Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.


Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply



Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy 20(5): 762-766, Out./Nov. 2010 Received 6 Jul 2009; Accepted 4 Dec 2009; Available online 19 Nov 2010. Vasorelaxant effect of Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth., Lamiaceae, dichloromethane extract on rat mesenteric arteryArticle Ítalo J. A. Moreira,1 Maria P. N. Moreno,2 Maria F. G. Fernandes,2 João B. Fernandes,2 Flávia V. Moreira,1 Ângelo R. Antoniolli,1 Márcio R.V. Santos*,1 1 Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, CCBS, Av Marechal Rondo s/n, Jd. Rosa Elze, 49100-000 São Cristóvão-SE, Brazil 2 Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luís, km 235, 1 3.565-905 São Carlos-SP, Brazil. RESUMO: “Efeito vasorelaxante do extrato diclorometano de Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth., Lamiaceae, em artéria mesentérica de ratos”. O efeito vasorelaxante do extrato diclorometano de Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth., Lamiaceae (HFDE), em anéis isolados de artéria mesentérica de ratos foi avaliado nesse estudo. Em anéis intactos, pré-contraídos com fenilefrina (10 µM), HFDE (0,1-3000 µg/mL) induziu vasorelaxamento de maneira dependente de concentração (Emax = 119±14%; n = 6), o qual não foi afetado após remoção do endotélio (Emax = 116±6%; n = 6), após KCl 20 mM (Emax = 135±9%; n = 6) ou em anéis pré-contraídos com KCl 80 mM (Emax = 125±4%; n = 6). Em anéis sem endotélio, HFDE (300 ou 1000 µg/mL) inibiu as contrações induzidas por CaCl2 (inibição máxima = 25±7% e 95±1%, respectivamente). Além disso, HFDE promoveu um vasorelaxamento adicional (15±3%; n = 7) sobre o relaxamento máximo de 10 µM de nifedipina (78±3%, n = 7). Em conclusão, HFDE induz efeito vasorelaxante através de uma via independente de endotélio, possivelmente devido à inibição do influxo de Ca2+ através de canais de Ca2+ operados por voltagem. Unitermos: Hyptis fruticosa, extrato diclorometano, efeito vasorelaxante, artéria mesentérica, ratos. ABSTRACT: Vasorelaxant effect of Hyptis fruticosa dichloromethane extract (HFDE) on isolated rings of rat mesenteric artery was evaluated in this study. In intact rings, HFDE (0.1-3000 µg/ mL) induced concentration-dependent vasorelaxations (Emax = 119±14%; n = 6) of phenylephrine tonus that were not modified after endothelium removal (Emax = 116±6%; n = 6), after KCl 20 mM (Emax = 135±9%; n = 6) or in rings pre-contracted with KCl 80 mM (Emax = 125±4%; n = 6). In endothelium denuded rings, HFDE (300 or 1000 µg/mL) inhibited contractions induced by CaCl2 (maximal inhibition = 25±7% and 95±1%; respectively). Furthermore, HFDE promoted an additional vasorelaxation (15±3%; n = 7) after maximal response of 10 µM nifedipine (78±3%; n = 7). In conclusion, HFDE induces vasorelaxant effect through an endothelium-independent pathway, which mostly seems to occur due inhibition of the Ca2+ influx through voltage-operated Ca2+ channels. Keywords: Hyptis fruticosa, dichloromethane extract, vasorelaxant effect, mesenteric artery, rats. INTRODUCTION hundred species distributed at all American Continent. In Brazil, this species is mainly distributed at the central The use of medicinal plants for the treatment of region (Harley, 1988).Various species of this genus are human diseases has increased considerably worldwide. used in the folk medicine because of its antiinflammatory, Evaluation of the effects of these plants on organs and antinociceptive, anticonvulsant and antiulcerogenic actions systems has contributed to the development of the (Barbosa & Ramos, 1992; Akah & Nwambie, 1993; Kuhnt scientific basis for their therapeutic application, and also et al., 1995; Bispo et al., 2001). has enriched considerably the therapeutic arsenal for the Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth., Lamiaceae, treatment of a number of diseases (Elizabetsky, 1986). popularly known in Brazil as “alecrim-do-campo” or Hyptis genus, Lamiaceae, is composed by four “alecrim-do-vaqueiro”, is an aromatic sub-bush plant which 762 *E-mail:, Tel. +55 79 2105 6842, Fax +55 79 21056474. ISSN 0102-695X DOI: 10.1590/S0102-695X2010005000003
  • 2. Vasorelaxant effect of Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth., Lamiaceae, dichloromethane extract on rat mesenteric arterygrows up to 1.5 m found on the Brazilian northeastern 0.42 mM. K+-depolarizing solutions (KCl 20, 60 and 80coast. Phytochemical studies performed in our laboratory mM) were prepared by replacing 20, 60 or 80 mM KCl inhave demonstrated that leaves of this plant present tanins, the Tyrode’s solution with equimolar NaCl, respectivelyterpenes, steroids and alkaloids, and absence of saponins and nominally without Ca2+ solution was prepared by(unpublished data). Previous pharmacological studies have omitting CaCl2.demonstrated that H. fruticosa presented analgesic (Silva etal., 2006; Cândido, 2006; Menezes et al., 2007), larvicidal Tissue preparation(Silva et al., 2008) and hypotensive activities (Santos etal., 2007). Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the Rats were euthanized by cervical dislocationvasorelaxant effect of Hyptis fruticosa dichloromethane and exsanguination. The superior mesenteric artery wasextract (HFDE) and its action mechanism in rats. removed, cleaned from connective tissue and fat, and sectioned in rings (1-2 mm), which were suspended inMATERIAL AND METHODS organ baths containing 10 mL of Tyrode´s solution, gassed with a mixture of 95% O2 and 5% CO2 and maintainedDrugs at 37 oC. Isometric tension was recorded under a resting tension of 0.75 g. During the stabilization period the The drugs used were: Acetylcholine chloride solution was changed every 15 min (Altura & Altura,(Ach), L-phenylephrine chloride (Phe) and cremophor (a 1970). The isometric tension was recorded through aderivative of castor oil and ethylene oxide used to emulsify force transducer (Gould, Model GM2, USA) coupled towater-insoluble substances) (SIGMA). All compounds an amplifier-recorder (Gould, USA). Endothelium waswere dissolved in distilled water. removed by gently rubbing the intimal surface of the vessels. The presence of functional endothelium wasExtraction assessed by the ability of acetylcholine (ACh) (10 µM) to induce more than 70% relaxation of pre-contracted vessels Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth., Lamiaceae, with phenylephrine (10 µM). The absence of the relaxationcollected near São Cristóvão (S 10o 56` W 37o 11`), to ACh was taken as evidence that the vessel segmentsBrazilian State of Sergipe, was identified by Prof. Dr. were functionally denuded of endothelium.Adauto Souza Ribeiro, Botanist in the Biology Department,Universidade Federal de Sergipe. A voucher specimen was HFDE effect on phenylephrine (10 μM) induced tonusdeposited in the Herbarium of the Biology Departament, in isolated rat superior mesenteric artery rings with orUniversidade Federal de Sergipe (code n° ASE 01137). without endotheliumAerial parts of H. fruticosa were dried at 40 ºC in an ovenwith air circulation and pulverized. The powder (500 g) After the stabilization period, two successivewas exhaustively extracted with methanol (1:5 p/v) by 8 contractions of similar magnitude were induced with 10dias to room temperature. After filtration, the solvent was µM Phe in rings with or without endothelium. During theremoved under reduced pressure, yielding 78.5 g of the tonic phase of the third contraction, different concentrationsmethanol extract. The HFDE was obtained from methanol of HFDE (0.1; 0.3; 1; 3; 10; 30; 100; 300; 1000 and 3000extract by using the following solvents: dichloromethane, µg/mL) were added cumulatively to the organ bath. Theethyl acetate and methanol yielding: 8.4 g (1.68%), 5.4 g relaxations were measured by comparing the developed(1.08%) and 29.5 g (5.90%), respectively. tension before and after the addition of HFDE and expressed as percentage of relaxation from induced tonus.Animals In other set of experiments, concentration-response curves were obtained in rings without endothelium before and Male Wistar rats (200-300 g) were used in all after to the pre-incubated with 20 mM of KCl.experiments. They were housed in conditions of controlledtemperature (21±1 ºC) and exposed to a 12 h light-dark Effect of HFDE on contraction induced by KCl 80 mMcycle with free access to food (Purina-Brazil) and tap in endothelium-denude ringswater. All procedures described in the present work are inagreement with Animal Research Ethics Committee from After the stabilization period, rings withoutUniversidade Federal de Sergipe. endothelium were pre-contracted with K+-depolarizing solutions (KCl 80 mM) and, on the tonic phase, differentSolutions concentrations of HFDE (0.1; 0.3; 1; 3; 10; 30; 100; 300; 1000 and 3000 µg/mL) were added cumulatively to The composition of the normal Tyrode’s solution organ bath. The relaxations were measured as previouslyused was: NaCl 158.3, KCl 4.0, CaCl22H2O 2.0, NaHCO3 described.10.0, C6H12O6 5.6, MgCl2.6H2O 1.05 and NaH2PO4H2O Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. Braz. J. Pharmacogn. 763 20(5): Out./Nov. 2010
  • 3. Ítalo J. A. Moreira, Maria P. N. Moreno, Maria F. G. Fernandes, João B. Fernandes, Flávia V. Moreira et al. Effect of HFDE on concentration-response curves to CaCl2 in endothelium-denuded rings 0 Control Without endothelium After the stabilization period, the rings without 25 KCl 80 mM endothelium were contracted with K+-depolarizing solution % of relaxation (KCl 60 mM) and washed with normal Tyrode’s solution 50 until full recovery of initial tension. After this, they were incubated with nominally without Ca2+ solution for 15 min 75 and afterwards exposed to nominally without Ca2+ solution with KCl to 60 mM for another 15 min (Goodfraind et 100 al., 1986). Then, a first cumulative concentration-response 125 curve to CaCl2 (3 x 10-6, 10-5, 3 x 10-5, 10-4, 3 x 10-4, 10-3, 3 x 10-3, 10-2 and 3 x 10-2 M) was obtained. In these same 150 preparations, HFDE (300 or 1000 µg/mL) was individually pre-incubated for 15 min and a second cumulative 0.01 1 100 10000 concentration-response curve to CaCl2 was obtained. This [HFDE] µg/mL curve was compared with those obtained in the absence of HFDE and the results were expressed as percentages of the maximal response to CaCl2 alone. Figure 1. Concentration-response curves to HFDE (0.1; 0.3; 1; 3; 10; 30; 100; 300; 1000 and 3000 µg/mL) in rings of rat isolated superior mesenteric artery pre-contracted with 10 Effect of HFDE on maximal vasorelaxant response of μM Phe (Control), without functional endothelium (Without nifedipine in endothelium denuded rings endothelium) and rings without endothelium pre-contracted with K+-depolarizing solutions (KCl 80 mM). Values are expressed Initially, a concentration-response curve to as mean±SEM, n = 6. The data were analyzed with repeated nifedipine was performed in order to determine the measures two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post-test. concentration of maximal vasorelaxant response in endothelium-denuded rings pre-contracted with 10 µM It is well known that the endothelium is an of Phe (data not shown). After this, others endothelium- important regulator of the vascular tone by releasing denuded rings pre-contracted with 10 µM of Phe were endothelium-derived relaxing factors (Moncada et al., incubated with 1000 µg/mL of HFDE or 10 µM of 1991), mainly NO and COX-derived products, such as nifedipine, separately. In other set of experiments, PGI2 (Moncada et al., 1991; Furchgott & Zawadzki, 1980). endothelium-denuded rings pre-contracted with 10 µM of In order to investigate the participation of the endothelium Phe were incubated with 10 µM of nifedipine and after in the vasorelaxant effect induced by HFDE, we performed obtainment of the maximal vasorelaxant response, HFDE experiments in the absence of functional endothelium. In (1000 µg/mL) was added in organ bath. The responses to these conditions, the vasorelaxant response induced by each vasorelaxant agent were statistically compared. HFDE was not significantly changed (Emax = 116±6%; n = 6) (Figure 1). This suggests that the presence of endothelium Statistical analysis is not essential for relaxant response expression and that an endothelium-independent pathway is probably implicated Values were expressed as mean±SEM. When in this effect. appropriate, one-way ANOVA or two-way ANOVA for Potassium channels importantly contribute to the repeated measures, both followed by Bonferroni post- determination and regulation of the vascular tone (Nelson test, was performed to evaluate the significance of the & Quayle, 1995; Jackson, 2000). The electrochemical differences between means. Statistically different values gradient for K+ ions is such that the opening of K+ channels were detected at a significance level of 0.05. results in the diffusion of this cation out of the cells with consequent hyperpolarization. This effect closes voltage- RESULTS AND DISCUSSION operated Ca2+ channels and leads to vasorelaxation (Jackson, 2000). In order to investigate the involvement In intact rings of rat isolated superior mesenteric of K+ channels in the vasorelaxant effect of HFDE, we artery, HFDE (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 30, 100, 300 and 1000 performed experiments in the presence of 20 mM of K+. μg/mL, cumulatively) induced vasorelaxation in a This procedure partially prevents the efflux of K+ through concentration dependent manner of tonus induced by 10 the membrane and, therefore inhibits the relaxations μM phenylephrine (Emax = 119±14%; n = 6) (Figure 1). mediated by the opening of K+ channels (Campbell et al., 1996). Thus, In rings without endothelium pre-contracted with Phe and incubated with KCl 20 mM, the concentration- response curve to HFDE was not significantly changed Rev. Bras. Farmacogn.764 Braz. J. Pharmacogn. 20(5): Out./Nov. 2010
  • 4. Vasorelaxant effect of Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth., Lamiaceae, dichloromethane extract on rat mesenteric artery(Emax = 135±9%; n = 6) (Figure 2), suggesting that K+ that were strongly inhibited after incubation with HFDE inchannels appears not to be involved in this response. concentrations of 300 and 1000 µg/mL (maximal inhibition = 25±7% and 95±1%; n = 6; respectively). 0 125 Control Without endothelium 25 After HFDE 300 µg/mL KCl 20 mM 100 After HFDE 1000 µg/mL% of relaxation % of contraction 50 ** *** *** 75 * 75 50 * 100 25 * 125 *** *** *** *** * *** *** 0 150 6 5 4 3 2 1 0.01 1 100 10000 - Log [CaCl2] M [HFDE] µg/mL Figure 3. Concentration-response curves to CaCl2 (3 x 10-6, 10-5,Figure 2. Concentration-response curves to HFDE (0.1; 0.3; 1; 3; 3 x 10-5, 10-4, 3 x 10-4, 10-3, 3 x 10-3, 10-2 and 3 x 10-2 M) in rings10; 30; 100; 300; 1000 and 3000 µg/mL) in rings of rat isolated of rat superior mesenteric artery, without endothelium beforesuperior mesenteric artery without functional endothelium pre- (control) and after pre-incubation with HFDE at concentrationscontracted with 10 μM Phe (Without endothelium), and rings of 300 and 1000 µg/mL, separately. Values are expressed aswithout endothelium pre-contracted with Phe and incubated with mean±SEM, n = 6. The data were analyzed with repeatedK+-depolarizing solutions (KCl 20 mM). Values are expressed measures two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni mean±SEM, n = 6. The data were analyzed with repeated *p< 0.05, **p< 0.01 and ***p< 0.001 vs control.measures two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post-test. As reported by Chan et al. (2000), nifedipine, a Calcium is the primary regulator of tension in L-type voltage-operated Ca2+ channel selective blocker,vascular smooth muscle (Gurney, 1994). It is well known also inhibited the concentration-response curve to CaCl2,that the maintenance of smooth muscle contraction depends suggesting strongly that HFDE could be acting possibly ason Ca2+ influx from extracellular space through voltage- a calcium channel blocker.and/or receptor-operated calcium channels (VOCCs and/ Finally, we performed experiments in that wereor ROCCs, respectively) (Karaki & Weiss, 1988). It is observed the vasorelaxation response of HFDE (1000 µg/well reported that the increase of external K+ concentration mL) and 10 µM of nifedipine, separately, and the effect of(KCl 80 mM) induces smooth muscle contraction through HFDE (1000 µg/mL) after maximal vasorelaxant responseVOCCs activation and subsequent calcium release from induced by 10 µM of nifedipine. In this condition, HFDEthe sarcoplasmic reticulum (Karaki & Weiss, 1988). The (1000 μg/mL) or nifedipine (10 μM) were capable ofhigh K+-induced contraction is inhibited by Ca2+ channel inducing vasorelaxation of Phe tonus (Emax = 79±9 andblockers or by removal of external Ca2+ and is, therefore, 78±3%; n = 6, respectively), and HFDE (1000 µg/mL)entirely dependent of Ca2+ influx (Karaki & Weiss, 1988). induced a small but significant additional vasorelaxationThus, we evaluated the HFDE effect on endothelium- effect on the maximal vasorelaxation of nifedipine (10denuded rings pre-contracted with K+-depolarizing mM) (15±3%; n = 7), suggesting that HFDE appearssolutions (KCl 80mM). This set of experiments revealed to be acting in major part by the same pathway of thethat HFDE induced vasorelaxations, which were not nifedipine.significantly different of those observed in rings pre- However, the observation of an additionalcontracted with Phe (125±4%; n = 6) (Figure 1), suggesting vasorelaxation after maximal response of nifedipinethat the HFDE inhibits Ca2+ influx through VOCCs. allow us to hypothesize that other pathway appears to In order to check the hypothesis above, we be implicated in the HFDE-induced response, possiblyconstructed a concentration-response curve to CaCl2 involving intracellular calcium stores. However, further(3 x 10-6, 10-5, 3 x 10-5, 10-4, 3 x 10-4, 10-3, 3 x 10-3, 10-2 experiments are necessary to clearly elucidate thisand 3 x 10-2 M) in presence of K+-depolarizing solution assumption.(KCl 60 mM), before and after incubation with HFDE in In conclusion, these results demonstrate that thedoses of 300 and 1000 µg/mL. In these conditions, CaCl2 dichloromethane extract of Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. exinduced contractions in endothelium-denuded rings of rat Benth., Lamiaceae, (HFDE) produces vasorelaxant effectmesenteric artery in a concentration-dependent manner in rat superior mesenteric artery through an endothelium- Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. Braz. J. Pharmacogn. 765 20(5): Out./Nov. 2010
  • 5. Ítalo J. A. Moreira, Maria P. N. Moreno, Maria F. G. Fernandes, João B. Fernandes, Flávia V. Moreira et al. independent pathway, which appears to be due in major Furchgott RF, Zawadzki JV 1980. The obligatory role of part to inhibition of the Ca2+ influx through voltage- endothelial cells in the relaxation of arterial smooth operated Ca2+ channels. muscle by acetylcholine. Nature 288: 373-376. Goodfraind T, Miller R, Wibo M 1986. Calcium antagonism and calcium entry blockade. Pharmacol Rev 38: 321-416. 125 HFDE (1000 µg/mL) Gurney AM 1994. Mechanisms of drug-induced vasodilatation. J Pharm Pharmacol 46: 242-251. * Nifedipine (10 µM) 100 Harley RM 1988. Revision of generic limits in Hyptis Jacq % of relaxation Nifedipine (10 µM) + (Labiatae) and its allies. Bot J Linn Soc 98: 87-95. 75 HFDE (1000 µg/mL) Jackson WF 2000. Ion channels and vascular tone. Hypertension 35: 173-178. 50 Karaki H, Weiss GB 1988. Calcium release in smooth muscle. Life Sci 42: 111-122. 25 Kuhnt M, Probstle A, Rimpler H, Bauer R, Heinrich M 1995. 0 Biological and pharmacological activities and further constituents of Hyptis verticillata. Planta Med 61: 227- 232. Figure 4. Vasorelaxant effect of nifedipine (10 μM) before and Menezes IAC, Marques MS, Santos TC, Dias KS, Silva ABL, after administration of HFDE (1000 µg/mL) in rings of rat isolated Mello ICM, Lisboa ACCD, Alves PB, Cavalcanti SCH, superior mesenteric artery without functional endothelium pre- Marçal RM, Antoniolli AR 2007. Antinociceptive effect contracted with 10 μM Phe. Values are expressed as mean±SEM, and acute toxicity of the essential oil of Hyptis fruticosa n = 6. The data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA followed in mice. Fitoterapia 78: 192-195. by Bonferroni post-test. *p< 0.05 vs Nifedipine. Moncada S, Palmer RMJ, Higgs EA 1991. Nitric Oxide: Physiology, pathophysiology and pharmacology. Pharmacol Rev 43: 109-142. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Nelson MT, Quayle JM 1995. Physiological roles and properties of potassium channels in arterial smooth muscle. Am J We thank technical assistance of Mr. Osvaldo Physiol 268: C799-C822. Andrade Santos. This work was supported by grants from Santos MRV, Carvalho AA, Medeiros IA, Alves PB, Marchioro CNPq, CAPES, FAPITEC-SE, Ministério da Saúde, SES/ M, Antoniolli AR 2007. Cardiovascular effects of Hyptis SE, Brazil. fruticosa essential oil in rats. Fitoterapia 78: 186-191. Silva ABL, Dias KS, Marques MS, Menezes IAC, Santos TC, REFERENCES Mello ICM, Lisboa ACCD Cavalcanti SCH, Marçal RM, Antoniolli AR 2006. Evaluation of the analgesic effect and acute toxicity of the aqueous extract of Hyptis Akah PA, Nwambie AI 1993. Nigerian plants with anti-convulsant fruticosa (Salmz. ex Benth.)”. Rev Bras J Pharmacogn property. Fitoterapia 64: 42-44. 16: 475-479. Altura BM, Altura BT 1970. Differential effects of substrate Silva WJ, Dória GAA, Maia RT, Nunes RS, Carvalho GA, depletion on drug-induced contractions of rabbit aorta. Blank PB, Marçal RM, Cavalcanti SCH 2008. Effects Am J Physiol 219: 1698-1705. of essential oils on Aedes aegypti larvae: Alternatives to Barbosa PPP, Ramos CP 1992. Studies on the antiulcerogenic environmentally safe insecticides. Bioresource Technol activity of the essential oil of Hyptis mutabilis Briq in 99: 3251-3255. rats. Phytotherapy 6: 114-115. Bispo MD, Mourão RHV, Franzotti EM, Bomfim KBR, Arrigoni- Blank MF, Moreno MPN, Machioro M, Antoniolli AR 2001. Antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effects of the aqueous extract of Hyptis pectinata leaves in experimental animals. J Ethnopharmacol 76: 81-86. Campbell WB, Gebremedhin D, Prait PF, Herder DR 1996. Identification of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors. Circ Res 78: 415-423. Cândido EAF 2006. Caracterização parcial dos efeitos do extrato hidroalcoólico das folhas da Hyptis fruticosa no sistema nervoso central de camundongos. São Cristóvão, 75 p. Dissertação de Mestrado, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Sergipe. Chan W, Yao X, Ko W, Huang Y 2000. Nitric oxide mediated endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by glibenclamide in rat isolated aorta. Cardiovasc Res 46: 180-187. Elizabetsky E 1986. New directions in ethnopharmacology. J Ethnobiol 6: 121-121. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn.766 Braz. J. Pharmacogn 20(5): Out./Nov. 2010 .