Effective Teaching 2


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  • Identify what it is that they have observed in the classroom that makes for effective teaching. Any idea?
  • A characteristic of successful professionals is that they are efficient and effective. We expect doctors, pilots, electricians and builders to be effective and efficient. Is your classroom effective and efficient? Soon get to know if you classroom is effective and efficient Students will know if you start on time They will know if it is ok to be late They will know if nothing happens the first 10 mins They will know if you say no talking whether it means they can continue or not They describe teachers as soft or strict
  • PE: if someone believes you can do well, you are more likely to. Personal experience. Reform teacher experience: find something to like in every child Get parents on your side: phone call home after easy assign 2 most important pple in child’s life now have positive expectations Mastery teaching: input/ouput, see, say do, repeat Break down in to manageable chunks Praise, prompt, leave Buddy system
  • No wasted time with repeated requests to do things Teachers often repeat same thing over and over When kids know what to do, they will do it They want to please, they want to do well Even kids who seem disruptive are pleased when they are recognised
  • Label your room and have welcome signs Celebrate the first day Name on board Supporting information eg: Seats: if you have open seating kid go anywhere – where do naughty ones gravitate to? Those that feel left out will not be left out Troublemakers will not get choice to sit together name cards for younger students or other - numbers Number and letter assigned Alphabetically arranged, prep seating chart You will know their names sooner Students will not argue about changing seats later (discuss later) Class rules: students know they have to behave, they want to know, post one on the wall, send a copy home Handout: The First Day of School:
  • Every presenter has a script prepared. Let students know about you, have a space in the classroom which has personal information about you. Be enthusiastic Assigning them a seat will ensure you know their names sooner than not. Let them know it will be a very organised structured safe environment and you won’t let anyone interfere with their learning. Let them know there will be class rules/guidelines and consequences. Tell them there are other procedures you are going to be teaching them so that everyone can learn well and get on. Their perception will be formed on how you greet them, your well prepared classroom, message on the board, your organisation etc. First couple of weeks spent focusing on behaviour and learning (procedures) Handout: Your First Day
  • The impression given and the behaviour allowed will stick
  • Meet them at the door. Tell them you are so happy they are in your class.
  • Lead students once greeted to their seats. Simply say, "This is where I want you to sit today. We may shuffle the class tomorrow. Or I may want you to stand here," Students are assigned to seats as per your seating chart. Names can be on desks for primary. Cards with number and seating plan can be shown on overhead for seniors. Explain this seating plan may change. Assists you in learning their names (seating plan) Assists with roll call. You can re-arrange your seating chart with less difficulty than if the students all pick their own seats from day one. Where do the students who want to muck up sit? Allowing critical mass to sit together is asking for trouble. Eager learners will choose the front seats. You need to be able to move kids around without difficulty. Once led to their seats, tell them you want them to begin the assignment on their desks.
  • Instruct students to begin the assignment at their desks as soon as they find their seat. You walk in, you sit down and you get to work. Starting an assignment ‘bell work’ right away means that students are getting the mindset for learning. It means you can take the roll (seating plan) without wasting valuable lesson time and it means you don’t have to argue with students who is absent or not. DON’T INVOLVE THE CLASS IN THE ROLL TAKING PROCESS. Students: You walk in, you sit down in your assigned seat. You look on the board and there will be your morning assignment or bellwork. Do not wait for the bell to ring. Do not wait for the teacher to start this class.
  • complete a profile card: personal details, family details, likes and dislikes. record of recording any consequences as a result of students not keeping the classroom rules (see later). Students: You walk in, you sit down in your assigned seat. You look on the board and there will be your morning assignment or bellwork. Do not wait for the bell to ring. Do not wait for the teacher to start this class.
  • The important thing is that students get into the habit of commencing work when they enter the room. Bell work gives the teacher the opportunity to do morning chores such as taking the roll. Kids are not distracted, they are focused and working reading for the next task. Sets the scene for learning.
  • Sit in assigned seats. Get on with bell work.
  • To maintain a well organised well disciplined classroom, it is essential to establish clearly defined rules, procedures and routines. The three most important student behaviours that must be taught the first days of school are: Discipline Procedures Routines The First Days of School, p 141
  • Explain the purpose of the rules: Safe and orderly classroom Everyone learn successfully Every student knows they need to behave They’re waiting for the discipline plan – the limits Have a hard copy ready for explanation Hand it out to take home Post a large copy on the wall Handout discipline plan and action plan. Action plan: problem solving approach. Work with the student answering the questions: what’s the problem, what’s causing the problem, what plan will you use to solve the problem? Call the parents in a friendly businesslike manner and that the purpose of the call is to discuss the action plan. Explain that the child has come up with a plan. Calling to see if we can work together to encourage Ben to follow through with what he said he would be responsible for doing.
  • A rule is ineffective if there is no consequence when it is broken.
  • As a new rule becomes necessary, replace it with an older one. Your rules need to suit your classroom. Post your rules with consequences and rewards Show laminated examples of rules. School must be a safe and protected environment where students come to learn without fear. The First Day High school rules: Be seated when the bell rings Bring all books and materials to class No personal grooming during class time Sit in you assigned seat daily Follow directions the first time given
  • Praise Positive notes/postcard home Whole class PAT (preferred learning activity) Movie and popcorn party for class The joy of learning each Give incentives for good behaviour. The class can work towards Preferred Activity Time for younger students: before lunch and at the end of the day (15 mins each session) reduce the time for older students leading to 30 mins PAT on Friday. for high school students: once a week in your last lesson with them of the week. See http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/curr301.shtml for ideas on rewards
  • procedures are designed to help you succeed. Examples: boarding a plane, using a library, restaurant, wedding, movies, bus stop. A procedure is what a teacher wants the student to and a routine is what a student does automatically. To breed responsible students at school they need to have procedures and routines to which they can be responsible to. Effective procedures and routines will result in achievement Well established procedures help eliminate wasted time.
  • In the first few days of school, teach only procedures necessary for the smooth opening of class. Procedures are a part of life p172 Make procedures a part of school life. When class begins, you can easily get students to work if three criteria have been met: the students have an assignment, they know where to find it, they know why they are to do it. P121 Sample bell work assignments include: reading, spelling prac, math prac, other related work p122 Starting work as soon as they enter: Enter quietly, go to your seat, get out your work materials get to work on the assignment. The assignment will be posted on the (board). Start as soon as you enter. You will have 10 minutes after the bell rings to complete the assignment. Compliment the class for working and during ‘bell work’ complete chores such as marking the roll. Delay procedures until appropriate activity arises p173
  • A lack of structure results in lessened achievement. Providing a structure will result in increased achievement.
  • Explain : state, explain, model and demonstrate the procedure Don’t say it once and expect it to be done. Explain (there is a procedure at the end of the period. Remain in your seat until I dismiss the class. Explain the criteria for dismissal: work area tidy, chairs, equipment, show and demonstrate. Have several students demonstrate. Praise.
  • Rehearse: rehearse and practice the procedure under your supervision. Rehearse classroom procedures until they become routines. Teach procedures before you attempt to teach anything else. Rehearse: before the bell rings. Make immediate correction if procedure not followed. First few days remind class of the dismissal procedures a few seconds before bell. If they begin to leave when bell goes, correct it ‘please return to your desks’. Calmly tell the students who began to leave to return.
  • Reinforce: reteach, rehearse, practice, reinforce. Reinforce: Every time a procedure needs to be corrected: remind the class of the procedure, have the class experience the procedure.
  • Teach this until it is a routine. Teach procedures before you attempt to teach anything else. Explain: I have a procedure when I want your attn. You will see me stand here with my hand up (or ring a bell). When you see/hear: freeze, turn and face me, keep your eyes on me, be ready for instruction. Repeat (look for class understanding): ask a student to tell the procedure when you hear the bell. Thank the child. Repeat with other students. Is there anyone who doesn’t understand or know what to do when they see me with my hand up? Rehearse it. Turn to the person next to the right and tell them something about yourself, you have 2 mins. After 2 mins. Ring the bell. Compliment them. Repeat it again: turn to the left, you have 2 mins to say something about yourself. Try the rehearsal in a different setting. Get 7 students to stand in different places in the room. Ring the bell. Reinforce: thank you. Please do the same when you hear the bell. Call on individual kids: what is the procedure when I ring the bell? Call on 3-4 more. Anyone not understand? Have seven kids stand and be in different parts of the room. Ring the bell. See what happens. Congratulate them and tell the class how good they are. Rehearse it again. Praise the results and rehearse again and again. Try it with the students.
  • Library scenario: ‘until we get it right’ p.149 Fred Jones ... Kids will throw daggers at the kid mucking up
  • If you want students to do something well, you must do it over and over again until it is automatic. A smooth running classroom is the responsibility of the teacher and the result of the teacher’s ability to teach procedures. Students respond to procedures because they know what is going to happen. ACTIVITY A– 8 mins Let’s practice some learning mastery: in pairs, one is a student the other a teacher. Teachers, turn to your students and identify one important strategy you have learned from our discussion so far. Explain how to implement the strategy. Students: give feedback if you don’t understand. Reverse: Now partner with another pair and share the strategy that your partner taught you. Doesn’t matter if it’s the same. You will get another perspective, understanding or something your first partner may have missed.
  • Have teams work on these gen Clean up Bulletin board and decoration Enrichment Clerical work general chores and rotate. Have more teams as necessary.
  • ACTIVITY B: Write a procedure: Work in groups and write up a set of procedures. Have handout of procedures. 10 mins Primary students: learn procedures as you go High school: students can be presented with a procedures manual with an explanation of the meaning and importance of procedures p172 After two, three, four days, when you teach them that, you say, "I have another procedure." And you very slowly crank it out until you have some of these procedures. When absent: have students responsible for absent students (ie students could be rotated to take the roll). They take out an absence form, fill in the form, put it in an envelope, student absent returns and gets their work. If they don’t understand it, they have three support buddies to ask help from.
  • Rules and procedures will eliminate many of the behaviour management issues that exist in the classroom. Notice – infraction notice – give to student to see after class – non confrontational
  • Handout: pp 38-44 room settings (tools for teaching) Layout: Make the desks closer to the front, ease of access for the teacher to walk thro
  • Walking across the room is an expensive response to a small problem. The space for walkways is created by bringing the students forward and packing them sideways.
  • Crowd control: gets most of the students to do most of what they are supposed to do most of the time The biggest single variable that governs the likelihood of students goofing off is their physical distance from you ‘ think of yourself as an Australian sheepdog that must constantly keep its charges from wandering off’ Monitoring and adjusting Working the crowd: Either the crowd works you or you work it Movement, eye contact and energy If someone is talking at a table, the presenter will use eye contact Teacher proximity will monitor behaviour Red (stop), yellow (caution – if you are in their direction), green (all clear for them to goof off) areas in your room: be in the red area Eye contact: make eye contact with individuals, fleeting scans of those in the red and yellow zones Walk as you talk – change the zone Don’t stop the class to discipline, use finesse move towards disrupters, stand near them, a knowing look No embarrassment caused
  • Teacher proximity will monitor behaviour Red (stop), yellow (caution – if you are in their direction), green (all clear for them to goof off) areas in your room: be in the red area
  • When you look up in the classroom to see disruptive behaviour you will have a fight flight reflex. You can learn to put on the breaks. You relax by learning to breathe properly. It is the way you would breathe if you were watching tv or reading. It lowers your heart rate and blood pressure, your muscles relax and your face becomes calm and expressionless. Activity c – BREATHING EX’S Prac breathing ex’s. You will see how we will actually put this to practice in a few minutes. Breathe in, don’t fill the lungs, breathe out, relax the jaw. Do full relaxation, think of calming scene
  • A look can get a student back to work. Sometimes it requires walking over to the students to get them to shape up. Have you come across a teacher who could get students to work without saying anything? Just by their look? We’re going to learn ‘the look’
  • Objectives: Calm the student Get them back on task
  • Without mental clarity you cannot have behavioural clarity Focus on small disruptions Big disruptions grow from small disruptions
  • On a logical level, most teachers would agree discipline comes before instruction, but few teachers are that way. Scenario: working with Robert for a few mins, few more secs he’ll be fine, out of the corner of your eye you see disruption. What would you do? Of course you want to finish helping Robert. However, from the student’s perspective, the class just saw you make a choice. Discipline comes before instruction: it is the cornerstone of effective management.
  • Consistency is the key
  • If you don’t have strategies you will fight a losing battle
  • If you respond based upon your feelings, you can never be consistent. Meaning of consistency: no means no, dealing with toddlers, kids will persist, if you give in they know they can get their way, no such thing as kind of consistent The most common disruption is talking to neighbours (80% of the time) If you are consistent, you can use smaller and smaller consequences to govern misbehaviour. But if you are inconsistent you must use larger and larger consequences to govern misbehaviour. Use example: teacher had high expectations, rules, procedures, kids knew the guidelines. Worked well. Compare with: teacher no procedures, no clear guidelines, therefore chattering constantly, teacher becoming more frustrated and dishing out detentions constantly.
  • Relax (the opposite of fight-flight reflex) Feet pointed Eye contact Hands down Jaw relaxed Practice till you get good at it Scenario: working with a student and you see disruption: excuse me Robert, stay down, take another relaxing breath (this enables you to turn away from the problem, this helps you relax, you model courtesy, you give yourself time to refocus; if you stand up immediately, you breathe in and your lungs will be empty) Six seconds to come up, regal turn: This needs practice (head, shoulders, waist, feet) Excuse me, Stay down breathe in gently Breathe in gently, Straighten up halfway and look at disruptive students Breathe in gently, Finish straightening up Breathe in gently, point one foot toward disruptive student as hips come around Breathe in gently, bring other foot around to complete the turn and square up to dis students The body does not lie With good eye contact there is a tension between the teacher and the student that builds with each passing second.
  • Check the body language of students – if feet turned towards each other less likely to return to work Get students to act out: 2 pairs of students and get audience to identify who is more likely to return to
  • Non compliance (check the feet) Pseudo compliance: smiley face, book posing, pretending to work Pseudo compliance: discuss: four year old half the blocks and stops and turns as if to say ‘is that ok?” how you respond will define what you mean by “pick up the blocks”. Half baked is fine. If you keep your toes pointed and your mouth closed your child will grudgingly pick up more blocks. Again ¾ of the blocks picked up this time. She looks over to you again. It takes time and you will need a few relaxing breaths, but your child will eventually learn that you expect a job to be done right. Eventually she will realise that whining is futile. If you crack once or twice, you will have a child who believes half baked is fine.
  • With good eye contact there is a tension between the teacher and the student that builds with each passing second.
  • Move towards the disruptive student Say their names in a flat tone of voice Your lack of an immediate response is very powerful body language Pages 210-219 It would then seem natural to say “Billy, what are you supposed to be doing?”, “this is the second time I have had to talk to you etc etc” As you move you are moving into the green zone turning it red. They want to know if you are serious. They will test you. When you move towards them you are answering the question and they will probably start to move towards their seats.
  • Walk to the edge of the desk, stand relaxed and upright Look at feet and legs Visual prompt to move fully around If half attempt given to you - Verbal prompt Rest your weight on both palms, watch and wait Wait long enough for a stable return to work If you are given eye prompts - student looks up and down, stay down Thank the student and stay down , watch and wait Do not move out too quickly Repeat the process with the second student http://www.flickr.com/photos/emeryjl/511012290/in/photostream/ hoyasmeg flickr
  • Stand slowly after thanking the second student Eyes up, eyes down: wait as you leave, turn fully towards disrupters Do not move away too quickly movements may feel slow, the relaxing breaths pace you
  • Work the crowd Use eye contact Protect student from embarrassment Arrive at the disrupter’s desk and give a knowing look If you embarrass students they will embarrass you in front of the same peer group to get even. There is no such thing as a win-lose it is always win-win or lose-lose.
  • Show ppt of sample teacher procedures and rules Some teachers duplicate pages and distribute them to students.  Some teachers make charts and attach them to the walls.  Some teachers make overlays and display them with a projector.  And Kazim Cicek in Tulsa, Oklahoma, communicates his classroom management procedures to his classes with a PowerPoint presentation. Discuss how to remain at the forefront of your profession. Brainstorm the professionals you know, how they remain up to date.
  • Discuss sub teaching: 2 most important procedures: calling to attention, bellwork
  • Effective Teaching 2

    1. 1. A smooth running classroom is the result of implementing appropriate rules and procedures so that students know what is expected. Either you set the standards, or your students will.
    2. 2. efficient effective
    3. 5. What students want to know when they enter your classroom on the first day:
    4. 7. What is done on the first day will to a large extent, determine the success of that class. Why the First Day of School is so important
    5. 8. Greet students personally as they enter the room. On the First Day of School
    6. 9. Assign seats to students On the First Day of School
    7. 10. Instruct students to begin the assignment at their desks as soon as they find their seat. On the First Day of School
    8. 11. <ul><li>I put an assignment on the board every single day before the students came in to my classes. I now have one of the smoothest running classrooms, and the students produce more for me now than at any other time. </li></ul><ul><li>Shirley Bert Lee, Elementary Teacher </li></ul><ul><li>The First Days of School </li></ul>I put an assignment on the board every single day before the students came in to my classes. I now have one of the smoothest running classrooms, and the students produce more for me now than at any other time. Shirley Bert Lee, Elementary Teacher The First Days of School
    9. 12. First Day Assignment
    10. 13. ‘ Bell Work’ reading math revision spelling colouring drawing
    11. 14. The one, single, most important factor governing student learning is classroom management. Educational Leadership, January 1994
    12. 15. Classroom Discipline Plan
    13. 16. Discipline Plan
    14. 17. Rules Have Consequences Never make a rule that you are not willing to enforce every time
    15. 18. Rules Consequences
    16. 19. Rewards Praise Whole class PAT Movie and popcorn party Joy of learning
    17. 20. The number one problem in classrooms is not discipline; it is the lack of procedures and routines. The First Days of School, p167
    18. 21. Procedures to teach On the First Day of School
    19. 22. Without procedures and routines there is no structure. Without structure, no one knows what to do. Without procedures and routines there is no structure. Without structure, no one knows what to do.
    20. 23. Teaching Procedures: Explain, Rehearse, Reinforce
    21. 24. Explain: state, explain, model and demonstrate the procedure.
    22. 25. Rehearse: rehearse and practice the procedure under your supervision.
    23. 26. Reinforce: reteach, rehearse, practice, reinforce.
    24. 27. Procedure for quieting a class
    25. 28. ... Until it is right
    26. 29. Waiting in line procedure <ul><li>Feet together </li></ul><ul><li>Arms at side </li></ul><ul><li>No talking </li></ul>
    27. 30. Computer lab procedure <ul><li>Wash hands </li></ul><ul><li>No more than 2 people at a computer </li></ul><ul><li>Clean the area before you leave </li></ul><ul><li>Log out of all programs </li></ul><ul><li>If it is the end of the day, close down the computer. </li></ul>
    28. 31. Your procedures will become routines
    29. 32. Procedures = achievement and responsible behaviour
    30. 33. Teach Responsible behaviour Clean up handing out Bulletin Board Clean up General Chores
    31. 34. Identify the procedures you need for your classroom and teach them as the need presents
    32. 35. Managing Behaviour It has been estimated that a teacher makes more decisions in an hour than an air traffic controller. Tools for Teaching, Fred Jones
    33. 36. Your Room – placement of furniture
    34. 37. Make is easier to be in close proximity to students X
    35. 38. ‘ work the crowd’ Make eye contact with those at a distance
    36. 39. Green: Clear to goof off – teacher not nearby
    37. 40. Managing stress will enable you to manage the classroom more effectively If you are calm, you will have a calming effect on those around you Remaining calm in the face of stress, is a skill
    38. 41. What you say non-verbally will have a greater impact than what you say verbally Body language is the language of emotion and intention.
    39. 42. Managing classroom disruptions
    40. 44. <ul><li>A difficult choice? </li></ul>Discipline or instruction? How big is the disruption How important is the assignment?
    41. 45. No means no every time
    42. 46. At some point, dealing with the same provocations from the same students over and over again will become personal.
    43. 47. Being consistent If you respond based upon your feelings, you can never be consistent.
    44. 48. Managing classroom disruptions Learn to Relax
    45. 49. Reading students body language
    46. 50. Reading students body language
    47. 51. With good eye contact there is a tension between the teacher and the student that builds with each passing second.
    48. 52. Walk over to the green zone Move towards the disruptive student Say their names in a flat tone of voice
    49. 53. Moving In <ul><li>Walk to the edge of the desk, stand relaxed and upright </li></ul><ul><li>Look at feet and legs </li></ul><ul><li>Visual prompt to move fully around </li></ul><ul><li>If half attempt given to you - Verbal prompt </li></ul><ul><li>Rest your weight on both palms, watch and wait </li></ul><ul><li>Wait long enough for a stable return to work </li></ul><ul><li>If you are given eye prompts - student looks up and down, stay down </li></ul><ul><li>Thank the student and stay down, watch and wait. </li></ul>
    50. 54. Moving Out Do not move away too quickly <ul><li>Repeat the process with the second student </li></ul><ul><li>Stand slowly after thanking the second student </li></ul><ul><li>If Eyes up, eyes down : wait </li></ul><ul><li>as you leave, turn fully towards disrupters </li></ul>
    51. 55. Camouflage Work the crowd Use eye contact Protect student from embarrassment Arrive at the disrupter’s desk and give a knowing look
    52. 56. <ul><li>Apply Rules, consequences and rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Implement Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Plan ahead </li></ul><ul><li>Assignments posted daily </li></ul>Effective teachers:
    53. 57. <ul><li>Join Associations </li></ul><ul><li>Attend Conferences </li></ul><ul><li>Subscriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Internet groups </li></ul><ul><li>Set up a personal learning network </li></ul><ul><li>Learn from experts around you </li></ul>Be a top professional
    54. 58. <ul><li>Images: lightbulb, Joe Colburn </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom by Dave_mcmt </li></ul><ul><li>Kids Painting, image by pingu1963 </li></ul><ul><li>School entrance by Dave-mcmt </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher, by EditorB </li></ul><ul><li>Blackboard kid, image taken from friendofsnails </li></ul><ul><li>Handshake by sudama http://www.flickr.com/photos/35468150609@N01/16557880 </li></ul><ul><li>Chalkboard background to school boy, by winged photography </li></ul><ul><li>School boy, by tomfhaines </li></ul><ul><li>Desks, by Ben Werdmuller </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 11, classroom by Liz Marie </li></ul><ul><li>Notepad image by efekt </li></ul><ul><li>Bell work, school door image by Dave_mcmt </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline classroom by EditorB </li></ul><ul><li>Rules by faeryboots </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom rules by szlea </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards image by (classroom) LizMarie </li></ul><ul><li>Shhh by said&done </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible behavour, tidy area in classroom by LizMarie </li></ul><ul><li>Cloud question mark by fontplaydotcom </li></ul><ul><li>School building by Dave_mcmt </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearse image by yeowatzup </li></ul><ul><li>Gymnastic image (poutre) by Raoheal Goetter </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearse2 by markwick </li></ul><ul><li>Ballet image by nayrb7 </li></ul>
    55. 59. <ul><li>Classroom rules by LindaH </li></ul><ul><li>Parking image by J aako </li></ul><ul><li>Broken light bulb image by Kyle May </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 25, Well ordered classroom by glassbeednorth </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom 2, by glassbeednorth </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 34, Forming a line image, by woodleywonderworks </li></ul><ul><li>Pencil image by arquera </li></ul><ul><li>Computer lab, laffy4K </li></ul><ul><li>Practising routine, image by pingu1963 </li></ul><ul><li>Playing piano by flickrized </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom (empty desks) by saibotregeel </li></ul><ul><li>Clock image by tamelyn </li></ul><ul><li>Crowd control (image for fill) by James Cridland </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic light image by Johnmarchan </li></ul><ul><li>Calm picture, island, by eindzel </li></ul><ul><li>On task, image by pingu1963 </li></ul><ul><li>Mad expression by kevin dooley </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline image by hyperscholar </li></ul><ul><li>Blind eye, image by DerrekT </li></ul><ul><li>Students at desks by hoyasmeg </li></ul><ul><li>Expression, body language by EditorB </li></ul><ul><li>Relax by Hini* </li></ul><ul><li>Student sitting at desk, image by foundphotosli </li></ul><ul><li>Smiley face image by xtheowl </li></ul><ul><li>Portrait by flikr </li></ul><ul><li>Green light by James Cridland </li></ul><ul><li>Moving In image, classroom by hoyasmeg </li></ul><ul><li>Moving Out image by peidianlong </li></ul><ul><li>Camouflage by jmurawski </li></ul><ul><li>Jones, F, 2007, Tools for Teaching, Fredric Jones & Associates </li></ul><ul><li>Wong, H & R, 2004, The First Days of School, Harry K Wong Publications </li></ul>