential growth of data. For example, the last two years 90% of our existing data has been produced. In two days in 2013 the world produced as much data as in the year 2003. Cloud computing, data mining and big data analytics will increasingly play a decisive role in new business models. In this third phase the rise of the ‘internet of things’ is also expected to play a dominant role, through which devices at home or in public space will be interconnected to assist, for instance traffic management, energy efficiency, healthy ageing, or the retail industry. The European high tech industry holds a strong technological position to play a leading role in the internet of things and together with other partners from the equipment and manufacturing industry in the digital ecosystem they can create the products and services for the near future which serve the whole value chain. These products and services will also generate huge amounts of data. To manage this we need high speed, and secure access to the internet, which requires investments in super-fast fixed and mobile broadband infrastructure. As such the European telecom sector is the backbone of our digital economy. As the OECD recently pointed out in its Communications Outlook, growth in traditional services as SMS and telephony is expected to be limited. The future business models for the telecom sector will be based on large amounts of data. Revenues corresponding to data services are growing at double digit rates in most OECD countries, and transport of data is now the major source of growth for network operators, according to the OECD. And Europe has to be ready for this. Being too late is more costly, than being too early. Being in time is even better. And the moment is now. Just looking at the Cloud Strategy, Start Up Europe, the Micro and Nano strategy or the actions on cyber security: Our European Digital Agenda has all the right building blocks in place to come out of this crises even stronger. The challenge is to step up the actions, to reinforce the coherence of the whole innovative value chain of the European Digital ecosystem and realise its potential. For this, the next logical step is to simplify regulation in order to have an even more competitive telecoms sector, which can serve as the sustainable backbone of our digital economy. In connection, Europe needs more and better coordinated spectrum, standardised access, an open internet, reduced roaming costs and consumer protection. It goes without saying that internet security and more autonomy will become even stronger a priority across the digital value chain: From creating a European cloud to equipment manufacturing, from the chips to the web platforms and operating systems. Where the telecom sector goes, Europe’s digital economy goes.
  9. 9. Horizon 2020 and Digital Innovation David Willetts Minister of State for Universities and Science, United Kingdom I nnovation in the 21st century will increasingly draw on a wide range of capabilities and skills. If Europe is to be the place where future innovations are brought to the market and the grand challenges of our time addressed we need funding programmes which support RD and innovation all the way from blue skies research to nearto-market development activities. Additionally the insights of the social sciences and the humanities need to be embedded in projects from the outset to ensure that the human dimension of innovation is addressed. Support needs to be available with minimal bureaucratic complexity – nothing discourages innovative businesses, particularly SMEs, more than endless form filling. I am glad to say that Horizon 2020 meets all these criteria. However Horizon 2020 is not the universal panacea – we will still need to ensure the EU has an environment that welcomes innovation. We must have regulatory environments that actively support and promote bringing innovative solutions to market at both EU and Member State levels: without that we are simply wasting our investments. Given their underpinning role in innovation, RD in ICTs will be a key component of Horizon 2020. I welcome support for RDI in the ICT Key Enabling Technologies (KETs) – and for other ICTs that are not KETs, but are nevertheless vital, such as software technologies. Here I will highlight three examples of important activity in ICT for which we need concerted EU-level action of the kind that Horizon 2020 will allow – big data, smart cities and 5G. The challenge of big-data, one of our “8 great technologies”, is an area of massive innovation potential that Horizon 2020 can help us tap. For vast dynamic datasets or simulations requiring millions of compute cycles, we need: world-leading e-infrastructures; software and middleware that can keep up with rapidly evolving scientific methodologies and advances in hardware; and a highly skilled workforce. In the UK we have established the cross-sector E-infrastructure Leadership Council to advise us on all aspects of e-infrastructure including skills. Recently the government invested £37.5M in developing The Hartree Centre, a premier supercomputer embedded within a highly skilled team. We need more such examples to strengthen Europe’s leading position in RDI and to maintain and grow its economic competitiveness. To this end the Public Private Partnership on High Performance Computing provides the EU with an opportunity to promote collaborations between the HPC community in the EU and with the sectors that can and should benefit from it. Support for RD in ICT, more secure systems, and open data need to come together to meet the challenges of smart cities. With urbanisation in the EU around 70%, and higher in the more developed Member States, these challenges are, perhaps, at their most acute in Europe. This is resulting in the search for more innovative approaches to managing our urban systems. We need to make our city environments more sustainable, “liveable” and resilient to economic shocks by linking ICT systems to a modern physical infrastructure and the data generated through the “Internet of Things”. This will provide business and citizens with the information they need, when they need it. In the UK we are working hard to achieve this change in the way that services are delivered. In addition to pilots and demonstrators on smart grids, telecare and intelligent transport systems, we have launched a number of demonstrators on how these services might be integrated. Our Technology Strategy Board has launched a Future Cities Catapult Centre, with support of £50M over five years, to work with cities, business and academia to develop and disseminate integrated approaches to urban services. UK firms, such as Arup, Mott MacDonald and Living PlanIT, are at the forefront of designing future cities, and so I hope that, as we develop further UK experience and capability, UK organisations will be able to play an active role in the European Innovation Partnership on Smart Cities and Communities launched last October. In the UK we are also looking to drive innovation through our Industrial Strategies. For example the Information Economy Industrial Strategy highlights the importance of 5G and describes how the Innovation Centre at the University of Surrey will build on an initial investment of £50M from a combination Government and mobile operators and infrastructure providers to establish a test-bed for 5G. We foresee strong links between this work and the 5G Public Private Partnership. ICT-related investments in Horizon 2020 will have an underpinning role in innovation. We need effective co-ordination between technology development, integration with other RD areas and improvements in human capital combined with strong links to national strategies and investments. This, combined with an environment where regulation pulls-through innovation, can make the EU the ideal environment for innovation to 2020 and beyond. The European Files 9
  10. 10. Horizon 2020: research and innovation for europe KET as Tools to Make the EU More Competitive in Knowledge Economy Geneviève Fioraso © Benjamin Chelly Minister of Research and Higher Education, France What would bring the deployment of Key Enabling Technologies (KETs) to the European economy? The road to a more sustainable and wealthier economy requires new goods and services. Whilst significant part of such goods and services that will be available in the markets of the 2020’s are as yet undetermined, driving forces behind their development will be research and innovation and the deployment of Key Enabling Technologies (KETs) defined as micro- and nanoelectronics, photonics, nanotechnologies, biotechnologies, advanced materials and advanced manufacturing systems. Applications of KETs directly or indirectly stimulate competitiveness and generate jobs, growth and wealth in the European economy. We particularly need to concentrate our efforts on economic sectors which are knowledge intensive, bear strong growth potential and will create applications tackling great societal challenges. In fact, many application sectors are already present in EU Member States, e.g. automotive, chemicals, electronics, textiles, energy, environment, pharmaceuticals, health, construction, aerospace and telecommunication. In order to support growth and job creation, we have to reinforce Europe’s manufacturing capacity because we are losing market share. KETs’ pilot lines should help in this path. What is the added value of European Union regarding KET? Key Enabling Technologies (KETs) are some of these key sectors deserving a strong and coherent European industrial strategy, mobilizing all relevant EU policies and the European Commission, together with Member States, leading an extensive strategy aimed at fostering competitiveness of European industries in the knowledge economy. 10 The European Files It has been initiated by the European Commission High Level Group on Key Enabling Technologies (HLG-KETs) under the vision of Vice-President of the European Commission M. Antonio TAJANI and the presidency of M. Jean Therme, Director of Technological Research, CEA, France. It was outlined in the communication on Key Enabling Technologies A European strategy for Key Enabling Technologies – A bridge to growth and jobs proposed by Vice-President Tajani in June 2012 and in the Council conclusions on Key Enabling Technologies of 11 October 2012. This is exactly the vision that we are expecting from the European Union in the current critical economic situation of Europe. France’s priority in this context is to focus European and national policies and funding on the restoration of economic growth and the creation of jobs. This is the priority that the French President has pursued in the Multiannual Financial Framework negotiations. For all these Key Enabling Technologies, which are so critical for the development of applications, our responsibility of national and European decision makers is to ensure Europe’s capacity to gain leadership in development and deployment of these technologies and to establish the most favourable conditions for attracting private investments and strengthen industrial competitiveness. What has been achieved so far and what remains to be done? More than one year after the announcement of the EU strategy on KETs, time has come to look at the first results: - regarding support to RD in KETs, encouraging actions have been already launched under the 7th framework programme, like the ENIAC pilot lines, that should be pursued with Horizon 2020; however, we still need to have a clearer picture on how EU/national/regional funding sources will be combined in support to large scale multiKET projects; - as recalled by Vice-President Neelie KROES on the occasion of the communication on New European Industrial Strategy for Electronics, competition policy matters to properly support KETs: here, we need the Commission to progress on the adaptation of state aid rules to the specific role played by KETs in Europe’s competitiveness. We need urgently to successfully implement the European strategy proposed by the Commission and make Europe “the place” for the future of Micro and Nano Electronics industry! What is your personal involvement in promoting KET? Together with Mr Arnaud Montebourg, French Minister for Industrial Renewal, I took the initiative to organise a ministerial KET Summit on February 7 in Grenoble, within the innovation pole for micro nanotechnologies MINATEC, with the participation of Vice-President Tajani and my colleagues ministers from Germany, Italy, Spain and UK. It provided a unique opportunity to engage and agree upon a series of KETs-related actions for European competitiveness and economic growth. In particular, we agreed on the necessity to ensure the implementation of the recommendations of the High-Level Group and of the KETs strategy as set out in the European Commission’s communication of 26 June 2012. We also called for establishing within Horizon 2020 a coherent and strategic approach to research and innovation programming for KETs. We asked for effective framework to synergistically combine EU funding from Horizon 2020 grants, EIB financial instruments and Structural funds on KETs research and innovation projects. And finally, we asked the European Commission to review the effectiveness of the State Aid framework for Research Development and Innovation, including the impact on industrial investment, in order to make sure that it is consistent with the goal of creating the conditions for European competitiveness vis-à-vis the rest of the world. KET’s strategy has been integrated within the french “Programme d’Investissements d’Avenir” and the Research Agenda “France Europe 2020” I launched in May 21. I am convinced that these technologies are strategic to face future societal challenges as Ageing, Health, Climate Change, Sustainable and renewable energies, security...
  11. 11. Unleashing Innovation in Europe Barbara KUDRYCKA Minister of Science and Higher Education, Poland T he whole world held its breath when Felix Baumgartner jumped from more than 38,969 meters above the Earth, breaking the speed of sound before releasing his parachute. What makes a man want to jump out of space and free fall at supersonic speeds kilometres down to earth? Without knowing if he could land safely or not. Money and fame may have nothing to do with it. The most important is the desire to do something that no one else has done before. This is exactly what links Felix Baumgartner and world top innovators. In Europe, we need people who are willing to risk creating what was once thought impossible, people who are willing to build new, innovative technologies. We should motivate them and focus on giving them the best working conditions possible. For several years now, Polish government and the Ministry of Science and Higher Education has been building a system aimed at fostering innovation. Compulsory maths exam at the end of secondary education, promotion of engineering studies, increased funds on research, construction of ultra-modern laboratories, tax deductions for research, transition of property rights to scientists – these are only few examples of what new regulations have to offer. People – long-term investment Since 2007, the number of graduates from faculties of key importance for knowledge-based economy has grown by 20%. This is the result of the special government program. We have spent almost 1.2 billion PLN for modernising engineering studies and granting scholarships for SMT students. What is more, outstanding students receive grants for their research projects – 7 million PLN Future Generation Programme and Diamond Grants of more than 30 million PLN. The world’s media – The Guardian, Financial Times and NBC News – have recently reported that young talented Poles, speaking English and other foreign languages fluently, are the main attraction for investors. During the last few years, we have built from scratch a system to support young scientists. They can receive grants from multiple institutions: the Ministry, the National Research and Development Centre and the National Science Centre. The latter is obliged to spend over 30% of its budget for grants dedicated to young researchers. Funding for applied research has been steadily increasing. While applying the modern approach to research funding, we are implementing the public-private partnership programmes. The PPP model is applied in a number of highly-funded projects focused on delivering innovative solutions in energy sector, aviation and medicine. The best way to increase the effectiveness of publicly funded projects and investments is to define research agendas in cooperation with business. In that way they can really meet the needs of business owners. All Across Europe – including Poland – we are still lacking people who can move easily between two worlds: science and economy. This is why we are mostly proud of our 500 Top Innovators Programme. It’s a 2-month intensive course at the top world universities (Berkley, Stanford, Cambridge) aimed at training by 2015 up to 500 best Polish scientists and representatives of innovation centres. We believe that the participants, inspired by the experience and knowledge gained from the greatest innovators of modern science and business, will bring new inspirations to help build culture of innovation in Poland. After returning from Silicon Valley winners of the programme told me that they had caught a virus of innovation. Now it infects their universities and research institutes. Education outcomes will translate into innovation in the next few years. And what about now? Create the right conditions for science and do not disturb Perhaps this is what matters the most, good working conditions for those who create innovations: scientists. Over the last 6 years Poland has massively invested in research and innovation sector. Thanks to European funds we have invested more than 26 billion PLN in over 200 new laboratories, reconstruction of another 2000 and top-class research equipment. Poland today has one of the world’s most modern RD infrastructure that is ready to welcome top-class researchers and ambitious international projects. The small number of patents or limited level of research commercialization is not a result of low creativity among scientists in Poland, but it’s because they work in an environment that doesn’t encourage them enough to explore and to think about their own financial matters. We’re trying to change that by many new instruments, first of all by transferring property rights to inventions to the scientists. This process will be enhanced by new proinnovation tax regulations we are going to implement in a close future. Private companies will be allowed to donate 1% corporate income tax to chosen academic institution. This will help us in promoting stronger cooperation between business and science in Poland. A new system for assessing quality performance of scientific institutions will rate the level of research commercialization and the number of inventions. This could be a good hint for investors on where to invest their funds. Moreover, we are liberalizing the law on public procurement in order to facilitate researchers’ investments in research equipment. We estimate that this legislative change will accelerate research outcomes by up to one year. To help scientists and business to carry out applied projects we want to finance the final stages of research commercialization in order to overcome so-called valley of death that is blocking the progress of scientific innovations from the laboratory to commercially successful businesses. If we look at research outcomes from the demandsupply perspective, we can clearly see that the innovation market depends strongly on growing (or not) demand. If the supply is created with a large share of the state budget, the demand depends strongly on economic sector. I believe that Horizon 2020 will help Europe strengthen the bridges between science and the economy. The European Files 11
  12. 12. Horizon 2020: research and innovation for europe Innovation as a Factor of Growth and Employment in Europe Dr. Philipp Rösler Vice-Chancellor, Federal Minister of Economy and Technologies, Germany E uropean innovation and economic power are essential to ensure future prosperity for all Europeans. In addition to a lack of fiscal discipline, it is principally the problems of competitiveness of individual countries that have led to the emergence of the euro crisis. In the face of global competition the task now is to re-strengthen growth and competitiveness in Europe. There is no magic formula here; each country faces its own challenges. Important areas for action are an efficient public administration and constitutional structures, a modern infrastructure, a wage policy based on productivity, a sound public financial policy and optimal conditions for education, research and innovation. New products and services are the key to strengthening long-term growth and prosperity. With innovation we can successfully overcome societal challenges – I need only 12 The European Files mention climate change or demographic development. All EU Member States, and we in Germany, are challenged to further improve the business environment and to boost research and innovation in these times of a much-needed high-level consolidation policy. This applies particularly to those euro countries needing to address weaknesses in competition with structural reforms following the loss of their own monetary policies and flexible exchange rates. It is possible that these countries need the solidarity and support of currently economically stronger states. I particularly welcome, therefore, research and innovation that play in important role in the financial framework of the EU: Increased budgets for European research funding, particularly through the ‘Horizon 2020’ programme, are being provided. In European funding, it is all about tackling global challenges and developing key European technologies. But this can only be a small contribution. The largest share of research and innovation funding must come from the private sector. The EU has already decided since the turn of the century to invest 3% of GDP on research, development and innovation, but we are currently only at 2%. With an EU gross domestic product of 13 trillion euros, this means a gap of about € 130 billion. This demonstrates that neither the EU budget or the national budgets alone are able to fill this gap. First and foremost, we must provide a framework to allow companies to significantly increase their research and innovation efforts. This includes allowing the greatest possible freedom for creativity and entrepreneurship, but also stable and proper cost arrangements, such as for the protection of intellectual property. We need a social environment that is open to new technologies. We should not only look at the technological risks but also at the opportunities. This applies for example in genetic engineering, with its capacity to cure diseases thanks to its further development. Finally, we should also allow those with new ideas and products to achieve the social recognition they deserve, including incidentally, those who have to have a second go at establishing their businesses. For that is the essence of innovation: You never know where you land. We should continually be embracing renewal as we go forward.
  13. 13. Should We Give Priority to Private Innovation in Times of Crisis of Public Finances? Jan Vapaavuori Minister of Economic Affairs, Finland H orizon 2020, the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation 2014-2020, comes into effect at a time when Europe faces the most severe economic challenges it has experienced during the industrial era. Europe is losing its competitiveness, an increasing share of global research and development is moving to Asia, and European industries face enormous pressure for structural change. In my view, the timing of Horizon 2020, and how it has been designed towards strengthening the innovation capacity of Europe, will provide us with ample tools for meeting these challenges. Horizon 2020, the Innovation Union and the European Research Area are set to respond to the economic crisis, invest in future jobs and growth, address great societal challenges and help us reach the goal of strengthening the EU’s global position in research and innovation. It is important, particularly in times of crisis of public finances, that public funding leverages investment and engagement of the private sector in innovation in the most effective way. There are several features in Horizon 2020 that facilitate and encourage such engagement by enterprises. Some of them may serve as good practices for Member States that also need to streamline their research and innovation funding programmes, not only to save administrative costs but also to attract businesses on a wider basis as key players in the programmes . Horizon 2020 will bring a host of initiatives and programmes together, and offer a more simple access to funding compared to previous programmes. Reducing the number of sets of rules and leveling differences of funding rates both between and within projects will facilitate participation of enterprises in research and innovation projects. Furthermore, I warmly welcome many of the changes that increase the attractiveness of research projects to businesses, including the widening of the concept of innovation to new forms of innovation and extending funding to cover the whole innovation cycle with funding instruments ranging from pre-commercial procurement to inducement prizes, dedicated loans and equity funding. Finland has been the top performer in the EU in business RD spending (2.67% of GDP in 2011 and some 70 % of the overall national RD expenditure). However, business RD investments have concentrated in a rather small number of large firms and are currently affected by the difficult economic situation. The Finnish Government’s introduction of RD tax incentives to complement direct RDI funding is expected to increase the number of enterprises carrying out RDI activities. However, we still face the challenge of getting more SMEs to engage in innovation activities. Also at the European level, I find it important that SMEs are provided with simple access to Horizon 2020 projects. Large companies often have better resources to work their way through the selection process than smaller companies, and they may also have a longer term research and innovation strategies. To mobilize the innovation potential of SMEs, Horizon 2020 needs to offer innovative SMEs clear strategic objectives and benefits gained by networking of companies. A clearly stated objective in the Finnish innovation policy is to give the business sector a greater responsibility in defining strategic goals for their long-term research efforts. Six Strategic Centers for Science, Technology and Innovation (SHOKs) were established in nationally important fields of research to provide funding and a platform for companies, universities and research institutes to work together in the spirit of open innovation. The SHOKs in Finland are expected to be natural partners for the European Institute of Technology at national level. In Horizon 2020, we should also expect the business sector to assume greater responsibility in defining long-term research goals. The Competitive Industries objective in Horizon 2020 is set to make Europe a more attractive location to invest in research and innovation by promoting activities where businesses set the agenda. It will provide major investment in key industrial technologies, maximise the growth potential of European companies by providing them with adequate levels of finance and help innovative SMEs to grow into world-leading companies. A key prerequisite for Europe’s attractiveness to business investment is that Horizon 2020 succeeds in its goal to make Europe a leader in industrial technologies. Major research efforts focusing on key enabling technologies will provide a strong basis for this. Responding to increasingly complex societal challenges requires that all actors in the society participate in innovation. This includes the public sector. Public-private partnerships and public procurement of innovative solutions to public sector challenges will provide useful tools for encouraging businesses to help the public sector fulfill its tasks more efficiently in new innovative ways. All in all, we cannot afford leaving the power of the business sector to innovate untapped, when striving to meet our goals for 2020. The European Files 13
  14. 14. Horizon 2020: research and innovation for europe Optimising the Benefits of Research Investment for European Jobs, Growth and Society Seán Sherlock T.D.1 Minister of Research and Innovation, Ireland I t is my strong belief that the political agreement that the Irish Presidency helped to secure between the Council, the Commission and the European Parliament on the EU’s €70bn research and innovation programme, Horizon 2020, will boost jobs and growth across the European Union. The Irish Government’s priorities for the Presidency of the Council of the EU were Stability, Jobs and Growth. We are convinced of the massive role that Horizon 2020 has to play in helping the EU achieve these objectives. That’s why we worked hard since January, through lengthy intensive negotiations, to secure political agreement on the new research and innovation programme for the period 2014-2020. Research and innovation are key drivers of growth and job creation. The strategic approach to research and innovation contained in Horizon 2020 will develop, diffuse and drive research across the European Union. I know from our experience in Ireland that research and development drives exports and profitability and helps to secure and grow jobs. The increased support for SMEs within Horizon 2020 will help to increase the economic benefits and job creation flowing from the research conducted. I would like to pay tribute to Commissioner Geoghegan-Quinn and her team in DG Research for their huge personal commitment and creativity in championing within the Commission, a framework programme for research that will be the engine of the Union’s recovery. Great credit is also due to the rapporteurs 14 The European Files and negotiating team of the European Parliament who showed great integrity and commitment in their approach to this challenging dossier. It was a very complex process to reconcile the various interests of all the parties involved. However, I welcomed the shared commitment among all the parties concerned in advancing these negotiations. The programme will use a simplified funding model which means that a greater number of businesses and research providers – small medium and large – can access the programme with less bureaucracy. This in turn means greater diversity in research, greater opportunities for business and greater benefits for the economy at large. The inclusion of specific measures for widening of participation will also further enhance a diverse range of research and research bodies. Importantly, funding, via the European Institute of Innovation and Technology, for projects in the areas of healthy living and active ageing, raw materials, food and added value manufacturing was also included. The Irish Presidency has also focused hard on measures to progress the European Research Area (ERA). Europe needs a unified research area to attract talent and investment. Remaining gaps must therefore be addressed rapidly to create a genuine single market for knowledge, research and innovation. Our aim was to focus attention on and secure substantial progress towards meeting the target set by the European Council in February 2011 to complete the European Research area by 2014. As Presidency, we tabled a policy debate at the Competitiveness Council in February on the issue of better access to scientific information. We also focused on how best to ensure coordinated public investment in research and innovation across Europe through Joint Programming. To this end, we hosted a major conference on the lessons from the experience to date of Joint Programming and the way forward. Following on from this, I chaired a policy debate on joint programming at the May Competitiveness Council, which was informed by the report of the Presidency conference. Enhancing and focusing international cooperation in research and innovation is an essential, cross-cutting and integral part of the European Research Area. It plays a vital role in contributing to the quality of European research and the strengthening of the economic, industrial and technological competitiveness of Europe. At the May Competitiveness Council, we discussed Council conclusions to endorse the new strategy for developing international cooperation in research and innovation, as proposed in the Commission’s ERA Communication, and in the Communication from the Commission on “Enhancing and
  15. 15. focusing international cooperation in research and innovation.” We also hosted a key conference on how best to promote an open labour market for researchers. One of the core objectives of the European Research Area is to make Europe a more attractive location for researchers through better career opportunities. The Researchers and Career Mobility conference provided the opportunity to gauge progress in achieving these objectives and how to make further advances through the interaction of researchers and policy makers. Through interactive workshops and discussion fora, delegates developed practical initiatives to help Europe overcome the well-known barriers to mobility (between countries and/ or employment sectors) and to improve the career prospects for researchers. The conclusions of the conference will target measures that will help achieve the ERA objectives of better career opportunities for researchers. During June, the Irish Presidency hosted three major research conferences. The Week of Innovative Regions in Europe (WIRE) Conference 2013 was held in Cork from 5-7 June. The WIRE Conference series is now recognised as a key element in facilitation of the European regional agenda. EuroSME 2013 brought together hundreds of entrepreneurs, policymakers, SME support organisations from the private and the public sector, and other intermediary bodies providing their energy and ideas on how to improve the EU eco-system for innovative enterprises. Furthermore, it introduced SME-specific measures in Horizon 2020 to this community. The EuroNanoForum 2013 Nanotechnology Innovation: From research to commercialisation – the bridge to Horizon2020 conference was held in Dublin from 18-20 June. The main focus of the conference was the commercialisation of nanotechnology, exploiting its potential for new applications, pushing it from an enabling technology through to development and on to use in end products. With Horizon2020 beginning in 2014, the conference looked at how nanotechnologies will fit into the new structure within the key priority areas of Excellent Science, Industrial Leadership and Societal Challenges. 1. During the Irish Presidency of the Council of the EU, Minister Sherlock chaired the meetings of the Research Council as part of the Competitiveness Council and led efforts to secure agreement on Horizon 2020. The European Files 15
  16. 16. Horizon 2020: research and innovation for europe Horizon 2020 Carmen Vela Olmo State Secretary for Research, Development and Innovation, Spain H orizon 2020 is an ambitious program, not only in terms of its budget, but also for incorporating Research and Innovation for the first time in the same initiative. A change that targets providing coherent and unwavering funding from knowledge’s creation to its transfer to the market. A change that is inspiring to make Research, Technological Development and Innovation the true driving forces for European growth. Horizon 2020 holds its resources along three axes that reinforce one another: Excellent Science’s impulse to consolidate global first level investigation in Europe. Industrial Leadership’s promotion to make the EU a more attractive place for investing in RTD and innovation, allowing firms to determine the agenda, and with support for helpful technologies like biotechnology or ITC (Information and Communications Technologies). And finally, a program focused on searching for solutions to the great, which will face the citizen’s major concerns, like health and ageing, food safety, clean energy, integrated transportation, action over climate and resource efficiency, by setting to work in a joint way resources and knowledge from different disciplines and technologies I have been involved in the consecutive Framework Programmes since the year 1987, when the European Union launched its 2nd Framework Programme. Since then, I took part in all the Programmes in one way or another. When I say that they offer a real chance to make big Science, stir up competitiveness and excellence on research activity, I know what I am saying. For that reason, European Programmes 16 The European Files have been a priority since the State Secretariat for Research, Development and Innovation was established. Just some days after taking up the post we met with a delegation from Denmark’s Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation – when they held the Presidency of the Council of the European Union – to talk about the situation and perspective of the new program Horizon 2020; our situation and our future in it. Since then, we have been working on it, taking part intensively in the different Competitiveness Councils. And we were able to get involved in Horizon 2020’s with no “red lines” to restrict Spanish researchers, firms or institutions’ aims. Spain stands up for, among other matters, a bigger coherency of the great initiatives funded in Horizon 2020 and recognising the efforts of the Commission to simplify the administrative processes; efforts that should be extended to facilitate new research groups and firms’ participation, thus easing the European research and innovation prospect. Our commitment with Horizon 2020 is steady, so much that the Spanish Strategy for Science, Technology and Innovation, and the State Plan that implements it, have its spirit, and match, with a few national adaptations, its priorities and targets of excellence and business leadership. Both Strategy and Plan are considered – in the same way as Horizon 2020 – an unwavering road from the idea to the market; a road pivoting around solving the great global challenges of the society. Our intention is increase in value science, technology and innovation’s ability to contribute and stimulate knowledge, employment, growth and Spanish competitiveness. Spain increased its participation in the Seventh Framework Programme in relation to the previous. Spanish researchers, teams and firms took part actively and, at the moment, they represent more than 8% of European Framework Programme’s participants. That put us already in the group of countries with bigger participations, like Germany, United Kingdom, France and Italy. About the priorities of Spain for the new program H2020, they are focused especially on the social challenges, although we are not forgetting the science excellence, a fundamental aspect of research, and business leadership, also a key part to impulse innovation. We consider as one of our obligations giving back to society the effort made for contribution and development of science and want to do it by giving answers to the day to day problems. Therefore we focus our efforts on issues such as energy, with particular emphasis on renewable energy, where we are industrial leaders, on solar and wind, and water, where we have been participating actively in European initiatives that are currently underway. We lead the water JPI and I myself am a member of the High Level Group EIP on Water as well as the EIP on Raw Materials, with great potential to develop this field and specialized companies. In a country like Spain, where more than three quarters of its territory is bordered by sea, everything related to marine and maritime resources, coastal management, environmental sustainability and transportation, are a priority for us in such that as a peripheral country this forces us to develop an efficient and non-polluting transportation. Health and healthy aging is another of our priorities. It is well known that Spain is a retreat country for many Europeans, so we have to work to improve the quality of life in all stages of life which is a challenge for innovation activities. I am trying not to be exhaustive, as all the challenges are close to us and we will try to respond to all, although the potentiality of the country requires us to prioritize over others, to optimize yields. The goal is not other but taking part in the most active possible way in Horizon 2020; this is, definitively, the program which Europe – and Spain alongside – should stand out with and gain in competitiveness.
  17. 17.           The budget distribution (in percentage) for Horizon 2020 is foreseen  as follows:  I. Excellent Science:         II. Industrial Leadership:       III. Societal Challenges:               Spreading excellence and widening participation Science with and for society European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) Joint Research Centre: non-nuclear direct actions Total 31.73 %     22.09 %    38.53 %        1.06 % 0.60 % 3.52 % 2.47 % 100% Source: Council of the European Union The European Files     17 
  18. 18. Scientific and industrial innovation Horizon 2020 – Making it Better and Easier! Robert-Jan SMITS Director General, DG Research and Innovation, European Commission H orizon 2020, with a budget of around €70 billion, will be roughly 25 percent bigger than the previous framework programme and we are determined to make every euro count. In our legislative preparations, we listened carefully to those who criticised EU research funding as being too bureaucratic. The result is a programme that will be simpler for all, with the clear aim of freeing up participants’ time and resources so they can focus their effort in laboratories and not on filling out forms. Simplification is not an aim in itself; behind it lies the clear policy objective of «widening» participation in EU research. Through the various initiatives we are taking within the context of Horizon 2020, we want to encourage new players (i.e. end users) and research institutes in regions less accustomed to tapping EU funding to take part; lever-in private sector investment; and increase international cooperation in areas that are strategic to us. The recalibration of the balance between trust and control, between risk-taking and riskavoidance, has not been undertaken lightly and there will be no relaxation in our fight against fraud. It was recommended by all the experts we consulted, supported by the Court of Auditors and endorsed by European Union leaders in February 2011. What does it mean in practice? Above all, simpler funding rules, with greater use of lump sums and flat rates to cover participants’ costs. Experience has taught us that the calculation and justification of eligible costs was one of the greatest sources of error in previous framework programmes. Therefore, Horizon 2020 will cover up to 18 The European Files 100 percent of actual costs linked directly to participation in a project, or up to 70 percent in the case of profit-making companies and costs linked to innovation actions. But for other costs, participants will get a 25 percent flat rate sum. In addition, we will strive for shorter administrative procedures. Lengthy times to grant – which businesses have told us is one of the biggest barriers to their participation – have steadily been reduced during the current framework programme. Now we will go further. Our goal is a maximum eight months from start to finish, except in the case of complex projects. In parallel, we are doing away with some burdensome requirements, such as the need to file paper copies of every supporting document with us. Greater use of electronic means of communication and a redesigned Participants Portal will take us towards paperless grant management. Alone these are small steps; but they all add up: the savings in postage alone in communicating with outside experts and evaluators will be around €4 million a year. As stated, our goal is greater participation, notably from the side of industry and SMEs. Already there has been a positive response from industry, which has indicated its clear desire to continue the public private partnerships launched after 2007. The five Joint Technology Initiatives that have been proposed are expected to mobilise total investment of over €17 billion, of which the EU budget contribution will be up to €6.4 billion. This will provide vital funding for large-scale, longer-term, risky research and innovation initiatives. We plan to build on our successful risksharing partnership with the European Investment Bank which, since 2007, has helped mobilise some €9 billion in EIB loans to over 90 beneficiaries, supporting a total investment in research and innovation of some €30 billion. We will also build on our relationship with the European Investment Fund to provide venture capital to innovative firms via specialist intermediary funds or funds-of-funds and will explore new ways to foster start-ups, for example through a technology transfer financial facility that would provide financing of both proof of concept projects and the subsequent launch of companies to exploit these technologies. When we launched our seventh framework programme in 2007 we said we wanted small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to eventually capture 15 percent of grant finance available through our collaborative projects. We are now at 17 percent and under Horizon 2020 aim to lift that to at least 20 percent – or nearly €8 billion over the life time of the programme. Some €2.5 billion will be distributed through a dedicated SME Instrument, providing grants for proof of concept studies and other close to market activities. Of course, the proof of all this pudding will be in the eating. Only after the first calls for funding are published this December will we know exactly whether what we now have on offer is what the market wants. That is why we have committed to review all the main novelties of Horizon 2020 by the end of 2017, and make adjustments if necessary. Nonetheless, I am confident that the changes being introduced will make a real difference to our shared goal of driving Europe down a more innovative path and produce results that will bring real solutions to some of society’s biggest challenges.
  19. 19. Encouraging Innovation Through “Horizon 2020” Teresa RIERA MADURELL MEP, Group of the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats, European Parliament SD ITRE Coordinator A fter lengthy and intense negotiations over the last months, a political agreement has been reached between the Parliament and the Council on Horizon 2020, the new EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation. Therefore, the new Programme is set to start on time, in January 2014, once the agreement is definitively approved by both legislative institutions. Horizon 2020 comes at the right moment, with the European economy in turmoil and when Europe needs more than ever to take the necessary measures to create the economic opportunities for the future. Certainly, much of the thinking so-far has been short-term, reacting to the immediate financial and economic crisis through fiscal consolidation and structural reform. Now this thinking proved to be insufficient to ensure Europe’s growth and global competitiveness, smart investment aiming at advancing towards a knowledgebased economy arises as the only feasible way out for Europe. This is precisely what Horizon 2020 is meant to do during the coming period 2014-2020. By generating knowledge and pushing forward its frontiers, and also by transferring this knowledge into the productive system, investment in Research and Innovation through the new Horizon 2020 is an essential mean for boosting Europe’s prosperity while reshaping its future. This goes completely along with the Europe 2020 Strategy, which has set the objectives of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth for Europe. The Strategy accurately highlights the role of Research and Innovation as key drivers of social and economic prosperity and environmental sustainability. Furthermore, for years now, scholars have demonstrated the strong link between research, innovation and economic development and have consequently attached the explanation for the present underperformance of the EU to the weakness of this link. Horizon 2020 is specifically aimed at remedying this inadequate European link. To do so, the new programme will gather under a single Common Strategic Framework for Research and Innovation (i) the successor of the 7th Framework programme, (ii) the current Competitiveness and Innovation Programme and (iii) the European Institute of innovation. Therefore, Horizon 2020 will support the whole innovation chain, from basic research to market uptake. This joint research and innovation support will be structured in three distinct but mutually reinforced priorities: Excellent Science, Industrial Leadership and Societal Challenges. First, Excellent Science will raise the level of excellence in Europe’s science base and ensure top research to secure Europe’s long-term competitiveness. It will support the best ideas, develop talent within Europe, provide researchers with access to infrastructure, and make Europe attractive for the best researchers. Second, the Industrial Leadership priority aims at making Europe a more attractive location to invest in research and innovation, by promoting activities where businesses set the agenda. It will provide major investment in key industrial technologies, maximise the growth potential of European companies by providing them with adequate levels of finance and help innovative SMEs. Third, the Societal Challenges priority is meant to address major concerns shared by European citizens. A challenge based approach will cover activities from research to innovation in areas of social concern such as health, climate, food, security, transport and energy. The final agreement includes also two new priorities that have been defended by the Parliament since the beginning of the negotiations. Both of the new priorities are aimed at reinforcing the research and innovation system in Europe. First, Horizon 2020 will support the spreading of excellence and the widening of participation in order to amplify the range of participants in the programme. The main idea is to support excellence wherever it exists. Widening this excellence is a way to maintain and attract the best researchers to Europe, avoiding a brain drain that Europe is suffering in favour of some of their most direct competitors in the global economy. Second, the new priority Science with and for Society will gather different measures to foster a genuine dialogue between science and society in order to advance towards a more responsible European research and innovation. Attracting women and young people to scientific and technological careers will be also among the objectives of this new priority. We cannot forget that Europe will need at least 1 million new research jobs in the near future to meet its ambitions of being one of the most innovative regions of the planet. With all these features the new Horizon 2020 presents itself as a key instrument that can return Europe to the path of economic and social progress. However, returning to this path requires an ambitious and shared investment in research and innovation that cannot be anymore dependent on the political and economic cycles. With a budget of around 70bn budget – the ITRE Committee in the Parliament had asked for 100bn – Horizon 2020 is ready to do an essential part of the job. However, if at least 3% of the EU’s GDP is to be invested in research and innovation by 2020, national governments will have to subscribe, from now on, a commitment that was lacking in their proposal for the new EU’s Multiannual Financial Framework 2014-2020. If we want to really boost innovation in Europe, it is time to replenish the rhetorical European commitment to innovation with tangible political and economic support. The European Files 19
  20. 20. Scientific and industrial innovation The Role of Science and Innovation for Growth and Employment Dominique RISTORI Director-General Joint Research Centre (JRC), European Commission A s Europe seeks to shift to a more sustainable economy and to drive forward competitiveness, it is time for science and innovation to play a bigger part in restoring growth and creating skilled jobs. This can be achieved first of all by getting good ideas – scientific advances and innovations – to the market. Equally, we need responsive policy-making, informed by good science. These two elements are at the core mission of the Joint Research Centre’s (JRC), the European Commission’s in house science service. Europe remains one of the strongest global science and innovation players. Much of our basic research is excellent, and we are doing well at the kinds of multidisciplinary research that defines today’s innovations. Moreover, we are among the global leaders in renewable energies, green technologies, information technology, pharmaceuticals and biotechnology. But despite these successes, the rest of the world is investing heavily, catching up quickly, and they are creating the right conditions to turn scientific discoveries into innovations. To keep up with competition from the US, as well as increasingly from China, and other emerging economies, Europe must make good investments in science, research and innovation in order to reap future economic returns. This is also an investment in our quality of life and long-term sustainability. The big challenge is to achieve these objectives despite the economic crisis still affecting Europe, and especially the Euro area. This is currently felt in the record high unemployment levels, low GDP growth rates and tough constraints on most EU countries’ public finances. However, we must also recognise that Europe can benefit enormously from stimulating a real single market for science and innovation, by reducing the duplication of effort and creating better synergies between policies and initiatives. Our combined 20 The European Files efforts should go into targeting innovations in key sectors focusing on specific market needs, which can result in concrete solutions and new jobs. In doing so, Europe will make more effective use of its resources and act with greater coherence and influence on the rapidly changing world stage. To be successful, Europe also needs to develop and better exploit all its interconnections, by bridging the spheres of science and research, industry, policy-makers, and citizens. There should be structured co-operation among the main actors. And better synergies and interconnections should encompass not only European and national levels, but also regional and local levels. The JRC is already active in this endeavour in two ways in particular. First of all, by directly operating the Smart Specialisation Platform, we can assist European Member States and regions in the development, implementation and review of their ‘Research and Innovation Strategies for Smart Specialisation’. Indeed, this will be the basis for European Structural Funds investments in the field of research and innovation from 2014 until 2020. It should serve to concentrate resources on key priorities in the regions based on their specific economic potential. Secondly, through the new Science Parks Initiative, the JRC in collaboration with the International Association of Science Parks and Areas of Innovation (IASP) aims to foster links between science, academia, business and industry recognising that science parks are essential intermediaries in the innovation chain. By bringing scientific research organisations and the business community, as well as universities and local administrations together in one location, science parks ultimately support the take-up and diffusion of science-driven innovation into the economy. Political support, backed by financial commitments will help to make the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth a reality. But we must all work more closely together in fulfilling its goals. The EU’s investment in research and innovation through the new Horizon 2020 programme (2014-2020) remains high, and strategically focused on tackling today’s major societal challenges such as climate change, cleaner energy and healthy ageing. As part of this programme, Commissioner Máire Geoghegan-Quinn just recently unveiled the Innovation Investment package, worth over 22 billion euro for the next seven years in medicines, cleaner skies, bio-based industries, transport and energy and electronics manufacturing. Most importantly, the initiatives combine financial resources from industry and public funds to tackle complex issues at European level. These new public-private partnerships should give us results in terms of growth, and also provide skilled jobs and better living standards for European society as a whole. Another ambitious target set by the European Union aims to increase the share of EU GDP coming from industry from the present 15%, up to 20% by 2020. Here, European industry should not only look at the quantitative side, but also for high-quality achievements, through a long-term competitive and sustainable industry. Two approaches should be followed at the same time. Europe should first keep on investing
  21. 21. and strengthening its high-growth and hightechnology manufacturing industries. One of the reasons is that here, performance during the financial and economic crisis continues to be the best, with a production increase of 26% between 2005 and 2012, while for industry as a whole the level of production in 2012 was almost the same as in 20051. On the other hand, the more mature industries must innovate so as to increase their competitiveness in the worldwide arena. Let us take the building sector as a good example: investments to improve the energy efficiency of the older stock of dwellings could leverage a series of important cross-sectorial benefits and spill-over effects. These include re-vitalising the sector, going a step further in meeting the EU2020 environmental targets, not to mention lowering energy costs for private households, which would have a positive impact on the economy. Furthermore, these investments in science, research and innovation and the improved interconnections will benefit small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), which still account for 99% of EU companies and employ 67% of the private sector’s workforce. For instance, the market for the so-called ‘Key Enabling Technologies’ (KETs) – micro and nano-electronics, nanotechnology, photonics, advanced materials, industrial biotechnology, and advanced manufacturing technologies – is forecasted to go up from € 646 Billion (2008) to over € 1 Trillion in 2015. This expanding market could offer an extremely rich and varied platform of innovative solutions to help our SMEs, and Europe should be ready to reap the rewards. Our involvement in standardisation activities at European level is vital too. Making sure that standards take into account economic productivity, social needs and environmental sustainability, the JRC plays a key role in increasing the worldwide competitiveness of EU businesses and SMEs in particular. The JRC, as the in-house scientific service, is well placed to continuously inform EU policies so that the right policy solutions are provided at the right moment. More than ever before, the science-policy nexus plays an important role in tackling, for example, the major climate change challenges now and in the future. I would especially like to underline JRC scientific work that takes place on a global scale to monitor extreme weather events and floods and assess their economic and societal impacts. We live in a time when information is key and the JRC will therefore continue to play its part by providing evidence-based support to EU policies, as well as to science and industry stakeholders. Along with the much needed investment in topquality science and work to foster the connections that enhance innovation, we can remain on track to kick-start sustainable growth and revitalise employment in Europe. 1. Eurostat – Statistics in Focus: High-technology versus low-technology manufacturing, January 2013: http://epp. eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/ High-technology_versus_low-technology_manufacturing The European Files 21
  22. 22. Scientific and industrial innovation Stairway to Excellence Maria Da Graça Carvalho MEP, Group of the European People’s Party (Christian Democrats), European Parliament E uropean research and innovation policy aims to promote European excellence in science whilst stimulating industrial performance. These goals simply cannot be achieved without scaling up the environment in which research is conducted to at least a European level. Consolidating a common research area involves enabling as much cooperation as possible – at a European, national and regional level – so that structural capacities are enhanced, research networks are extended and individuals and ideas are able to circulate more freely. Horizon 2020 – the new, European framework programme for the period from 2014 to 2020 – is the single largest funding instrument of its type in the world. In general terms, the programme aims to meet the goals defined above as this involves building a sustainable economy based on knowledge and innovation across the whole Union. 22 The European Files If the programme will equip Europe to deal with a number of major challenges – such as the ageing of the population, the fight against climate change or the security of energy supply – an adequately funded research programme is also essential to ensuring future prosperity. A central goal, in this respect, is that of improving Europe’s research and innovation performance. Excellence – without geographical constraints – is the primary criterion for participation in Horizon 2020. Against this background, a significant innovation is the creation of “stairways to excellence” concept. This involves teaming initiatives whose objective is to establish and reinforce partnerships between regional research units, countries and leading international counterparts. This will enable Europe to foster units of embryonic excellence, such as small research groups and highly innovative start-ups. Such stairways to excellence will be able to lever support from the Cohesion Funds and this will contribute significantly to the creation of critical mass from existing seeding grounds. More generally, with regard to how widening excellence will be fostered, six initiatives stand out. These are: - the teaming of excellent research institutions and low performing RDI regions with the aim of creating new (or of significantly upgrading existing) centres of excellence in low performing RDI Member States and regions; - the twinning of research institutions in order to significantly strengthen a given field of research in an emerging institution through links with at least two other leading institutions at an international level; - establishing ‘ERA Chairs’ to attract outstanding academics to institutions with a clear potential for research excellence, in order to help these institutions fully unlock this potential and, hence, create a level playing field for research and innovation in the European Research Area. In this respect, a number of possible synergies with ERC activities should be explored; - a Policy Support Facility (PSF) to improve the design, implementation and evaluation of national or regional research and innovation policies; - supporting access to international networks for excellent researchers and innovators who, at the moment, lack sufficient involvement in European and international networks; - strengthening the administrative and operational capacity of transnational networks of National Contact Points, including through training, so that they are able to better provide support to potential participants. In parallel with these measures, it is also necessary to ensure greater complementarity between Horizon 2020 and various European, national and regional financial instruments. In particular, we require a multi-fund approach and a strengthening of the bridges that link Horizon 2020 and other, available funds and most particularly the structural funds. In this respect, the structural funds have a complementary role to play with regard to what Horizon 2020 seeks to achieve. Upstream from Horizon 2020, the structural funds can be used for capacity building. Downstream from Horizon 2020, the structural funds will help smooth the passage from conception to market. These measures, designed to widen participation, and the successful implementation of a multi-fund approach will certainly contribute to maximize European potential to produce science and technology of excellent standards.
  23. 23. Innovation at the Centre of Economic Activity for Entreprises Daniel Calleja Director General of the DG Enterprise and Industry, European Commission I f enterprises are the driving engine of European economy, then innovation is their fuel, the key ingredient that propels them forward. Those who do not innovate and do not keep up with technological developments will gradually lose market share and eventually risk going out of business. The European Union possesses extraordinary potential for innovation. European researchers are world leaders in many sectors and file many cutting edge patents, but our record in translating scientific leadership into industrial advantage has not always been so good. Lithium batteries provide a clear example: European firms hold more than 30 per cent of the relevant patents, but no Lithium batteries are produced in the EU. Innovation efforts remain patchy and unevenly spread across the EU. The latest European Commission’s annual innovation scoreboard reveals a widening gap between the most innovative countries (such as Sweden, Germany and Denmark) and those lagging behind. This clearly illustrates how the economic crisis has negatively impacted innovation activity in some parts of Europe. As Europeans, we can do more and we can do better. Investment in innovation is more crucial than ever if we want to maintain our global competitiveness and restore growth in Europe. Without innovation we will not achieve our goal of raising industry’s contribution to GDP to 20 % in 2020, a target we have set in our new strategy on industrial policy. This makes it increasingly urgent to coordinate innovation policies at the European level. Innovation should become a common goal for all EU Member States, through coordinated national efforts. To make this happen, the Commission has launched plans for a genuine Innovation Union and proposed a common strategy to promote investment in specific innovative sectors, the ones that drive innovation in the wider EU economy. The Horizon 2020 programme will give SMEs new opportunities to innovate. They will be able to take part in research actions and there will be dedicated support for SME innovation. Compared to previous framework programmes for research and development, Horizon 2020 will be much more accessible for SMEs – we have taken on board the experience of more than thirty years of these programmes in order to lighten the administrative burden for SME participation. If we want to continue being globally competitive – and it is important to emphasise this – we have to focus above all on quality and not just the quantity. This is why we emphasise providing support to European low- and drivers of innovation and the green economy. The global market for KETs is forecast to increase by over 50 per cent by 2015 (from € 646 billion to over € 1 trillion), equivalent to around 8 per cent of the EU’s GDP. Yet manufacturing linked to KETs is continuing to fall in Europe. We must reverse this trend and in doing so we can no longer think along national lines – our response must be European. So we have been working on concentrating our efforts and coordinating our policies and measures to produce a European response. Finally, we must make sure we produce a climate that encourages innovation. As regulators we can set policy goals which provide opportunities for enterprises to bring innovative products to the market, as we have for example in the field of energy efficiency. This is also a medium-tech SMEs, who develop innovative products that are usually the results of decades of small improvements on existing technologies. Europe sits on a technological goldmine, being one of the most technology-advanced and technology-dominated regions of the world. Little additional efforts can yield enormous results, building on our huge technological capital. One area we are focusing on in our efforts is Key Enabling Technologies (KETs). They are the technological building blocks that will be used to construct any new technology or innovative high-tech product in the next few years – the true part of our 2020 Entrepreneurship Action Plan, developing new channels to encourage more Europeans to become entrepreneurs. In addition, we must help open the doors to new markets for entrepreneurs with world class products. We have been doing this through Missions for Growth which have already seen European businesses promoted in China, Brazil, the United States and several other countries. Furthermore, we must ensure that innovative SMEs can access the finance needed to develop products and bring them to the market. From 2014, the new COSME programme will be doing just that. The European Files 23

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