María de los Ángeles Rojas Jana Strohbach Bárbara Valenzuela II MEDIO Unit 2TECONOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS
Teaching GrammarUnit Objectives:•Express ideas referring to the near past using thepresent perfect•Make references to the during of an event with themarkers for and sinceTechniques applied:DictoglossCloze procedureError detection and correction
WARM UPGRAMMAR SPOT- PRESENT PERFECTThe present perfect is formed with:FORM OF HAVE + PAST PARTICPLEExamples:Bill Gates has been the CEO since 1975.Many people have used Microsoft’s programs.INPUTText about Bill GatesWho is Bill Gates?Bill Gates is one of the richest and most successful business executives in theworld. Millions of people have used his computer programs for the past threedecades. (Section I)Bill Gates has always loved working with computers. In fact, he hasprogrammed computers since his early teens. He has been the CEO (ChiefExecutive Officer) of Microsoft Corporation since 1975. Since then, Bill Gateshas written several books and has given billions of dollars to schools.(Section II)For the last several years, he and his wife Melinda have donated a substantialamount of money to organizations working in global health. (Section III)
EXERCISE 1-DICTOGLOSS:Objectives:•Listen and comprehend information from a text.•Absorb, sort, reaccess and reproduce content and details of something heardread aloud.Preparing students with a warm-up. Introduce the topic and pre-teach theGrammar Spot.The teacher reads the story twice at normal speed.The first time, students should not write anything but just listen. The teacherpauses between sentences and read it out a second time and asks students tonote down the key ideas.Students have to reconstruct the story; the aim is not to write the story word forword, but to write the key ideas.Students, then work in groups, compare their notes and try to reconstruct the textin the WorksheetThe teacher choses a volunteer group to display the story and ask other groups togive feedback, make necessary changes.Finally, teacher projects the original text and asks students to identify anydifferences between the two texts.The teacher asks the students to discover the grammar rule.As a follow-up activity, students may write a similar text.
Note: Assessment and Metacognition approachFor grammar, the work produced through thereconstruction in groups allows students to discusstheir interpretation of which grammar (Present Perfect)would be most appropriate or accurate to ensure thatthe text they produce is as close as possible inmeaning, content and function to the original script. Ifstudents have already studied or been exposed toparticular structures that appear in the script, it isinteresting to note whether students can identify themwhen listening and then reapply them in the actualreconstruction. Comparing the original script with theirown written versions allows for good review and self-
Worksheet Dictogloss Activity Notes Text Reconstruction. Section I Notes Text Reconstruction. Section IINotes Text Reconstruction. Section III
Exercise 2-Cloze and ProcedureGRAMMAR SPOT – SINCE AND FORUSING SINCEUse the present perfect with since + point in timeTo show when something started.Gates has programmed computers since he was 13 years old. NOWPAST FUTURE hasAge 13 programmed computersUSING FORUse for + length of time to show how long something has lasted.Millions of people have used Gates ´software for the last three decades.PAST NOW --------- FUTURE For three decades Have used Gates’ Software.
Objective:Apply the correct use of since and for in connection with the present perfect.Use the appropriate preposition (since or for) to fill in the blanks.Example:Bill Gates has been married to Melinda French Gates__since__ 1994.1. Computers have been used in schools __________ morethan a decade.2. I have had a computer in my office __________ the mid-1990s.3. Many students have worked with computers__________ many years.4. My computer hasn’t given me any problems__________ last year.5. Bill Gates has been in the CEO of MicrosoftCorporation_________1975.6. Bill Gates has programmed computers___________hisearly teens.
Answer KeyComputers have been used in schools ___for_______ morethan a decade.2. I have had a computer in my office ___since___ the mid-1990s.3. Many students have worked with computers ___for___manyyears.4. My computer hasn’t given me any problems __since___lastyear.5. Bill Gates has been in the CEO of MicrosoftCorporation_since___1975.6. Bill Gates has programmed computers__since___his earlyteens.
EXERCISE 3 – ERROR DETECTION AND CORRECTION Objectives: Discriminate and detect time tenses errors in context. Apply correct time tenses.Read the sentences carefully.Decide if correct or incorrect(mark C or I). If incorrect, correct them.Since computers were first introduced to the public in the early 1980s, technologychanged a great deal.Computers have becomed powerful machines with very practical applications.Programmers has created a large selection of useful programs which do everything fromteaching foreign languages to bookkeeping.Many computer users have also gotten on the Internet and havebeginning communicating with other computer users around the world. In short, the simple, individual machines of the past are evolved into an internationalWorld Wide Web of knowledge.
Answer KeySince computers were first introduced to the public in the early 1980s, technologyhas changed a great deal.Computers have become powerful machines with very practical applications.Programmers have created a large selection of useful programs which do everythingfrom teaching foreign languages to bookkeeping.Many computer users have also got on the Internet and have begun communicatingwith other computer users around the world.In short, the simple, individual machines of the past have evolved into an internationalWorld Wide Web of knowledge.