Cognitive Apprenticeship in a Long-Term Care Pharmacy Maria Miller Clemson University
<ul><li>Green Pharmacy dispenses prescriptions to residents of long-term care facilities </li></ul>
<ul><li>Problem: packaging mistakes leading to potentially harmful or fatal patient outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Adverse outcomes to medication errors can produce serious results </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-theraputic or overdosing <...
<ul><li>Green Pharmacy went on a Performance Improvement/Root Cause Analysis journey to determine the cause of packaging e...
<ul><li>The analysis determined that the performance gap was due to training issues </li></ul>
<ul><li>Pharmacy technicians spend 9 months in a classroom-based vocational training program </li></ul>
<ul><li>New technicians begin work without much hands-on experience  </li></ul><ul><li>They learn the trade by being paire...
The Apprenticeship Model <ul><li>Modeling : the instructor demonstrates and narrates how to perform a task </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Instructors would explain how to perform tasks, but not necessarily why a task needed to be performed a particular...
The Cognitive Apprenticeship Model <ul><li>Adds these features </li></ul><ul><li>Articulation : the trainer questions the ...
<ul><li>The cognitive apprenticeship model bridges the gap between schooling and work by helping students use the informat...
Conclusion <ul><li>Green Pharmacy has adopted the cognitive apprenticeship model to training new pharmacy technicians with...
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Maria Miller 847 ppt

  1. 1. Cognitive Apprenticeship in a Long-Term Care Pharmacy Maria Miller Clemson University
  2. 2. <ul><li>Green Pharmacy dispenses prescriptions to residents of long-term care facilities </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Problem: packaging mistakes leading to potentially harmful or fatal patient outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrong medication </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrong strength </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wrong quantity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Adverse outcomes to medication errors can produce serious results </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-theraputic or overdosing </li></ul><ul><li>Patient harm or death </li></ul><ul><li>Legal action </li></ul><ul><li>Fines </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of licensure </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Green Pharmacy went on a Performance Improvement/Root Cause Analysis journey to determine the cause of packaging errors </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The analysis determined that the performance gap was due to training issues </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Pharmacy technicians spend 9 months in a classroom-based vocational training program </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>New technicians begin work without much hands-on experience </li></ul><ul><li>They learn the trade by being paired with an experienced technician </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Apprenticeship Model <ul><li>Modeling : the instructor demonstrates and narrates how to perform a task </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching : the student performs the task while the instructor watches and coaches </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding : as the student becomes increasingly more competent, the instructor pulls away support </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Instructors would explain how to perform tasks, but not necessarily why a task needed to be performed a particular way </li></ul><ul><li>The work was not organized in a way conducive to training a new technician </li></ul><ul><li>Having multiple instructors made it difficult for trainees to see the ‘big picture’ view </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes trainees picked up bad habits </li></ul>The downside to the apprenticeship model
  11. 11. The Cognitive Apprenticeship Model <ul><li>Adds these features </li></ul><ul><li>Articulation : the trainer questions the student and also stimulates the student to ask questions </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection : encouraging the student to be aware of his/her own strengths and weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Exploration : encouraging students to formulate and pursue learning goals </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The cognitive apprenticeship model bridges the gap between schooling and work by helping students use the information learned in school within the context of the work setting </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge + Appropriate Training = Success </li></ul>
  13. 13. Conclusion <ul><li>Green Pharmacy has adopted the cognitive apprenticeship model to training new pharmacy technicians with the expectation that better trained technicians will make fewer errors </li></ul>
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