Verb_tenses (present&past)


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Verb_tenses (present&past)

  1. 1. Verb Tenses Present and past
  2. 2. CONTRAST <ul><li>I study at the University. </li></ul><ul><li>I am studying at the University. </li></ul><ul><li>(temporarily) </li></ul><ul><li>I never drink coffee but today I am having one. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Present Simple <ul><li>Form: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inf + s/es for third person singular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aux: Is/do/does or modals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbs ending in o,h,s,z add –es </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbs ending in C-y change y to i and add -es </li></ul></ul><ul><li>situations or actions permanent or repeated </li></ul><ul><li>He always studies at night </li></ul><ul><li>In adverbial clauses with future meaning </li></ul><ul><li>When he gets up tomorrow, he’ll phone me </li></ul>
  4. 4. Present Progressive <ul><li>Form: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to be + vb-ing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aux: to be </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CVC (stressed) double Consonant: Stopping </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Activity in progress or temporary </li></ul><ul><li>Shut up! I’m trying to hear </li></ul><ul><li>We are eating in the terrace this month </li></ul>
  5. 5. SPECIAL VERBS <ul><li>There are verbs which are not usually used in the progressive* </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognition verbs: believe, think, know </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possession verbs: have, belong, own </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense verbs: see, hear, taste, smell etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Their meaning implies that you either do it or do not. </li></ul><ul><li>*When are stative verbs not stative? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Referring to the action in progress at that moment </li></ul><ul><li>Aunt Tilly is assuming her check will arrive today.   </li></ul><ul><li>Indicating a development towards the static state </li></ul><ul><li>I am feeling unhappy about it.   </li></ul><ul><li>Giving a notion of temporariness or limited duration to the state </li></ul><ul><li>Jack is pleasing his boss until bonus time .  </li></ul><ul><li>Showing a different meaning </li></ul>
  6. 6. Present Perfect <ul><li>Form: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>have/has + past participle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aux: have/has </li></ul></ul><ul><li>events with non-specific time reference </li></ul><ul><li>I have been to Rome three times </li></ul><ul><li>Time reference or result continues or is relevant now </li></ul><ul><li>He has worked for me before. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Past Simple <ul><li>Form: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular: Vb + ed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CY: ied VY: yed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CVC: CC-ed VB- e: adds only d </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irregular from list </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aux DID + INF </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Action with specific time reference in the past </li></ul><ul><li>He played the piano when he was nine. </li></ul><ul><li>He went for a walk </li></ul>
  8. 8. Past Progressive <ul><li>Form: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Was/were + Vb-ing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AUX: Was/were </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Activity in progress at a certain time in the past </li></ul><ul><li>activity of a limited duration over a longer period </li></ul><ul><li>At 9 o´clock I was doing English </li></ul><ul><li>That week I was visiting my friends </li></ul>
  9. 9. Past Perfect <ul><li>HAD+ past participle </li></ul><ul><li>Action occurring before certain action in the past or that had consequences in a period in the past </li></ul><ul><li>Before I arrived, he had prepared dinner </li></ul>
  10. 10. CONTRAST <ul><li>Charles Dickens wrote some good books. (He is dead, so his bookwriting days are past.) </li></ul><ul><li>J.K. Rowling has written some good books. (She's still alive, so she can always write some more books, although her Harry Potter series is done.) </li></ul><ul><li>She waited in line for 8 hours before she could buy the latest Harry Potter book. </li></ul><ul><li>After she had waited in line for 8 hours and had bought the book, she sat down and started reading it immediately. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Homework <ul><li>Do the exercises on present simple and progressive, past simple and progressive, past simple and present perfect and past simple and past perfect. Booklet pages 19-21. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Practice <ul><li>Write 6 sentences using each of the tenses we have just seen. </li></ul><ul><li>These sentences may be true or false, but try to make them sound credible. </li></ul><ul><li>Swap your sentences with your partner. </li></ul><ul><li>Correct, if necessary, your partner’s sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to guess if they are true or not. </li></ul>