Greener Energy & Greenwash
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Greener Energy & Greenwash

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Presentation covering:
# Greenwash theory and examples
# Main types of greener energy
# Six main energy providers in the UK and their fuel mix
# Criticism to the main six energy providers
# Government policies
# Meeting green expectations
# Consumer perspective
# Conclusion
# Some references

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  • http://greenenergyformyhome.blogspot.co.uk/
  • We looked at the definition stated in Futera’sgreenwash guide. Greenwash is an environmental claim which is unsubstantiated or irrelevant. And as we all know it is found in the marketing, advertising and PR industry with claims made about people, organisations and products. And according to Futera Greenwashing is growing. Others have defined greenwashing as organisations hiding unpleasant facts, spending more time and money on unreal claims rather than participating in activities to reduce environmental impact. The information that companies communicate to consumers may present a false environmentally responsible image which therefore shows them in a more attractive light. As Rowell stated the list of tactics and villains is practically endless, but oil companies and car companies are some of the worst offenders. Greenwashing can have negative effects on consumers confidence. An article in the guardian has stated that 2008 was one of the worst years for greenwash adverts, with the Advertising Standards Authority receiving a record number of complaints for companies mis-selling their environmental credentials. (http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/ethicallivingblog/2009/apr/08/best-greenwash-adverts) Due to the rise in greenwash adverts there was even a number of parody adverts imitating this, as this clip shows. (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W-_U1Z0vezw) As you can see the video gets across the message of false claims. And today we are going to look into greenwashing that has occurred in the energy industry.
  • There are various attempts and bodies in place to restrict the amount of greenwash in adverts that occur. Greenpeace are a major factor in finding greenwashing and in 1992 they even published a book with examples of corporate greenwash. The advertising standards authority has helped to control the number of false environmental claims that businesses are making, there are a set of codes organisations must follow that are specific to the environment dedicated to both broadcasting and non-broadcasting. Defra, the department for environment, food and rural affairs also released key principles that companies should follow when wanting to make an environmental claim. This is another way that companies can become clear on what they should and shouldn’t say or promote to consumers. Companies need to provide information that is not mis-leading or unfair. The more guidance and instructions that are put in place for organisations to adhere to the more unlikely that instances of greenwashing will occur, however this contradicts Futera’s claim that greenwashing is growing.
  • Luke
  • http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/apr/08/chevron-solar-panels-oilfieldChevron case study: Chevron plans to use solar energy to power pumps at one of the oldest and dirtiest oilfields on the planet"Finding newer, cleaner ways to power the world“ - interesting mottoRAN says last year Chevron hit a "new all-time low in renewable energy investments", with just 1.96 per cent of its capital and exploratory budget going green.
  • Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using: wind turbines to make electricity, windmills for mechanical power, windpumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships.Undercover footage shows Chris Heaton-Harris admitting to having seen no research to support his anti-wind criticismshttp://www.energydigital.com/renewable_energy/mango-energy-greenwashing-desktop-wind-turbinesOne good example of this is Mango Energy’s desktop wind turbines. These mini desktop toys serve no actual purpose, and are being hailed by the company as a tribute to alternative energy. They feature small solar panels that turn the desktop wind turbine’s blades.Gipe, Paul. "The Wind Industry's Experience with Aesthetic Criticism". Leonardo. Retrieved 6 May 2012.Criticism:http://www.businessgreen.com/bg/analysis/2201767/debunking-wind-energy-myths-at-a-glanceWind energy subsidies are pushing up energy billsBack-up power plants mean wind energy does not deliver net reductions in carbon emissionsThe powering up and down of fossil fuel plants to cope with wind energy intermittency undermines their efficiency and leads to a net increase in emissionsThe "intermittent" nature of wind power makes it impossible to manageVariable wind energy outputs will disrupt the grid and lead to blackoutsIf we increase our reliance on wind energy a still day will lead to power shortagesWindfarms cause long term damage to birds populationhttp://www.businessgreen.com/bg/analysis/2201767/debunking-wind-energy-myths-at-a-glance
  • Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is a highly efficient process that captures and utilises the heat that is a by-product of theelectricity generation process.By generating heat and power simultaneously, CHP can reduce carbon emissions by up to 30% compared to the separate means of conventional generation i.e. via a boiler and power station.Clean Coal Technology is not a Green Solution to the Disadvantages of Coal.Saying that implementing Clean Coal Technology will result in Climate Change Mitigation is Greenwashinghttp://www.greenworldinvestor.com/2011/04/12/clean-coal-technologies-greenwashing-or-reality-list-of-coal-technologies-igccchpfbcuccccs/http://etd.ohiolink.edu/view.cgi?acc_num=ohiou1251224628http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf83.htmlhttp://stopgreenwash.org/adsDespite a number of Clean Coal Technologies being developed and employed, carbon emissions from Coal Ming and Use can only be partly reduced and will not make a major impact on the problem of Climate Change. Clean Coal Technology is not a Green Solution to the Disavantages of Coal. Saying that implementing Clean Coal Technology will result in Climate Change Mitigation is Greenwashing. That said these technologies need to be implemented till the world is ready to move away from its addiction to cheap energy provided by Coal even though it has a deleterious long term affect (World Nuclear, 2012). The America's Power campaign, funded by the coal and electricity industry, promotes coal as our country's solution to energy independence. To do this, ACCCE spent at least $35 million in 2008 to mount a major public relations campaign designed to promote public awareness of clean coal in the context of the Presidential race. ACCCE is a wholly owned (albeit non-profit) subsidiary of the U.S. coal industry“I believe” http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=X_5OrJVR_Vc
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cEL7yc8R42k
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ase7-ws6VH4&list=LL4diIaZo6ecOE-_Wlu8Zo3Q&feature=mh_lolz
  • Biomass is sourced from organic materials such as wood, plants and animal waste. These waste products are also found to be produced from industry, agriculture and our own homes. There are two categories for biomass energy, there is wood biomass from forests etc. Energy produced from burning the waste wood is then bought by energy companies. Then there is also non-wood biomass from animal and biodegradable food an example of this is vegetable oil. http://www.greenenergy.uk.com/TypesOfGreenEnergy.aspxBiomass is commonly converted to produce biofuels which are then used for transport purposes such as airplane fuel and road fuel. In 2010 3.33% of road fuel that was supplied to the UK was biofuel. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20120819131300/http://www.dft.gov.uk/topics/sustainable/biofuels/use-supply As there are a wide variety of biomass types and sources conversion technologies are used depending on the type. Conversion technologies may release the energy direct in the form of heat or electricity or convert it into liquid biofuel or combustible biogas. http://www.biomassenergycentre.org.uk/portal/page?_pageid=76,15049&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL As with the other renewable energy sources we are going to talk about biomass produces less carbon emissions compared to fossil fuels.
  • In 2011 Thomson Airways was planning on running flights based on using used cooking oil. However Thomson could not source enough in time to enable the flights to go ahead. Due to this biofuels that Thomson now considered using included virgin plant oil from the US and babassu nuts from Brazil. Friends of the Earth criticised Thomson’s use of these materials as both types are in very short supply and the charity are worried that Thomson may source unsustainable alternatives when launching their daily biofuel flights. The company are looking to use soya and palma oil which are known drivers of rainforest deforestation. It has been stated that Thomson used false claims about biofuels in order to gain financial support from the Government. Thomson completed a flight to Lanzarote with one of the plane’s engines powered by a mix of standard fuel and biofuel from cooking oil. However criticisms included this being a stunt as the biofuel could only be used to power a tiny fraction of the flights. From Thomsons point of view they hailed the flight as a “landmark” putting the airline “at the forefront of sustainable aviation”. Again Friends of the Earth criticised the use of biofuels stating that they won’t make flying any greener as the production is pushing up food prices and wrecking rainforests, using palma oil means taking land that could be used to grow food for people. Friends of the Earth believe alternatives to flying should be offered such as better rail services. http://www.greenwisebusiness.co.uk/news/thomson-airways-under-fire-for-greenwash-after-biofuel-flight-2684.aspx http://www.travelweekly.co.uk/Articles/2011/10/07/38435/thomson+airways+hails+landmark+biofuel+flight.html http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2011/oct/05/thomson-biofuels-flight?newsfeed=true
  • When looking at the evidence of greenwashing in relation to the airline industry we can see that the 3-D PR strategy that Rowell (2002) mentioned has been employed. We can link it to both of the cases with Virgin Atlantic and Thomson. For example when linking the strategy to Thomson they denied their actions by stating that there was no problem hailing the flight as a “landmark”. They delayed effective action by using and claiming that biofuels is a sustainable method whereas alternative travel would be much more environmentally friendly and the use of different biofuels would have less impact instead of using the palma oil. Finally dominate in terms of Thomson gaining backing from the government they convinced the government that this is a better solution and is helping.
  • VicHttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ND9QoDS4ScYOne potentially negative environmental impact of anaerobic digesters that combust the biogas is the creation of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are regulated air pollutants and an ozone precursor. Nitrogen oxides are created by combustion of fuel with air. Combustion of dairy biogas or any other methane containing gas (whether in a flare, reciprocating or gas turbine engine, or a boiler) will emit NOx. The emission rate varies but is generally lowest for properly engineered flares and highest for rich burn reciprocating (piston) engines. NOx emissions are controlled by using lean burn engines, catalytic controls or microturbines. The latter two methods are fouled by the high sulfur content of biogas, and the H2S must be scrubbed to prevent the swift corrosion of these devices.
  • What types of renewable energy they usehttp://www.britishgas.co.uk/business/what-we-do/green-performance/fuel-mix.htmlCentrica - It is the largest supplier of gas to domestic customers in the UK, and one of the largest suppliers of electricity, operating under the trading names Scottish Gas in Scotland and British Gas in the rest of the UK.
  • Thorough information about CRC Energy Efficiency Scheme for organisationsThorough information about the Electricity Market ReformsBusinesses first, households nextFree downloadable carbon managmenet for dummies & electricity buying for dummiesTo favour wider understanding EDF provides consumer with an energy glossary easily accessible onlineFree energy efficiency toolkit available & energy efficiency related linksEDF is optimistic about meeting the Government’s target of generating 15% of the UK's energy from renewables by 2020Top line short to medium term company strategy is shared onlineDue to EDF commitment to developing nuclear energy, that side of the business is highly emphasizedAll stakeholders views are presented, from suppliers to shareholders Awarded a ‘Platinum Plus’ status in the Business in the Community (BITC) Corporate Responsibility (CR) IndexIn 2007 we pledged to reduce the intensity of carbon emissions from our electricity production by 60% by 2020They have already delivered some of the targets that we said we would deliver by the end of 2012 and we are largely on trackwith the others. However, specific info about their current performance is hidden in lengthy reportsCarbon footprint has increased since 2009. Other targets were met
  • Eon is another of the main six energy companies that provide gas and electricity for businesses and homes.With regards to Eon’s environmental stance as a company they complete a series of projects which claim to help the environment. Eon also have a page dedicated to saving energy however we think that this is more geared towards consumers wishing to save money rather than helping the environment. Eon use three types of renewable energy which include wind, CHP and biomass. Eon communicate on their website that they are committed to the development of wind farms. Eon currently operate 21 offshore and onshore wind farms. They are also in the process of building more for example with their partners (Dong Energy and Masdar) they are as stated constructing the largest offshore wind farm in the world which could supply up to 750,000 homes with electricity. They are also investing in onshore wind farms. http://eon-uk.com/generation/wind.aspx?WT.mc_id=Wind&WT.svl=8%20,%20http://eon-uk.com/generation/wave.aspx?WT.mc_id=Wave&WT.svl=8 Biomass is also used by Eon with their scheme displacing approximately 140,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide each year. http://eon-uk.com/generation/1569.aspxCombined heat and power is another renewable energy source that the company uses investing £480 million in various schemes.
  • The E.ON Group aims to invest up to €3 billion between 2011 and 2013 on renewable generation and climate protection activitiesThese tables above here show the fuel mix that is provided by Eon. With regards to domestic and small businesses as you can see renewable energy is low and lower than the UK average, with Eon using 5.2 compared to 9.2. For corporate again it is relatively low compared to gas and coal but higher than nuclear and roughly double the UK average with Eon using 18.2 renewable energies for corporate and 9.2 for the UK average. http://www.eonenergy.com/About-eon/Fuel-Mix
  • Luke
  • Certified by RenewWe make more energy from wind and water, than anyone else in the UK.* We even offer renewable energy tariffs and ways for customers to make their very own renewable energy. But never before have we built a zero carbon home.In a ground-breaking research project named 'Greenwatt Way' we have worked with a team of partners to build 10 zero carbon homes in Slough, Berkshire.Currently, more than a quarter of the country's CO2 emissions come from our homes. In 2008, the Government confirmed that all new homes built in England will have to be zero carbon from 2016. Our Greenwatt Way project will help us to understand the changes in energy generation and consumption that are required to make that target a reality.What is a zero carbon home?Zero carbon means we will generate enough energy on site for these homes so that net CO2 emissions are zero over the course of a year. This includes all energy used for heating, hot water, lighting, fans and pumps, cooking and appliances.What we aim to achieveThe main aim of the project is to study energy usage and consumption and the occupants interaction with energy efficient zero carbon homes. Although the industry is constantly revising design codes and standards, very little is understood about the energy requirements of a zero carbon home or what it's like to live in one. The houses have been built from timber frame and masonry block to reflect the different construction methods used across the UK. In addition to testing energy demand the project will gather valuable information helpful to the building sector on issues such as ventilation, air quality and the environmental tolerance of a zero carbon home.Greener homesThe most visually striking aspect of the homes are the solar photovoltaic roof tiles. These solar panels generate up to 63kWp of electricity, providing more than enough renewable electricity for each home. The surplus electricity is sold back to the National Grid.Renewable heating and hot water is supplied via a mini district heat scheme, housed in an adjacent energy centre. This plant room includes solar thermal panels, an air source heat pump, a ground source heat pump, a biomass boiler and a spare bay for a future renewable energy technology. Each of these are sized to meet the full heating requirement of the site. The biomass boiler, ground and air source heat pumps run independently to demonstrate that all of these renewable technologies can be installed to generate enough renewable heat to meet zero carbon buildings requirements.The homes also include devices to improve energy efficiency and encourage tenants to waste less energy and water. This includes a mechanical ventilation, heat recovery system, and a smart meter. Most homes will include a grey water recycling system which uses recycled bath and shower water to flush toilets and recover waste heat. A rainwater harvesting system collects rainwater which is stored and used to flush toilets.
  • Luke
  • The big six energy companies have been criticised for disregarding the change to renewable energy. The huge profits that the companies have received enable an opportunity to endorse more and make the transition to renewable energy, however this is currently being ignored. The committee on climate change has set the target for zero carbon electricity by 2030 this could be met as the opportunity to use renewable energy sources has arisen due to the Government planning to reform the electricity market in the UK. However the big six energy companies have been lobbying the case for nuclear and gas and not for renewable energy. They continue to increase the prices of energy which is effecting consumers negatively forcing some households into fuel poverty. The big six are also monopolising the industry and hardly investing in any renewable sources. Ofgem announced proposals for reform to include cheaper, cleaner energy that would include a mix of renewables, nuclear, carbon capture and storage. Has been criticised by Friends of the Earth stating that it will not help with plans to reduce carbon electricity. Energy watchdog Ofgem have found the big six guilty of overcharging customers £250 million during the winter of 2010-11, and their profits continue to rise. In the first half of 2011 alone they reported profits of around £3.5 billion, with profit margins increasing by up to 733 per cent in some cases.Moses, K., 2012. Are the ‘big six’ energy companies blocking renewables in the UK? . The Ecologist. Available from: http://www.theecologist.org/News/news_analysis/1261670/are_the_big_six_energy_companies_blocking_renewables_in_the_uk.html [Accessed 19th November 2012]. Others have argued that communities should be generating energy themselves. This occurred in Germany with local communities buying local electricity grids.
  • The Government is committed to increasing the proportion of energy we use from renewable sources. To be noted thatexpenditure in governmental green ads has decreased due to economic situation UK, alongside other EU MemberStates, published our first Progress Report to the European in 2011 on UK progress in increasing use of renewable energy. Itfocuses on the performance of 2009/2010.The 2009 Renewable Energy Directive sets a target for the UK to achieve 15% of its energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020. This compares to 3% in 2009. While analysis demonstrates it is possible to achieve the target and industry say they have the capacity to deploy at the rate required, the scale of the increase over the next 10 years represents a huge challenge and will require strong contributions from all three sectors of electricity, heat and transport. Current percentage is at 6.8. The Government's Renewable Energy Strategy lead scenario suggests that by 2020 about 30% or more of our electricity – both centralised and small-scale generation – could come from renewable sources.DECC have launched a new series of quick guides to the Green Deal for householders, owners, tenants, landlords and business.Also, the department clearly disclose its energy consumption on the website.DFT and DCLG shift corporate and policy information over to website in plans that could eventually save £50m a year.One of the aims is to make it easier to find out what the government may be doing about a particular issue. http://www.guardian.co.uk/public-leaders-network/2012/nov/15/central-government-departments-move-govukhttp://www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/meeting_energy/renewable_ener/renewable_ener.aspx#http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2012/nov/20/energy-companies-customers-cheapest-tariff
  • http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2012/sep/05/david-cameron-environment-governmentMP Peter Lilley has received more than $400,000 in oil company share options
  • KimMain challenges to marketing renewable energy:Consumers are unwilllng to pay a premium for green goods in general because such environmental benefits as cleaner air and water are difficult to see, feel, or experience immediately. With renewable forms of power, the product itself is not seen. (What color are your electrons?) Also, because the renewable energy simply is added to the communal power grid in place of fossil fuel-generated electricity, consumers do not receive the product for which they pay the premium.Many consumers lack awareness of exactly what types of energy are harnessed in producing the electricity coming into their homes, much less the environmental issues associated with its production. Further. major misperceptions abound about renewable energy generation; for example, electricity won't be available if the wind doesn't blow, renewable energy requires channelling a second set of power lines into homes, or tapping wind energy in a major way will somehow upset global climate patterns.Credibility. Customers question paying a premium for "green electricity” because they feel current rates are high enough. They want to know precisely how funds will be used.Strategies:Make renewable energy tangibleTarget carefullyEducate and empowerConsider a subsidiary(Ottman, 1997)
  • http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/algore411499.html#g3GHM5L14rkFTHwR.99 

Greener Energy & Greenwash Greener Energy & Greenwash Presentation Transcript

  • Greener energy & Greenwash
  • Today we are going to cover... 1. GREENWASH 2. CONTROLLING GREENWASH 3. TYPES OF GREENER ENERGY 4. THE BIG SIX 5. GOVERNMENT POLICIES 6. CONSUMER PERSPECTIVE 7. CONCLUSION
  • So what exactly is greenwash? Greenwash is an environmental claim which is unsubstantiated (a fib) or irrelevant (a distraction). Found in advertising, PR or on packaging, and made about people, organisations and products. (Futerra, 2011) The list of tactics and villains is Hiding unpleasant facts, an organisation spends more practically endless, but oil time and money claiming to be green throughcompanies and car companies are advertising and marketing than actually some of the worst offenders. implementing business practices that minimize (Rowell, 2002) environmental impact. (Greenwashing Index, 2012) The skyrocketing incidence of greenwashing Its been a ripe time for companies can have profound negative effects on mis-selling their green credentials consumer confidence in green in ads (Vaughan, 2009) products, eroding the consumer market for green products and Greenwash – disinformation services. (Furlow, 2009)disseminated by an organisation so as topresent an environmentally responsible public images. (Rowell, 2002)
  • Controlling Greenwash… Greenpeace has been working to bring attentionThe ASA has responded to rising to the problem since the early 1990s. In 1992, DEFRA: complaints from members of we published the Greenpeace Book of It provides a step-by-step the public concerned about Greenwash, highlighting the most egregious guide on how to provide advertisers over-exaggerating examples of corporate greenwash at the time. information to the benefits of their (Greenpeace, 2012) consumers in a way thatproduct, service or organisation is not unfair orto the environment. (ASA, 2011) misleading. (ASA, 2011) Good environmental claims that accurately convey the environmental attributes of products help Following a public consumers to make informed choices. consultation on the Misleading, false, meaningless or unclear Advertising Codes in information 2009, a dedicated section can result in consumers losing confidence in on the environment in a environmental claims and labels in single Broadcast Code general, lead provides greater clarity for to unfair business competition and the public and business. discourage companies from making truthful (ASA, 2011) claims. (DEFRA, 2011 )
  • Types of greener energy“The generation of electricity or heat from renewable or low-carbon sources by theuse of any equipment, the capacity of which to generate electricity or heat does notexceed the capacity specified in subsection.” (Green Energy Act, 2009)There are 6 different types of green energy... Solar Wind Hydroelectricity Biomass CHP Anaerobic digestion
  • Solar Energy “Solar energy is the energy received by the earth from the sun. This energy is in the form of solar radiation, which makes the production of solar electricity possible.” (Clean-energy-ideas, 2012)Beyond Petroleum or Beyond preposterous?(Corpwatch, 2010) “Chevrons solar panels wont clean up its filthy oilfield” (Guardian, 2012)
  • WindWind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using:wind turbines to make electricity, windmills for mechanical power, windpumps for waterpumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships (Gipe, 2012). Criticisms of wind energy… 1. Pushing up energy bills 2. Back-up power plants mean wind energy does not deliver net reductions in carbon emissions 3. The powering up and down of fossil fuel plants to cope with wind energy intermittency undermines their efficiency and leads to a net increase in emissions 4. The "intermittent" nature of wind power makes it impossible to manage 5. Variable wind energy outputs will disrupt the grid and lead to blackouts 6. Reliance on wind energy will lead to power shortages 7. Long term damage to birds population (Energy Digital, 2011)
  • Cogeneration/CHPCogeneration (also combined heat and power, CHP) is the use of a heat engine or a power station to simultaneously generateboth electricity and useful heat. All thermal power plants emit a certain amount of heat during electricity generation. This can be releasedinto the natural environment through cooling towers, flue gas, or by other means. (Green World Investor, 2011) • Clean Coal Technologies can only be partly reduced and will not make a major impact on the problem of Climate Change • They are not a Green Solution to the disadvantages of coal • Saying that implementing them will result in Climate Change mitigation is greenwashing • However, these technologies need to be implemented till the world is ready to move away from its addiction to cheap energy provided by coal (World Nuclear, 2012)
  • Hydroelectricity• Hydroelectricity - Electricity generated by hydropower • Hydropower means the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water • It is the most widely used form of renewable energy, accounting for 16 % of global electricity consumption • The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low• Hydro is a flexible source of electricity since plants can be ramped up and down quickly to adapt to changing energy demands (International Rivers, 2012)
  • Hydroelectricity Greenwashing Hydropower - The Problems with Big Dams - “Damming interrupts the flow of rivers. It harms local ecosystems and displaces people and wildlife.”However, dam construction is still under way regardless of its impactA public campaign by the dam-building industry greenwasheshydropower as a source of clean energy.(Energy Saving Trust, 2012)
  • BIOMASSWood biomass includes forest products, waste Non-wood biomass includes animalwood and energy crops like elephant grass and waste and biodegradable food. (Greenquick-growing trees like willow. (Green energy energy UK, 2012) UK, 2012) Produced from organic materials such as wood, plants and animal waste. We get this either directly from plants, or from waste products from industry, agriculture or your very own home! (Green energy UK, 2012) Can be converted to make biofuels which can be used for transportation purposes. 2010 3.33% of UK road fuel was biofuel. (Department for Transport, 2012) Biomass is a “carbon lean” fuel producing a fraction of the Carbon emissions of fossil fuels (Biomass energy centre, 2012) Conversion technologies may release the energy directly, in the form of heat or electricity, or may convert it to another form, such as liquid biofuel or combustible biogas. (Biomass energy centre, 2012)
  • Biomass Greenwashing Environmental campaigners slammed the pilot project as a gimmick that would end up harming the environment (Harvey, 2008) Britains first commercial flight run on biofuel as a "hollow PR stunt that paves the way for rainforest destruction“ (Harvey, 2008 ) Biofuels – once greeted by green campaigners as an alternative to fossil fuels – are now regarded as even more environmentally destructive than the fuels they replace. Natural oilssuch as palm oil are now hugely valuable globally traded commodities, and the rush to cash in has led to the widespread destruction of rainforest in countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia. (Harvey, 2008)
  • Biomass Greenwashing 3-D PR Strategy (Rowell, 2002) Deny“landmark” flight Delay Use of palma oil Dominate decrease land for "Sustainable biofuels have a role to play in efforts food to tackle climate change, particularly in sectors where no other viable low carbon energy source has been identified”
  • Anaerobic Digestion …from waste to energy!“Anaerobic Digestion (AD) is a biological process that happens naturally when bacteria breaks downorganic matter in environments with little or no oxygen. It is effectively a controlled and enclosed versionof the anaerobic breakdown of organic waste in landfill which releases methane.” – (FOE, 2007)
  • The BIG SIX control 99 per cent of our domestic energy!
  • The Fuel Mix…April 2011 – March 2012 Energy Source Centrica UK Average Coal 13.7% 29.2% Natural Gas 50.0% 40.7% Nuclear 26.5% 19.1% Renewables 7.9% 9.2% Other fuels 1.8% 1.8% C02 Emissions 330 g/KWh 430 g/KWh High-level radioactive waste 0.0024 g/KWh 0.0017 g/KWh So what are they doing about renewable energy? “Were working hard to meet the government targets of sourcing electricity supplied from renewable sources.” To help achieve this they: • Plan to invest £1.5 billion in renewable source energy production including wind farm construction • Purchase energy from other generators of renewable electricity such as: – The Glens of Foundland – Barrow Offshore, Lynn and Inner Dowsing in the Greater Wash area • Purchase energy from Non Fossil Purchasing Agency (NFPA) auctions *electricity comes from sources such as landfill gas, small-scale hydro and wind power (British Gas, 2012 [screen1])
  • The Fuel Mix… April 2011 – March 2012 Awarded a ‘Platinum Plus’ status in the Business in the Community (BITC) Corporate Responsibility (CR) IndexThe website provides thorough info about CRC Energy Efficiency Scheme for organisations and Electricity Market Reforms.EDF focuses more on organisations than individual households. However, all stakeholders views are presented and individuals canaccess free downloadable carbon management for dummies, electricity buying for dummies, energy efficiency toolkit & energyglossary.“In 2007 we pledged to reduce the intensity of carbon emissions from our electricity production by 60% by 2020They have already delivered some of the targets that we said we would deliver by the end of 2012 and we are largely on track with theothers” (EDF, 2012 *screen1+).
  • “We believe that a mix of Renewables currently using: power plants, relying on a - Wind range of fuels - - CHP Invested over £480 million gas, wind, coal, oil, biomass - - Biomass in schemes in the UK and is the best way of ensuring we continue to be the security of supply while Committed to the development market leader in the large- minimising our impact on the of wind farms, both onshore and scale end of the CHP environment and keeping the offshore and have a significant market. cost of generation as low as number of projects in various possible” - (Eon, 2012 [screen 1]) stages of development Taken a leading role in the development of wind power in the UK since 1991 Once the full when we invested in our 1,000MW project is first wind farm. built, this will be the largest offshore wind farm in the Operate one of the UKs world and could largest dedicated biomass supply the plants at Stevens electricity needs of Croft, near Lockerbie, which around 750,000 is capable of producing homes each year power for around 70,000(Eon, 2012) homes.
  • The Fuel Mix…April 2011 – March 2012 (Eon, 2012)
  • • Is a leading integrated UK energy company (A part of REW Group)• Supplies electricity and gas• Serve 6.5 million residential and business customers• Has a flexible portfolio of coal, oil, biomass and gas-fired power stations accounts• Produces 10% of the electricity used in Great BritainThe Fuel Mix…April 2011 – March 2012 Energy Source NPower UK Average Coal 29% 29.2% Natural Gas 55% 40.7% Nuclear 2% 19.1% Renewables 12% 9.2% Other fuels 2% 1.8% C02 Emissions 490 grams per kWh 430 g/KWh High-level radioactive waste 0.0002 grams per kWh 0.0017 g/KWh (NPower, 2012)
  • • Is one of a UK’s leading renewable energy companies• Owns a portfolio of onshore and offshore wind farms and hydroelectric power projectsNpower Juice• Npower Set up the ‘juice’ green electricity tariff in 2003• Costs the same as their standard electricity – there is no premium to pay• Since the launch of Juice, they have raised more than £2 million for the Juice fund which has helped to support renewable energy projects all over the country (NPower, 2012)
  • The Fuel Mix…April 2011 – March 2012 Energy Source SSE UK Average Coal 35% 29.2% Natural Gas 49% 40.7% Nuclear 1% 19.1% Renewables 14% 9.2% Other fuels 1% 1.8% C02 Emissions 0.512 kg/kWh 430 g/KWh High-level radioactive waste 0.0001 g/kWh 0.0017 g/KWh (SSE, 2012)
  • • Is one of the largest energy suppliers in the UK• Most of their customers are micro and small businessesScottish Power Renewables… A part of Iberdrola (the largest wind energy developer in the world)• Responsible for progressing Iberdrola’s onshore wind and marine energy projects in the UK and Ireland• In 2011 , Scottish Power Renewables became the first UK developer to reach an installed generating capacity of 1,000 MW To secure their position at the forefront of the renewable energy industry, they are firmly committed to the responsible development of renewable energy.The Fuel Mix… (Scottish Power, 2012)April 2011 – March 2012 Energy Source Scottish Power UK Average Coal 48.9% 29.2% Natural Gas 43.4% 40.7% Nuclear 0% 19.1% Renewables 7.6% 9.2% Other fuels 0.1% 1.8% C02 Emissions 0.620 g/KWh 430 g/KWh High-level radioactive waste 0.00 g/KWh 0.0017 g/KWh
  • Are the big six energy companies blocking renewables in the UK? • Showing only minor interest in renewables Renewable sources are now responsible for “Currently, three- • Over-charging consumers over 20 per cent of quarters of our electricity comes from • Ignoring renewable energy Germany’s electricity, with the coal and gas, with • Unwillingness to meet ‘zero carbon electricity by 2030’ large energyrenewables contributing • Nuclear and gas NOT renewables companies owning only eight per cent” • Increase in prices only 13 per cent of the kit, compared to 51 • Ofgem reforms per cent owned by individuals and supported by a “Friends of the Earth are however unconvinced that the reforms successful feed-in tariff are on the right track, arguing that they will leave much as it is: that pays people for a market that only large companies can compete in; no the energy they commitment to the 2030 zero-carbon electricity target; no generate serious plan to reduce energy waste; and the green light to the big six’s plans for a new generation of gas-fired power stations” (The Ecologist, 2012)
  • Government policies“The 2009 Renewable Energy Directive sets a target for the UK toachieve 15% of its energy consumption from renewable sources by2020. This compares to 3% in 2009. While analysis demonstrates it ispossible to achieve the target and industry say they have the capacityto deploy at the rate required, the scale of the increase over the next10 years represents a huge challenge and will require strongcontributions from all three sectors of electricity, heat and transport.Current percentage is at 6.8. The Governments Renewable EnergyStrategy lead scenario suggests that by 2020 about 30% or more ofour electricity – both centralised and small-scale generation – couldcome from renewable sources” (DECC, 2012).Expenditure in governmental green ads has decreased due toeconomic situation UK, alongside other EU Member StatesDECC have launched a new series of quick guides to the Green Dealfor householders, owners, tenants, landlords and business. DECC’s energy consumption on the websiteAll governmental departments will move to .gov.uk to make it easierto find out what the government may be doing about a particularissue (Guardian, 2012)
  • Government: meeting green expectations“Perhaps the greenest thing left about the Conservatives is the voters who took their environmental promises seriously”(Guardian, 2012)• Jonathan Porrits admirable Sustainable Development Commission has been axed.• The much-touted green investment bank will now not be a bank.• Forests and woods have been threatened with privatisation.• Energy policy has been reduced to flag-waving for nuclear.• Cabinet reshuffle: – promotion to environment secretary of Owen Patterson: a Conservative who opposes windfarms, loves airports and supports fracking for shale gas (although his website does list "trees" as an interest) – Justine Greening, who was just last month vehemently defending the governments official opposition to a third runway, has been moved from the transport brief; her replacement, Patrick McLoughlin, will start talks on a cross- party commission reopening the subject.
  • Consumer perspectiveThey expect something like  But what they feel is The challenges of marketing renewable energy…• Unwilling to pay a premium for green goods• Because such environmental benefits as cleaner air and water are difficult to see, feel, or experience immediately• Because the renewable energy is added to the communal power grid in place of fossil fuel-generated electricity, consumers do not receive the product for which they pay (Ottman, 1997)
  • Conclusion “Winston Churchill aroused this nation in heroic fashion to save civilisation in World War Two. We have everything we need except political will, but political will is a renewable resource”. (Al Gore, 2009)In this presentation we have covered:1. Greenwashing – Definition – Legislation2. The big six – The Fuel Mix3. Types Of Greener Energy and examples of greenwashing – Solar – Wind – Biomass – Hydroelectricity – Anaerobic Digestion – Cogeneration4. Government – Policies – Meeting green expectations5. Consumers – Barriers and perspectives
  • Some references• Rowell, A., 2002. The Spread of Greenwash. Chapter 1 of Eveline Lubbers, Ed. “Battling big business: countering greenwash, infiltration and other forms of corporate bullying”. Green Books Ltd.• Futera Sustainability Communications, 2011. Greenwash guide• Vaughan, A., 2009. Name your best greenwash adverts...ever! The Guardian. Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/ethicallivingblog/2009/apr/08/best-greenwash-adverts [Accessed 12th November 2012].• Greenwashing Index., 2012. About Greenwashing. Greenwashing Index. Available from: http://www.greenwashingindex.com/about-greenwashing/ [Accessed 12th November 2012].• ASA., 2011. The Green Milestone. Advertising Standards Authority. Available from: http://www.asa.org.uk/News- resources/Media-Centre/2011/the-green-milestone.aspx [Accessed 12th November 2012].• Greenpeace., 2012. Greenwashing History. Greenpeace. Available from: http://stopgreenwash.org/history [Accessed 12th November 2012].• Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs., 2011. Green Claims Guidance. DEFRA. Available from: http://www.defra.gov.uk/publications/files/pb13453-green-claims-guidance.pdf [Accessed 14th November 2012].• Eon., 2012. Planning for the future. Eon. Available from: http://eon- uk.com/generation/planning.aspx?WT.mc_id=E.ON_UK%27s_Renewable_Energy_Portfolio&WT.svl=8 [Accessed 14th November 2012].• Eon., 2012. Projects. Eon. Available from: https://www.eonenergy.com/for-your-home/Get-energy-efficient/how-are-we- helping/Projects [Accessed 14th November 2012].• Eon., 2012. Sustainable energy. Available from: https://www.eonenergy.com/for-your-business/Sustainable-solutions [Accessed 14th November 2012].• Green Energy UK., 2012. Types of green energy. Available from: http://www.greenenergy.uk.com/TypesOfGreenEnergy.aspx [Accessed 13th November 2012].• Department for Transport., 2012. Biofuels use and supply. Available from: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20120819131300/http://www.dft.gov.uk/topics/sustainable/biofuels/use-supply [Accessed 14th November 2012].• Biomass Energy Centre., 2012. What is biomass? Available from: http://www.biomassenergycentre.org.uk/portal/page?_pageid=76,15049&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL [Accessed 17th November 2012].• BBC News., 2008. Airline in first biofuel flight. Available from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7261214.stm [Accessed 17th November 2012].• Greenpeace., 2008. Virgins biofuel flight is all spin and greenwash. Available from: http://www.greenpeace.org.uk/blog/climate/virgins-biofuel-flight-is-all-spin-and-greenwash-20080225 [Accessed 17th November 2012].
  • References• Greenwise., 2011. Thomson Airways under fire for greenwash after biofuel flight. Available from:http://www.greenwisebusiness.co.uk/news/thomson-airways-under-fire-for-greenwash-after-biofuel-flight-2684.aspx [Accessed 18thNovember 2012].• Harvey, F., 2011. Green campaigners condemn Thomson Airways biofuels flight. The Guardian. Available from:http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2011/oct/05/thomson-biofuels-flight?newsfeed=true [Accessed 18th November 2012].• Nancy Furlow, “Greenwashing in the New Millennium," Journal of Applied Business andEconomics, 10/6 (2009): 22-25.