Secondary 2 Geography-Increase in Fresh Water Supply
Increase inFresh WaterSupply
3 ways to increase fresh watersupply1. Increase the number of watercatchment area2. International Agreement3. Using Technology
Increase the number of watercatchment areas• Water catchment areas are placeswhere water are collected when it rains.• Natural water catchment areas are thedrainage basins. Man-made drainagebasins• This methods works when it rains.More water would be collected and thisincreases the supply of fresh water.
• The reservoirs must be built in theforest because if it was built in theurban city, it could get polluted• The trees in the forest retain water byslowing down rainwater runoff. Thisgives some time for the water to seepinto the ground then to the reservoirs
International Agreements• An international agreement works bysigning a treaty between somecountries to trade fresh water.• This method is not a good solutionbecause the treaty will expire one day.If that country also face waterconstraint, they wouldn’t be able totrade fresh water anymore.
Using Technology• Using technology, we can clean upwater easily.• The 2 methods of cleaning up water isto recycle water and to desalinate water
Recycle Water• Recycling water is also known as waterreclamation.
Used water would becollected from thehousehold, industry,business and commercialbuildingThe used water will go tothe water reclamationplants by pipes and wouldbe treatedThe water would be treatedand will improve it’squality and can be usedfor other purposes. IT wasalso known as reclaimedwaterThe water would be furthertreated biologically andchemically to reuse it. Thiswater is known as non-potable water.
Desalination• Desalination is the process of obtainingfresh water from salt water. It can alsoproduce fresh water from groundwaterwhich is not clean.• The largest desalination plant in theworld is El Paso-Fort Bliss desalinationplant in the Texas of USA whichdesalinate 27.5 million gallon of waterdaily
2 ways to desalinate• The 2 ways to desalinate water is bydistillation and reverse osmosis
Sea water wouldbe heated up untilit becomes watervaporThe water vaporwould rise up andwill condense towater.The water is thencollected aspotable waterDistillation
• Distillation is an expensive methodbecause there must be high technologywhich can boil the water and thencondense it back to water. Newtechnology can help reduce the cost ofdistillation
A partially permeablemembrane would beplacedPressure is used toforce the water throughthe partially permeablemembraneThe fresh water wouldbe produced and theresidue will leavebehind the partiallypermeable membraneReverse Osmosis
• There is lesser energy consumptionusing reverse osmosis. This make itmore popular. This also make itcheaper to produce fresh water