3. Delighted be concerned aboutAnxious look forward to + noun / V+ingConvenient emitDevastatingClose friends packAmazing set offEmbarrassed Plenty of Global warming Along the way Pollution A whole year Flight Overland Tonnes Casual clothes Suit I’ve made it! Top hat Gift
4. Phrasal VerbsCheck inGet onPick upTake off
5. Simple Past Finished in the past Affirmative: S+ V + ed / 2nd f. irreg Negative: S+ didn’t + V Interrogative: Did + S+ V ? Time expressions: yesterday, last week, last month, 1875, ago …
6. Present Perfect Past in the presentAffirmative: S + have/ has + V + ed / 3rd f irregNegative: S + have/ has + not + V + ed / 3rd f irregInterrogative: Have/ has + S + V + ed / 3rd f irreg ?Time expressions: this morning, since, yet, already, just, for
7. Past Perfect Past before simple pastAffirmative: S + had+ V + ed / 3rd f irregNegative: S + had+ not + V + ed / 3rd f irregInterrogative: Had + S + V + ed / 3rd f irreg ?Time expressions: by the time, after, before, when … another action in the past
8. Past PerfectThe past perfect is used to describe a past event which took place before another past event. After he had packed his bag, he left the house.By the time the train arrived, Susan had managed to get to the station on time.
9. Time and tenses Simple present Past Simple Present Simple Future perfect past perfect future perfect Past continuous Present Future continuous continuous
10. RememberSi did ya va en pasado el verbo ya no!Las partículas just y already van entre el have y participio!Yet va al final!For ante el periodo de tiempo enteroSince va indicando sólo el comienzo del periodo.Has con 3ª persona singular! ¡Repasar los verbos irregulares!
11. Often, after a verb, we see a noun phrase: Jim wants a new car. verb noun phrase The class is planning a party. verb noun phrase But sometimes, after the verb, we see a 2nd verb. Jim wants to buy a new car. verb 2nd verb
12. Examples I want to go. She planned to finish early. Jill is planning to travel to Europe.
13. I want to go. present simpleShe planned to finish early. past simple Jill is planning to travel to Europe. present progressive
14. Here are some other verbs that are often followed by “to Verb” want (smb) try promise (smb) plan manage remind (smb) intend afford allow (smb) Notice that there will sometimes be a name or noun phrase between the 2 verbs: I want my friend to help me. Mother promised Sarah to pay for her lessons
15. The second verb is still in the “to Verb” form I want my friend to help me. first verb second verb (“to verb”) Mother promised Sarah to pay for her lessons. first verb second verb (“to verb”)
16. She enjoys going to parties.The second verb is not in the “to verb” form! It is in the “verb-ing” form!!!
17. After certain verbs, (such as “enjoy”), the second verb must be in the V-ing form, (called a “gerund”) and not in the “to verb” form (the infinitive). I want to eat. BUT I enjoy eating.With this verb - the 2nd verb special verb - the 2nd verb isis “to verb” (an infinitive). “v-ing” (a gerund).
18. Here are some other verbs that are followed by a gerund (“v-ing”) enjoy feel like avoid suggest look forward to dislike recommend be used to no point dont mind cant help no useExamples: I feel like singing! He avoids listening to loud music. Notice: must of these verbs help us express what we like and dislike.
19. Here are some other verbs that are followed by a gerund (“v-ing”) go on stop postpone continue risk delay consider imagine put off Examples: Please continue singing! He stopped smoking.Notice: most of these verbs are connected to starting and stopping.Do you need more information? Yes No
20. Gerund or Infinitive?
21. We select the – ing form.... Subject of the sentence in most cases): “Paying attention is essential in class”
22. After any preposition: “I am looking forward to hearing from you”
23. After certain verbal expressionscan’t stand, can’t help, be/get used to, don’t mind/would mind, it’s no use “I can’t help getting angry when pupils speak in class”
24. As Direct Object of a list of verbscontinue, enjoy, like, love, prefer, suggest, reco mmend, etc... “I prefer going to the beach”
25. List of verbs followed by –ing form Verbs Followed by a Gerund “They enjoyed working on the boat”. admit delay finish permit resist advise deny forbid postpone resume appreciate detest get practice risk avoid dislike through quit spend cant help enjoy have recall (time) complete escape imagine report suggest consider excuse mind resent tolerate miss waste (time)
26. We select Infinitive....To form the subject of a verb that refers tosomething specific: “To answer this question is essential”
27. After some adjectivesand/or adverbs: “I am happy to announce my daughter’s wedding” “The wall was too high to jump for young children”
28. After the Indirect Object of certain verbs advise, invite, warn, teach …“The Headmaster warned the student not to do that again”
29. List of verbs followed by Infinitive Verbs Followed by an Infinitive “She agreed to speak before the game.” agree consent have offer shoot aim continue hesitate ought start appear dare hope plan stop arrange decide hurry prefer strive ask deserve intend prepare swear attempt detest leap proceed threaten be able dislike leave promise try beg expect like propose use begin fail long refuse wait care forget love remember want choose get mean say wish condescend happen neglect
30. Verbs followed by Object and an Infinitive: Verbs Followed by an Object and an Infinitive “Everyone expected her to win.” advise choose have love remind allow command hire motivate require ask dare instruct order send beg direct invite pay teach bring encourage lead permit tell build expect leave persuade urge buy forbid let prepare want challenge force like promise warn Note: Some of these verbs are included in the list above and may be used without an object.
31. Examples: “I remember attending to dance classes when I was a child” “Remember to revise the questions before handing out the exam” “My grandmother forgot to lock the door when she left the house” “I repeated the activity because I forgot doing it last week”
32. Verbs that can be followed by both “INFINITIVE” or “-ING”No change in meaning:Begin, Propose, Forbid, Intend, Start..With a difference meaning:Remember, Forget, Regret, Stop, Try...Remember/Forget/Regret: + INFINITIVE Future + -Ing Past
33. Verbs that can be followed by both “INFINITIVE” or “-ING”STOP: + ING NO (don’t do that anymore) + INFINITIVE YES (do it, indeed)Examples: “You have to stop writing at 10 o’clock.” “After five hours of hard work we stopped to have a rest”
34. TRY: +ING “experiment” + INFINITIVE “make the effort”Examples: “I was trying to open the door but I couldn’t.” “Why don’t you try using this key?”
35. Time expressions and sequencing words As soon a s When Then The next day After Suddenly Afterwards Later Last year While