Critical thinking and questions goldilocksPresentation Transcript
Any Questions?How Asking the Right Questions Can PromoteCritical ThinkingNancy Burkhalter, PhDSenior English Language FellowLIPETSK, RUSSIAAPRIL 11-12
Effect of ‘dead’ questions• Students’ thinking turns off.• They give up responsibility for thinking.• No more investigation is needed.• Questioning stops.• Curiosity dies.
Lower Order vs. Higher OrderAt what temperature doeswater freeze at sea level?What year did Mexicoobtain its independencefrom Spain?Why does water near bridgesand in cities freeze later inthe winter than water inlakes in rural areas?How did Mexico’s movementfor independence fromSpain affect people inneighboring countries?
How do higher level questionshelp learning?Students learn how toinquire, question, seek, andexamine information.
Thinking is driven by questions,not answers.Richard PaulFoundation for Critical Thinking
How do I make PINK?
Which do I satisfy?My egoMy student’s brain
Definition of Critical ThinkingUsing methods that employanalyzeevaluatecreate
Six kinds of questions• Knowledge• Comprehension• Application• Analysis• Evaluation• Creation
CreationEvaluation HIGHAnalysisApplicationComprehensionKnowledgeCognitiveDifficultyBloom’s Taxonomyof Levels of Abstractionof Questions
Goldilocksand theThreeBears• Now is the time
Remember Questions:Facts and details• observe and recall information• know dates, events, placesQuestion Cues:list, define, tell, describe, identify, label,collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name
Examples of Remember Questions1. Who was Goldilocks?2. Where did she live?3. What did her mothertell her not to do?
Comprehension Questions:Understanding• understand information• grasp meaning• translate knowledge into new contextQuestion Cues:summarize, describe, contrast, associate,distinguish, differentiate, discuss, paraphrase,explain, demonstrate
Examples of ComprehensionQuestions1. What is this story is about?2. What is the main idea?3. What did Goldilockslook like?
Application Questions:Use in new context• use methods, concepts, theories in newsituations• solve problems using skills or knowledgeQuestion Cues:apply, demonstrate, calculate, show, solve,examine, relate, change, classify, experiment,assess, chart, construct
Examples of Application Questions1.Draw a map showing Goldilocks house, thepath in the forest, the bears house, etc.2. Show through action howGoldilocks sat in the chairs,ate the porridge, etc.3. How were the bears like real people?
Analysis Questions:Apply to other questions or areas• see patterns• organize parts• identify componentsQuestion Cues:analyze, order, explain, compare, infer,discriminate, illustrate, outline, distinguish,why
Examples of Analysis Questions1. How did each bearreact to what Goldilocksdid?2. How would you react?3. Compare Goldilocksto any of your friends.
Evaluation Questions:Judge, measure, compare• compare and discriminate between ideas• assess value of theories, presentations• predict, draw conclusionsQuestion Cues:assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure,recommend, convince, select, justify, explain,discriminate, support, conclude, compare
Examples of Evaluation Questions1. Why were the bears angry with Goldilocks?2. What do you think shelearned by going into thathouse?3. Would you have gone in thebears house? Why/why not?
Create Questions:Generate new ideas or insights• use old ideas to create new ones• generalize from given facts• relate knowledge from several areasQuestion Cues:combine, integrate, modify, rearrange, plan,create, design, invent, what if?, compose,formulate, generalize, revise, synthesize
Examples of Creation Questions1. Do all bears act like humans?2. Do you know any other storiesabout little girls or boys who escapedfrom danger?3. Make a puppet, thenact out its part in the story.
A lesson using Bloom’s taxonomyof questions“The Global Child”International adoption and parentalresponsibility
Rememberlist, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect,examine, tabulate, quote, name1. What country is Raquel from?2. What does the word indigenousmean?
Comprehensionsummarize, describe, contrast, associate, distinguish, differentiate, discuss, paraphrase, explain1. Why did Raquel’s mother give herup for adoption?2. Summarize the commentators mainidea.
Applicationapply, demonstrate, calculate, show, solve, examine, relate, change, classify, experiment, assess, chart, construct1. What would you ask Raquel’s birthmother about giving her daughter up foradoption?2. Can you relate any of Raquel’s feelings toyour own life?
Analysisanalyze, order, explain, compare, explain, infer,discriminate, illustrate, outline, distinguish1. Why do you think Raquel droppedher camera?2. Why does Raquel spend so muchtime in bed when she gets home?
Evaluationassess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend,convince, select, judge, explain, discriminate, support,conclude, compare1. Do you think adopted children should visittheir country of birth? Why or why not?2. What problems do you think they mighthave as a result of being adopted?
Createcombine, integrate, modify, rearrange, plan, create, design, invent, what if?, compose, formulate, generalize, revise1. Statistics show that Russians want Russianorphans to be adopted by Russians. If that isso, why are so few adopted by them?2. Imagine you are Raquel. Write a diary entryfrom her perspective on the day she went toher old house.
Open-ended questions…Are about possibilities and reasonsthat require explanations.
Assessment ofopen-ended questions1. Grade onoriginality, completeness, organization, logic,connection to task, etc.2. Grade each other’s answers.3. Write questions they have about the issue.4. Research their questions and write anessay/give a talk.5. Never grade higher level questions “right orwrong.”
To summarize• Foster critical thinking with questionsrequiring higher order skills: analyze, andevaluate, and create.• Empower your students. Ask them to think forthemselves.
ReferencesBartel, M. (2004). Encouraging creative thinking withawareness and discovery questions. Retrieved Nov. 1, 2012,from http://www.bartelart.com/arted/questions.html#testsBlooms taxonomy. Retrieved Oct. 24, 2012, fromhttp://www.coun.uvic.ca/learning/exams/blooms-taxonomy.htmlBloom’s taxonomy of six different levels. Retrieved Dec. 5, 2012,from http://courseweb.unt.edu/gmayes/documents/Blooms_Taxonomy.htmlDalton, J. & Smith, D. (1986). Extending children’s special abilities– Strategies for primary classrooms, pp 36-7. Retrieved Nov. 1,2012, from http://www.aisa.or.ke/uploaded/downloads/aisa2010conference/Judy_Wooster_Workshop_Handout_Applying_Blooms_Taxonomy.pdfNumrich, C. (Ed.) (2010). The global child. Raise the issues (pp.42-63). White Plains, NY: Pearson.