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Gic2011 aula05-ingles Gic2011 aula05-ingles Presentation Transcript

  • Information & Knowledge ManagementKnowledge Management State of The Art Marielba Zacarias Prof. Auxiliar DEEI FCT I, Gab 2.69, Ext. 7749 mzacaria@ualg.pt http://w3.ualg.pt/~mzacaria
  • SummaryWhy invest in Knowledge ManagementKnowledge and LeadershipOrganizational CultureKnowledge sharing between organizationsKnowledge sharing vulnerabilitiesKnowledge Property“Infoglut”Tool section: Wikis
  • Basic assumptionWe continuously challenge our knowledgeand how we apply itWhen knowledge stops evolving,transforms into opinions or dogmas Thomas Davenport and Larry Prusak
  • Knowledge Management Value Essential questions How to be competitive? How can we accelerate “time-to-market” cycles? How to maximize new products production rate? How to minimize production costs or re-working? How to eliminate inconsistencies that hinder customer satisfaction? represent organizational risks?
  • Intellectual Capital Value Difficult to measure skills, relationship with clients, motivation and support structures Skandia AFS insurance company made important progress in this matter Principle: It is better to be approximately right than precisely wrong Three types of human capital
  • Human Capital Edvinsson & StewartIntellectual Sum of employee knowledge Value = cost of recreating it Internal awarenessClient External awareness Value of relationship with clients brand loyalty, ability of understanding their needs and requirements Cost of getting new clients (6 vs 1 of maintaining clients)Structural Value of the services, products and systems created by the human capital
  • ExampleUSA government “Lobbyist”Need of improving employee productivity Researchers spent 20% of their time searching existing knowledge out of the organization Employees spent 5 years in achieving expertise in identifying and efficiently exploiting internal resources Solution: intranet technology accelerated search and problem research leaving more time to production and innovation tasks.
  • Knowledge and Leadership Essential element in adopting a knowledge management strategy Creation of a culture of trust and collaboration
  • ImplicationsRedefine the ways of measuring valuecreationChange the ways people approach workChange organizational cultureThis requires a POWERFUL chief CKO (Chief Knowledge Officer)
  • It also requires...Knowledge EngineersKnowledge AnalystsKnowledge ManagersKnowledge stewards
  • Knowledge EngineersTactical/procedural approachResponsible for eliciting and convertingexplicit knowledge in replicable instructionsand procedures in order to allow itscodification within applicationsProblems: Temptation of exaggerating the function More coded -> more difficult to change
  • Knowledge AnalystFosters good practicesResponsible for the collection, organization anddissemination of knowledge typically on demandHuman repositories of good practicesProblems: they leave, they go with them! may stay strapped to that position
  • Knowledge ManagersThey supervise the processApproach work well when distributed amongseveral individuals throughout the organizationCoordenam esforços dos engenheiros e analistas doconhecimentoUseful in big organizations where the sharingprocess risks fragmentation and isolationProblems: Risk of appearing “feudal” territories
  • CKOHierarchical top-down approachGlobal coordination of knowledgemanagement effortsLeadership roleProblem: Create the function before creating a knowledge sharing culture
  • Knowledge StewardUseful in distributed knowledgemanagement approachesMinimal but continuous support ofknowledge management effortsProvide expertise in using knowledgemanagement tools, practices and methods
  • The role of Culture “The greatest challenge is not inconvincing people of adopting newideas but in convincing them inabandoning the old ones” John Maynard Keynes
  • Culture as an obstacle toknowledge managementHas been referred as the main obstacle toknowledge management efforts......when they are not appropriate for suchefforts, for example in change resistance, risk aversion, or individualistic environments
  • Universal challengesBuild a community of “knowledge sharers”Knowledge ownership knowledge & information means power!Incentive management
  • Knowledge BaseTo be valuable must be used throughoutthe organizationCreation and maintenance of sharingcommunities......without them no attempt to propagateknowledge will succeed
  • Example 1At the USA “lobbyist”, while managersconstantly spoke about sharing knowledgeAll their actions in meetings and memospromoted inter-department rivalry Budgeting policy: everyone competed for the same dollars
  • Example 2In an aerospatial company, they asked employees toinnovate more but..... they publicly discouraged such innovationbecause...New products were frequently rejected for notgoing in the same direction of the enterprise mission(that no one new)
  • Example 3In pharmaceutical company with a strongcommunity spirit groups with common causes put drugs in market those groups were regarded as “family”Together with a open climate created a groupdynamics that was used in creating knowledgesharing communities
  • GlobalizationRegional Cultures difficult knowledgemanagement efforts in transnationalcompanies...But the problem will always be theexistence of an appropriate culture
  • Example 1In a metallurgic company, english wasimposed as the official work language in allcountriesKnowledge sharing sites in countries withdifferent languages were not fed due to thetranslation effort required
  • Example 2Transnational Pharmaceutical where americans seen as “cowboys” who “shoot” (act) before thinking englishmen seen as“over-thinkers” who “sit” (reflect) on a subject months before doing anything
  • Example 2 (cont)An organizational culture ofopenness and trust, and an effectivegroup leadership that fostered frequentsocial meetings between teammembers of both countries createda strong team notion, that allowed toovercome the differences between the twocountries
  • Critical success factorIgnore traditional organizational constructssuch as departments or business units orregions and focus on common interest areasAcknowledge the existence of formal orinformal groups sharing common interestsSupport them through knowledge managementprocesses and tools
  • Inter-organizational environmentsThe interest in knowledge management andinternet has also triggered knowledge sharingbetween organizationsSo, today we can also find inter-organizationalknowledge sharing environmentsA more intimate relationship with clients, suppliersand other partners (including competitors!)
  • VulnerabilitiesWhen we build sharing networks where knowledgeproviders and consumers do not know each otherTrust and responsibility are criticalCredibility is also critical Proper privacy and security mechanisms are essentialLiabilities are critical in inter-organizationalenvironments
  • Knowledge PropertyIf knowledge is inside human minds, can it bemanaged?, when..Management entails external control andownershipThe goal should then be foster sharing and a collective knowledge base Cultivate rather than Managing
  • “Information politics” Monarchy Feudalism Federalism Technocratic Utopia Anarchy
  • “Infoglut”Happens when the knowledge supplier does not knowwell the requirements of knowledge consumersProblems with Categorization Organization Struture SearchTechnical solution: The semantic Web
  • Tool section Wikis
  • WikisWiki = fast (hawaian)WebsiteCreation and edition of inter-linked webpagesUsing wysiwyg html
  • PBWorks