Kindergarten Socail Assistive Robotics (KindSAR) for Children's Cognitive and Metacognitive Development in Pre-School Science Education
GUY KEREN, MARINA FRIDIN
FACULTY OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT, ARIEL
UNIVERSITY CENTER, ISRAEL
THE THERAPEUTIC AND EDUCATIONAL SOCIAL ROBOTICS LAB
Kindergarten Assistive Robotic
Geometrical Thinking And
ROBOTICS & EDUCATION
We focused on children 4–6 years old: the preschool years are
considered critical for children’s overall development (Chambers & Sugden,
KINDERGARTEN ASSISTIVE ROBOTICS(KAR).
• Robots as a tool for the teaching
• Subjects closely related to the robotics field: mechatronics, electronics,
programming, physics, mathematics; helped to improve problem solving,
logic, and scientific inquiry (Benitti, 2011).
• Participants ages 6 -16.
• Not integrated into classroom activities, took place in an after-school or
summer camp program.
• Platform : mainly Lego
• In the field of child care
• Social Assistive Robotics : children with autism (Kozima, Nakagawa, & Yano, 2004).
• iRobi in elementary school : wheeled robot, educational activities mainly
through embedded computer-based games (Han, Jo, Park, & Kim, 2005)
• AIBO, a robotic pet, in class work for 4 6-year-olds‒ (Yamamoto, Tetsui,
Naganuma, and Kimura, 2006)
astronomy, sculptures …
Main theory: van Hieles geometric
Often ignoring in early education
(Sarama & Clements, 2009).
Existing system (mostly for higher
Web-based virtual environment (Rafi,
Khairul Anuar, Samad, Hayati, & Mazlan, 2005)
GeoCAL, a multimedia learning software
(Chang et al., 2007)
Main Problem : learning in 2D
Possible Solution: embodiment
Listening to the music
brain development, mathematical
and overall academic
achievements (Cox & Stephens, 2006).
children’s spatial abilities (Fukui &
Listening is enough
(Nieminen, Istok, Brattico,
Tervaniemi & Huotilainen, 2011).
Music stimulates arousing
emotions (Zentner & Eerola,
One person from Educational or Scientific Staff
Presentation of seasons in cyclic order, the robot explains,
dances, plays Vivaldi “Four Season”
Finding button for each season, positive
reinforcement feedback: dance
Level 0 - Recognition: child
recognizes the geometric shapes of
the robot; pays attention to the
visual characteristics of geometric
Level 1 - Visual Association:
infers shapes based on their
Robot asks children to look at
the screen and take notice of the
basic shape of its picture shown
Robot asks children to inspect
parts of its body and locate
buttons on it.
Robot asks children to
distinguish between upper and
lower parts of its body (hands,
head) and front and back parts of
its head (noting back and front
buttons on the head).
Visual motor skills: eye- hand
Robot asks children to push
the relevant buttons.
Level 2 - Description/Analysis:
identifies attributes of geometric
shapes such as spatial relationships
knowledge and awareness of one’s
own cognitive processes and
products (Flavell & Wellman, 1977).
Metacognitive skills: the ability to
use the metacognitive knowledge
strategically in order to attain
cognitive objectives (Desoete, 2008).
Metacognitive experiences: the
awareness and feelings that arise
when an individual encounters a
task and processes the information
related to it (Efklides, 2008).
•Often ignoring in early education
•The question of whether metacognition is learnable
is still a matter of debate
o Awareness, control of meta-task rather than
o “Thinking aloud” (Kramarski & Mevarech, 2003)
o Develop child’s linguistic component (Zohar,
o Cooperative learning (Cross & Paris, 1988)
o Visibility (Hennessey, 1999)
o Motivation (Eisenberg, 2010)
PROCEDURE PROTOCOL AND
Group Boys Girls Total
1 4 1 5
2 2 2 4
3 4 4 8
Total 10 7 17
81 15 22
Four Seasons Procedure
Session 1 Session 2
Robot teaches the children
Session 1 Session 2
A child (G2) teaches children
(G3) using the robot
• Interaction Level (IL)
o Repeated measures (segments of the procedure) ANOVA, the
three between-subject factors: stage (cognitive/metacognitive),
session (1, 2), and gender (boy, girl).
• Velocity of Learning (V)
o Same as for IL
• Metacognitive measurement (MM)
o Observational checklist: 22 items for measuring metacognition
• Uncovered topics in preschool education: children
improved both geometrical thinking and
• Gender: no differences
• Key for successes:
o Game-like activity
o Collaborative work
o Music, dance, free movement
o Motivation, emotional arousing
• A lot of future work….
Ethical Issues and First
Selective Attention and
Acceptance by Educational