Maxims in GSV, by Thomas J. Braga

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Maxims in GSV, by Thomas J. Braga

  1. 1. Modern Language StudiesMaxims in "Grande Sertão: Veredas"Author(s): Thomas J. BragaReviewed work(s):Source: Modern Language Studies, Vol. 22, No. 3 (Summer, 1992), pp. 76-83Published by: Modern Language StudiesStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3195221 .Accessed: 27/04/2012 14:16Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at .http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jspJSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range ofcontent in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. Modern Language Studies is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Modern Language Studies.http://www.jstor.org
  2. 2. in Sertio: Veredas Maxims Grande Thomas Braga J. When the historyof twentieth-century Brazilian literatureiswrittenin the next century,Joao Guimaraes Rosas Grande Sertio:Veredas will undoubtedly emergeas the singlemostimportant workoffiction the period. Vast and varied have been the numerouscritical ofworks devoted to thismajor authorwho has already been proclaimedthe equal of Machado de Assis. Curiouslyenough,however,relativelylittleattentionhas been accorded the didactic aspect of the novel ingeneraland its maximsin particular. Yet the narrator Riobaldo makes of his ina pointquite earlyin the narrative underscoring interest litera-tureof moralinstruction: Em tanto, ponhoprimazia naleitura e proveitosa, de santo, vida virtudes e exemplos-missiondrio espertoengambelandoos indios,ou Sao de Francisco Assis, SantoAnt6nio, Geraldo... Eu gostomuito Sao de moral.Raciocinar,exortar outros os para o bom caminho, aconselhar a justo.(14) Indeed, a close reading of the work reveals more than fourhundred(400)1statements thatcould be qualifiedin varying degreesaseither maximsin theconventional sense of theword meaning"a conciseformulation a fundamental of principleor rule of conduct,"or in an ex-tendedinterpretation meaning in moralizing toneorperspective. Withoutpretending to exhaustthe subject,it is the purpose of thisbriefessay tofilla real lacuna in Rosian studiesby concentrating thosemaximsthat ondeal withthe fourmost frequently cited themes,namely (1) the sertdoand the jagunqo, (2) lifeand death, (3) God and the devil, and (4) love Onand friendship. another level, carefully interwoven intothetext, themaxims serve five (5) important functions that give the narrativeitsstructural and thematicunity.Firstly,by theirsheer frequency,themaximsestablishtextualcoordinatesby focusingattention the four onmajor themesin an otherwiseillusive,ambiguous and ellipticalnovel.Even forBrazilianreaders,Grande Sertdo:Veredas presentsproblemsof interpretation because of itsconvolutedsyntax and style.Riobaldo isclearlyaware thathisreader-interlocutor notfully may understand whathe has to say. "Falo por palavras tortas"(457). But the maximsare veryoften couched ina moresuccinct, simpler, easilyaccessiblelanguage, andeven when theyimplythe unintelligible: "Mas a vida nao 6 entendivel"(131). Equally important, maximsplay a role of primeimportance thein identifying the reader the thread,thefilconducteurof the work, fornamelythat is a dangerous life business:"Viver6 neg6ciomuitoperigoso"(10). Secondly,the aural presence of the silentinterlocutor, Doutor, issuggestedby the factthatRiobaldo triesto elicita reassuring responseby phrasing maximsveryoftenin theformof a questionand thereby his76
  3. 3. attemptingreaffirm analysis what taken to his of has place:"A gente vivenao 6 caminhando costas?" de (522). In other situations, he contrasts hisopinions withthoseof hisfriend Quelem6m. Thistechnique further isreinforced suchexpressions "O senhor by as aprova?"(10) or "Senhoro que acha?"(12). Thirdly, most and importantly, maxims the representa richand variedcompendium sertanejo of folklore wisdomby and atreatinggreat of variety subjects which givethenarrative itslocal bothcoloras well as itsbroad universal appeal. Fourthly, structurally themaxims appearas reference in points theworkto immobilize plot thein theeternal present whilealluding thepastand future. to Maxims bytheirvery nature universally therefore, are outsidethe are true, theytemporal distance theplot:"No realda vida,as coisasacabamcom ofmenos formato, acabam"(79). Fifthly, nem Guimaraes Rosa effectively inusesmaxims a creative oflanguage, irateo raboda palavra" use "detoconvey more than verbal the As reality. Jos6 Carlos Garbuglio affirms:"O mundo6 a palavra"(46). Rosa synthesizes extrapolatesand experi-ence to createanother in dimension, verbalmythos the existential adilemmaof being,not unlike othergreatmyth the makerof Latin-American literature Gabriel GarciaMarquez.Riobaldoinvents because"Avidainventa! porque vida6 mutirdo todos, todos ... a de por remexidae temperada" (430). Riobaldo narratorona difficult as is moral quest: "Contar muito, e6muito dificultoso" (712).He is attempting unravel mystery his to the ofexperiences amongthe iagunqosin generaland his personalmoraldilemma, specifically whether devilexists ifso whether has the and hesigned pactwith a him.Consequently, desire knowis a desire his to todistinguish absolutes, absolute right from absolute wrong, the and certainfrom uncertain. theother the All themes or directly indirectly upon hingethisdifferentiation. nottherefore It is surprising a goodlynumber thatof maxims, somefifty (50), are devotedto thesertioand theiagunqo,forthesertdo the represents allegorical backdropwherethisconflicttakesplace. Butthesertdo physicalas place cannot circumscribed: be 6"Sertao semlugar" (331)."O 6 sertdo do tamanho mundo"do (68). Ithas neither entrance norexit-"O sertao nao temjanelasnemportas"(462)-because basically sertdo within the is manspsyche, mind-set: a 6"Sertao dentro gente" da (289).The mosttypical characteristicthe ofsertio as a view of life is both its illusivenatureand its inherentcontradiction: "Sertio6 isto,o senhor sabe: tudoincerto, tudocerto" 6(146)."O sertao confusio grande em demasiado sossego" (423).VeryoftenRiobaldo reverts personification to inorder givea familiar to fixedform projection that and to which basically is amorphous: "Sertionao6 malino nemcaridoso eletira da,ou agrada amarga, senhor, ... ou ou aoconforme senhor o mesmo" (487).The sertdo surrounds challenges andman:"Serto6 isto: senhor o empurra trs,masde repente volta para elea rodearo senhor lados" (267). The sertdo in perpetual de is agitationbecausewaris constantly its reshaping violent "A contortions: guerra erao constante mexer sertdo,comocomo vento seca6 que as arvores do e dase entortammais" (337). In fact,veryoftenin the maximsthe sertio iscompared to the armaments war and violence-"O grande sertio 6 of 77
  4. 4. a forte arma, Deus 6 umgatilho" it (320)--because is associated with thesocialoutcast, criminal: the "Sertio6 o penal,criminal. Sertao6 ondehomemtemde tera duranuca e mao quadrada"(102). Illusion andcontradiction, beneficence and destruction, are reduced to one allnebulous for confusion, thesertdio generallyignores welfare man the ofand recognizes absolutes no other thanitself: sertao sabe s6 por "O sealto.Mas, ou ele ajuda,com enorme poder,ou 6 traigoeiro muito de-sastroso" (497). Itisthe jagunqo himself best who incarnates enigmatic the sertdio-"Jagungo o sertao" 6 (291)-forhe hassubsumed ruggedness the the oflocaleby hissurvival mentality: "Sertao ondeo pensamento gente 6 dase forma maisforte que o poderdo lugar"(24). His activities do areantithetical theconstraints society, he exercises willby to of and freesimplybeing what he is, an outlaw:"Ningu6m nunca foi jagungoobrigado"(538). The jagunqoneeds conflict, challenge and physical tohardship define in himself opposition thenorms socialbehavior: to of"Que jagungo amolecequandonao padece" (274).His happiness in liesconstant turmoil, violent movement horseback: on do "Alegria jagungo6 o movimento galopado"(526).In manyways,theJagunqo a stoic isforwhomgood and evil,right wrong, all reduced an amoral and are toneutral stance-"Jagungo, que 6, quase que nuncapensaem reto" pelo nao(257)-because "Jagungo se escabreiacom perda nem derrota-quase que tudo para ele 6 igual" (52). Unlikethe narrator who isdesperately to trying sort the"why" "wherefore" hislife, out and of thejagunqodoes notreasonwhy, simply he acceptsthegivenas is: "Naopodendoentender razaoda vida,6 s6 assim se pode serverobom a quejagungo" (533). Butlikethenarrator, jagunqois in thetemporal the ina solitary "O sertao umaespera wait: 6 enorme" (538)."Sertio o sozinho" 6(289).The jagunqo-sertdio encompasses that "O sertao bond all is: tudonao aceita?"(455).In contrast, Riobaldoby hisrationalizingtheoddismanoutinthis jagunqo-sertiio setting he is trying makesenseout for toof,drawa conclusion from pronounce final and a judgment whathe onhasseen, thereader reminded "Quemjulga, morreu" yet is that ji (251). Anequal number maxims, fewer of no than forty-eight are (48),devotedto thelife-death cyclebutwith reference thenexus to sertdio-jagungo. Riobaldois seeking philosophy lifeand a classical a of modusvivendi: 6 que "Aprender-a-viver 6 o viver, mesmo"(546). Curiously allenough thecharacteristics in evident themaxims the treating sertidoandthejagunqo alsopresent those are in maxims addressing thequestion and inoflife death general. isillusory-"A Life gente vive6mesmo parase desiludir desmisturar" e (137)-but is ungovernable because ofconstant changeand an innate feeling it really that does notbelongtous:"A vidada gente setevoltas diz. A vidanem6 da gente" faz se (145).Of all thesensations associated with sight speechareespecially life, andsingled for out comment: "Poucose vivee muito va" (429).Deathon setheother handis realistically identified theolfactory with sensation: "Atudo, cheiro morte o de velha.O mau-fetido vaiterminar que mazelandoa gente" (330). Butlifeis also a songand speechis itslyrical manifes-tation-"Tudo, nesta vida 6 muitocantivel" (455)-caught in the78
  5. 5. ofcacaphony constant change turmoil" vida6 umvagovariado" and "A(467). Silenceby contrast associated is with death:"Ficarcalado 6 que6 falar mortos" Hope anddespair ata continual nos (43). are tug-of-war:"A vida 6 ingrata maciode si; mastranstrazesperanqa no a mesmodomeiodo feldo desespero" (207).Lifefrequently resembles devil the morethanit does God: "A vida 6 muito discordada. Tem partes, temartes.Tem as neblinas Siruiz. de Tem as carastodasdo Cao, e as vertentesdo viver"(471). Lifeis thetemporal cannot delayed-"A vida that benaodi demora nada"(223)-becauseithasbeenpreordained: em "Antesde menino nascer, de suamorte marcada" hora esti (473).There three are thatthings lifedemands us-courage,inquisitiveness, goals:"O of andcorrer vida embrulha da tudo,a vida e6 assim: e esquenta esfria, apertae dai afrouxa, sossegae depoisdesinquieta. que ela querda gente O 6coragem"(297). Whatlifeteachesus if anything to pose further isquestions: se "Vivendo, aprende, o que se aprende, mas mais6s6 a fazeroutras maiores perguntas" (385-386). is Beingethical notas difficult asdetermining ones goals in life:"O mais dificil nao 6 um ser bom eproceder honesto; dificultoso, 6 mesmo, umsaberdefinido que quer, oe tero poderde irat6no raboda palavra" (162-163). to Contrary life, deathpresents imperatives it is always less forconcealed ourpreoccupations the by with living the and minutiae daily oflife:"Com os vivos6 que a gente escondeos mortos" (339). Nor doesitinvolve struggle; gives a it itself naturally: up "Morrer, a morrer,gentesemluxose cede" (141).It is theinstantaneous without forewarning or "Umfright: homem morre que vive, susto instantaneamente" mais sem de(543).Thusthejagunqo histaciturnity by is moreassociated with deaththan with itself: life "Quemvaimorrermatar, e podeter conversa?" (190).Ironically, as thesertdo just reverses natural the order things, does of sodeathrevealcontrarily intervention God: "A morte o sobrevir the of 6de Deus,entornadamente" Alltalkofdeath bytheliving (305). is aboutmisfortune is alwayspast:"A morte corisco that 6 que sempre veio" ja 6(200)."A morte paraos que morrem" (223).Lifelikewaris thegiventhatneedsno further explanation: 6 "Vida,e guerra, o que 6" (214). Without going far PauloHecker so as Filhowhoconsiders GrandeSertdo: Veredas "Fausto the sertanejo" Brazilian of literature itcould (5),be easily argued that Riobaldos moral questlyrically addresses key theissueof thedevilsexistence hispersonal and relationship withhimintheform a pactin general hispursuit theenemy of and of Herm6genesinparticular, latter ultimately causethedeath the the who will of belovedReinaldo-Diadorim.The epigraph"O diabo na rua no meio doredemoinho" in repeated thetext thenarrative of clearly focuses the ondemonicintercession whattranspires forms secondfilcon- of and a inducteur thework.No fewer than thirty-seven maxims (37) alludetoeither devilor God, or both.The ethical the question invariably leadstoan ontological theological and if dilemma; thedevilexists, exists. GodIn a seeming contradiction, Riobaldotransposes terms suggest the to aplayful twist thesubject; on God exists thedeviltranscends but existence:"Deusexiste mesmo quando hI. Maso dem6nio precisa existir n-o n-o deparahaver-a gente sabendoque ele nio existe, 6 que ele tomaconta ai 79
  6. 6. de tudo"(56).What is Riobaldo really is seeking consent, permission, theright to possess and to be whathe is: "Se nao temDeus, entdo, gente a denao temlicenga coisanenhuma" (56). Thusthenarrator playsa cat-and-mouse gamewith reader-interlocutor2 the concerning existence andnon-existence, verysame game thatGod seemsto play withhis thecreatures thedevil:"E preciso Deus existir gente, and de a mais6 do adiabodivertirgente comsuadelenenhuma existencia" (292).Riobaldowho by temperament clearlyleans towardsGods existence, posits, inhowever, middleground an attempt place himself a to outside theontological-theological dilemma: "Nao soudo demoe nao soude Deus"(461).Throughout maximsthe God and thedevil, absolute goodanditscontrary absoluteevil are depictedin anthropomorphic termsandmetaphorical imagery. devilmanifests The himself mostly through verydescriptive harsh emotional attitudes in theform Herm6geness and ofrugged projectionwhile Gods presenceis evidenced by genteelemotional states moreakinto Diadorims mannerisms. demonic The isphysical the prowess, God-like affective angelic. as thejagungo and Justincarnates the characteristics the sertdio, also visually all of he andphysically reflects devils the harshness his by brute force domination: and"Quemvence,6 custoso nao ficar com a cara de dem6nio" (333). Butvery often while devil brutal, canbetray: diabo,6 as brutas; the is God "Omas Deus 6 traigoeiro!" Of all thesensations (22). associated withthedemonic, sight, voyeuristic thefurtive singled for the and are out specialconsideration: diabo vige,diabo quer 6 ver" (510). "O diabo vige "Odentro homem, crespos homem-ou 6 o homem do os do arruinado, ouo homem avessos"(10). Butwhatprecisely thefeatures the dos are ofdevils visage? "Maisfeiono dem6nio o nariz os beigos" 6 e (535).Godsphysical are in features neveralludedto directly favorof a positivedescription certain of traits personality dealing with strong character anddemeanor-aboveall joyand patience: "Deus 6 paciencia. contrario, O6 o diabo," (16) or "Deus 6 alegriae coragem-que Ele 6 bondadeadiante"(292). God is alwaysdefinitive whilethedevilis illusive andevasive: "Deus 6definitivamente; o demo6 o contririo Dele" (39).Ifthedevilis "doido sem cura"(219),he is no less boorish especially withregards hiseating to habits: "Deus come escondido, o diabo sai por etodapartelambendo prato" o (52). Falsehoods thedevilform and onein their reproduction-"retorce que os falsissimos demo se repro- doduzem"(346)-but thebountifulnesstheearths of harvests a reflec- aretion whoandwhat of A God is:"Deuse umaplantaCgo. gente-6 areias" as(318).The concept knowledge general therelationship man of in and ofto God in particular requires a habitof memory: "At6para a gente selembrar Deus, carecede se teralgumcostume" de (144). AndifGodinhisinfinite wisdom knows whathe knows-"O que Deus sabe,Deussabe" (133)-what we can knowof God can onlybe through interme-diaries: "Deus escritura os livros-mestres" Therefore can s6 (326). God inbe interpreted diverse waysevenin mansvariedand contradictorybeliefsbecause he is in everything: "Deus esti em tudo-conforme acrena" (291).Mansfeewillis simply illusion inthefinal an for analysisit is God who callsall theshots: "Deus 6 que deixaafinar vontade a o80
  7. 7. instrumento, que cheguea hora de se dangar"(289). Riobaldos at6concluding on remarks thedevilfittingly correspond theconclusion toofthenarrative hismoral and ordeal. The devilas a distinct realityandabsolute outside mans consciousness notexist. does Likeman,thedevilis a passage-"travessia": "0 Diabo nao existe . . . se for . . . Existe 6homem humano. Travessia" (568).AndwhatofGod? He exists only butinthegooddeedsandmisdeeds men.The cycleis complete Rosa of andsimply poses thequestion anew:"Que Deus existe, sim,devagarinho,depressa. existe Ele mas quase s6 porinterm6dio ago das pessoas: dade bonse maus"(320). Of thefour major themes in treated themaxims, nonehasstirredmoreinterest thanthe love-friendship dichotomy, and none explainsmorecogently whyGrandeSertdo: Veredasis uniquein thecanonofBrazilian literature. fact, other In the three themes intimately are con-necteddirectly indirectly Riobaldos and with attraction Reinaldo- for theDiadorim, boy-man, man-woman, jagungo-beauty with duality allthemoral esthetic and of and implications androgyny bisexuality. Riobaldosquestif nothing is an attempt determine else to whether physical hisattraction Reinaldo-Deadorima manifestationan allegedpact for is ofwiththedevil.The amorous dilemma be reduced thetwofaces can toof love,"amor" and "amizade." One is a foilfortheother: "Amor vemde amor"(23). ButRiobaldorefuses accepthisbisexual to orientationbecauseitis diametrically opposedto therugged, super machocode ofbehaviorof the jagungo.The thirty (30) maxims treating love andfriendship revealGuimaraes Rosa as a true heirofa rich Iberian lyricaltradition where medieval the cantiga amigofuses de with pastorela thein an emotional disguise. WhatRiobaldofeelsforDiadorim either hasno namebecause"Muitacoisa importante nome"(102);or else it faltadaresnotspeakitsname,foritis something morethanfriendship andcloser passionate to love:"Ah,a flor amortemmuitos do nomes" (178).At leastone critic, notably Paulo HeckerFilhoposits "homosexuality"as themaintheme thenovelbutconsiders workflawed of the becausetheauthor chooses circumvent realsubject opting a toofacile to the by fordenouement In revealing (5). Diadorim be a woman, to HeckerFilhobelieves that narrative distorted lacksverisimilitude, one the is and butis reminded "O amors6 mente that paradizermaior verdade"(455).Itis intheclassical definition "amigo" "amante" one perceives of and thattwo paralleldevelopments. first theGreekconceptof a virile, The isfraternitycombat-"Amigo o bragoe o ago" (168)--contrasting of erawitha more genteeland pastoraldisquietude love disguisedas offriendship: "Amizade dada 6 amor" (146-147).The unlikely locusamoenus thesertdo of gives rise only a budding not to romance betweenjagungos a specialrelationship equals,soulmates: but of "Amigo, paramim, so isto: a pessoacomquema gente 6 6 de do gosta conversar, igualo igual, desarmado" (168). The characteristics "amor"and "amizade"get confused of asRiobaldocrosses threshold platonic the of love to passionate love.Justas the boy Reinaldo and the jagunco Diadorim introduceRiobaldo tobeauty as reflectedin the waterways,floraand fauna of the sertio, so 81
  8. 8. too does the"amigo"developintothe"amante." The thought the ofbelovedevokesan instantaneous of outpouring emotion: "Mas,pensar ana pessoa que se ama, 6 como quererficar beiradagua,esperandoque o riacho, alguma hora, pousoso esbarre correr" de (337).IfRiobaldohas recourse metaphor describing passionforDiadorim, is to in his itbecauseall love demands comparison: "Todo amornao 6 uma especiede comparago?"(147). Suffering thesinequa nonof love because isalthough love is a little of healthand a respite bit frommadness-"Qualquer amorji 6 umpouquinho sauide, descanso loucura" de um na(291)-it is no lessa little ofgrief pain:"Porqued6 de amizade bit and6 numsofrezinho simples" in (203).Often themaxims Riobaldoalludesto animals contrast natural to the inclination physical of love withthesocially acceptable constraints conjugal of bonding: amor?Pissaro "Oque poe ovosde ferro" Loveproduces unforeseen uncovers (56). the andthehidden: "Amizade amorsurpreende senais almada gente, de uns daa qual 6 arraial escondido detrisde seteserras?" por (437).The homo-eroticnatureof the love-friendship themeis suggested double byentendre couchedin animal of metaphors expansion: 6 "Amor assim- 6o rato saidumburaquinho:umratazao, umtigre que 6 leao! (399).Lovetransforms thelover thebeloved, both and often encompassing contraryemotions and abilities: "que se temepor amor;mas que, por amor,tambe6m, a coragem faz"(426).Lovekeepsoneyoung-"O amor e6que segeral a conserva mocidade" in (491)-but alsoitsproximity theold maysidetrack and delay: "Amorem perto"s vezes sossega,em muitosadiamentos-aohomem brancabarba"(435).Love can be destruc- dativeinspite itself: amor6 isso:o que bem quere mal faz" (514). of "EWhile loveturns backonallreprobation-"O its amor as costas toda da areprovaCgo" (437)-yet theloverremains alwaysa disobedient slave:"Quem ama 6 sempre muito escravomas nao obedece nuncade ver-dade" (516). Love callsus inquiet, hushed tones: "Quieto, muito quietoe quea gente chamao amor; comoemquieto coisaschamam gente" as a (433).Butoncelost, lovealways leavesanindelible in mark theform anopen ofwound-"D6i sempre gente, na algumavez, todo amorachivel,quealgumdia se desprezou" (488)-for thejoysof love are invariably ac-companied remorse: amor, de si,6 algum by "O ji arrependimento" (38).Love turns thoughts all speechto itsowngalloping all and imperatives:"Quandose viaja varadoavante, sentado quente, no acaba o coximdasela falade amores" (489).Finally, crystallizationlovecausesthe the of forloverto overlook flaws character, "S6 se pode viver all of pertodeoutro, conhecer e outra pessoa, semperigo odio,se a gente amor" de tem(291). The "amigo-amante" in relationship facthas no definitive termsand defies explanation justification liketheother and just three themesunder discussion: "Amigo-6que a gente seja,massemprecisar saber deo porque 6 que 6" (168). Inconclusion, didactic the scopeofGuimaraes Rosasmasterpiecehasbeenseento focus four on mainthemes revealed themaxims. as inMore specifically, Riobaldospersonal moralquestis seen to revolvearound sexualattraction Reinaldo-Diadorim hissubsequent his for and82
  9. 9. failure consummating love bond:"Quemvai em caga,perdeo in thatque nao acha" (258).On another level,Riobaldos longnarrative repre-sents verbalattempt restore a to Diadorim lifeifonlyvicariously to inhisinjured memory andthereby together contrary ofsexual join the endsidentity fulfillment: and "Comose,tudorevendo, eu refazendo, pudessereceber outra o que naotenha vez tido, repor Diadorim vida?"(561). em"Viver"joins"contar" as "cantar" just form and "non-entendivel" theunifying threads Riobaldos of lovesong. The maxims not crystallize justthe narrators moraldilemmabut mans fate;on the one hand,hisobsessive desire differentiate from andonthe to good evil, other, futile hisattempt uncover fixed to any moral guidelines: carego que o bom "Eu deseja bome o ruim ruim. Queroos todospostos demarcados" (206).Thereader must imagine as of and Riobaldo a sort Sisyphus Orpheus, forever hisrecounting lyrical in adventure an attempt recoupa lostlove and tofathom complex weighty the and enigmatic modesof human behaviorand memory. Narration becomesa passage, thus "travessia." to Finally,paraphrase Riobaldosententiously: 6 muito contar moral.StateUniversity Plattsburgh College, NOTES1. I haveidentified hundred sixty-one four and (461)statements couldbe that considered in a maxims thebroadsenseoftheword,treating great variety of themes. between narrator the analysis therelationship2. For an excellent of the and reader, Luiz Fernando see Valente. WORKSCITEDFilho,Paulo Hecker, "GrandeRomance:Frustraq6es." Estado de Sao Paulo, Supplemento 29 Literario April 1973:5.Galvio,Walnice Nogueira. Formas Falso. Sio Paulo:Perspectiva, As do 1969.Garbuglio, JoseCarlos.O MundoMoventede Guimaraies Rosa. Sao Paulo: 1972. Atica,Nunes, Benedito. Dorso do Tigre. Paulo:Perspectiva, O Sao 1969.Rosa,JoioGuimaraes. Grande Sertio:Veredas. 16th Rio de Janeiro: ed. Nova Fronteira,1984.Valente,Luiz Fernando."Affective Responsein GrandeSertao:Veredas." Luso-BrazilianReview23 (Summer 1986):77-88.Vincent, Guimaraies Jon. Rosa. Boston:Twayne, 1978. 83

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