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Teaching according to how students learn ... Ma. Martha Manette A. Madrid, Ed.D. Faculty Development Training Panpacific University North Philippines Urdaneta City, Philippines May 2011
WHAT ARE YOUR THEORIES OF TEACHING & LEARNING?LEARNING is ______________TEACHING is ______________
LEVELS OF THINKING ABOUT TEACHINGLevel 1. Focus: What the student isLevel 2: Focus: What the teacher doesLevel 3: Focus: What the student does
Level 1. Focus: What the student is• Teachers focus on the differences between students, there are good students and poor students.• Teachers see their responsibility as knowing the content well, and expounding it clearly.
THEREFORE…• Attend lectures• Listen carefully• Take notes• Read the recommended readings• Make sure its taken on board and unloaded cueRESULT…If he/she does= good studentIf he/she doesn’t = poor student
At Level 1Teaching is…• in effect held constant - it is transmitting information, usually by lecturingLearning is…• due to differences between students in: - Ability - Motivation - What sort of school they went to - Ethnicity - And so on
NOTE:The view of university teaching as transmitting information is so widely accepted that teaching and assessment the world ever over are based on it.Critic: Teaching rooms and media are specifically designed for one-way delivery
Summary:• The teacher’s role is to display information, the students’ absorb it.• When students don’t learn, it is due to something the students are lacking, they are: - Incapable - Unmotivated - Foreign - Academic defect• - And so on
Conclusions:• Teaching is totally unreflective• It doesn’t occur to the teacher to ask the key generative question: What else could I be doing?• Blame-the-student theory of teaching
Level 2. Focus: What the teacher does• Teachers focus on what teachers do rather than what the student is.
At Level 2Teaching is…• still based on transmission, but transmitting concepts and understandings, not just informationTherefore…• Responsibility of getting it across now rests to a significant extent on what the teacher does - it is transmitting information, usually by lecturing
At Level 2Learning is…• seen as more a function of what the teacher is doing, than of what sort of student one has to deal with.Implication• The Teacher obtains/uses: - Skills - Methods/Approaches/Techniques - Competencies
TEACHING SKILLS• are defined as a group of teaching acts or behaviors intended to facilitate students learning directly or indirectly.WHY DO WE NEED TO HAVE SKILLS IN TEACHING?• To ensure competency in teaching.• To make the class interesting.• To enable the teacher to develop confidence in teaching.• To avoid confusion• To enable the teacher to understand individual differences in learning.
Eight Habitsof Highly Effective 21st Century Teachers
• Educator must be able to adapt• 1. Adapting the curriculum and the requirements to teach to the curriculum in imaginative ways. • Educators must be able to adapt software and hardware designed for a business model into tools to be used by a variety of age groups and abilities. • Educators must also be able to adapt to a dynamic teaching experience. • When it all goes wrong in the middle of a class, when the technologies fail, the show must go on.
• Educators must look across• 2. Being the disciplines and through Visionary the curricula; they must see the potential in the emerging tools and web technologies, grasp these and manipulate them to serve their needs. • The visionary teacher can look at others ideas and envisage how they would use these in their class.
• 3. Collaborating • Educators we must be able to leverage these collaborative tools to enhance and captivate our learners.. • Educators too, must be collaborators: - Sharing, - contributing, - adapting - inventing.
• You must take risks and• 4. Taking sometimes surrender yourself Risks to the students knowledge. • Have a vision of what you want and what the technology can achieve, • identify the goals and facilitate the learning, • use the strengths of the digital natives to understand and navigate new products, have them teach each other, • trust your students.
• 5. Learning • Educators expect their students to be life-long learners. • Teachers must continue to absorb experiences and knowledge, as well. They must endeavour to stay current. • To be a teacher, you must learn and adapt as the horizons and landscapes change.
• The teacher is fluent in tools and• 6. technologies that enable Communicating communication and collaboration. • They go beyond learning just how to communicate and collaborate; • They also know how to: - facilitate, - stimulate - control, - moderate - manage communication and collaboration. •
• Teachers are expected to teach• 7. Modeling values, so we must model the Behavior behaviors that we expect from our students. • Educator also models tolerance, global awareness, and reflective practice, whether it is the quiet, personal inspection of their teaching and learning, or through blogs, Twitter and other media, effective educators look both inwards and outwards.
• 8. Leading • Whether they are a champion of the process of ICT integration, a quiet technology coach, the 21st century educator is a leader
TEACHING TECHNIQUES• Exercises for Individual Students1. The "One Minute Paper" - This is a highly effective technique for checking student progress, both in understanding the material and in reacting to course material. Ask students to take out a blank sheet of paper, pose a question (either specific or open-ended), and give them one (or perhaps two - but not many more) minute(s) to respond.2. Muddiest (or Clearest) Point - This is a variation on the one-minute paper, though you may wish to give students a slightly longer time period to answer the question.
3. Affective Response - Again, this is similar to the above exercises, but here you are asking students to report their reactions to some facet of the course material - i.e., to provide an emotional or valuative response to the material.4. Daily Journal - This combines the advantages of the above three techniques, and allows for more in-depth discussion of or reaction to course material.5. Reading Quiz - Clearly, this is one way to coerce students to read assigned material! Active learning depends upon students coming to class prepared.6. Clarification Pauses - This is a simple technique aimed at fostering "active listening".7. Response to a demonstration or other teacher centered activity - The students are asked to write a paragraph that begins with: I was surprised that ... I learned that ... I wonder about ...
• Question and Answer1. The "Socratic Method“2. Wait Time - Rather than choosing the student who will answer the question presented, this variation has the instructor WAITING before calling on someone to answer it.3. Student Summary of Another Students Answer - In order to promote active listening, after one student has volunteered an answer to your question, ask another student to summarize the first students response.
4. The Fish Bowl - Students are given index cards, and asked to write down one question concerning the course material. The instructor then draws several questions out of the bowl and answers them for the class or asks the class to answer them.5. Quiz/Test Questions - Here students are asked to become actively involved in creating quizzes and tests by constructing some (or all) of the questions for the exams
• Immediate Feedback1. Finger Signals - This method provides instructors with a means of testing student comprehension without the waiting period or the grading time required for written quizzes. Students are asked questions and instructed to signal their answers by holding up the appropriate number of fingers immediately in front of their torsos (this makes it impossible for students to "copy", thus committing them to answer each question on their own). For example, the instructor might say "one finger for yes, two for no", and then ask questions such as "Do all organic compounds contain carbon [hydrogen, etc.]?
• Immediate Feedback2. Flash Cards3. Quotations - This is a particularly useful method of testing student understanding when they are learning to read texts and identify an authors viewpoint and arguments
• Critical Thinking Motivators1. The Pre-Theoretic Intuitions Quiz - Students often dutifully record everything the instructor says during a lecture and then ask at the end of the day or the course "what use is any of this?“2. Puzzles/Paradoxes
• Share and pair1. Discussion - Students are asked to pair off and to respond to a question either in turn or as a pair.2. Note Comparison/Sharing - have students occasionally compare notes.3. Evaluation of Another Students Work -students may be assigned partners to work with throughout the term. Each student then takes their partners work and depending on the nature of the assignment gives critical feedback, standardizes or assesses the arguments, corrects mistakes in problem-solving or grammar, and so forth.
• Cooperative Learning Exercises1. Cooperative Groups in Class - Pose a question to be worked on in each cooperative group and then circulate around the room answering questions, asking further questions, keeping the groups on task, and so forth.. After an appropriate time for group discussion, students are asked to share their discussion points with the rest of the class.2. Active Review Sessions – the instructor posses questions and the students work on them in groups. Then students are asked to show their solutions to the whole group and discuss any differences among solutions proposed.
3. Work at the Blackboard - students work out the problems themselves, by asking them to go to the blackboard in small groups to solve problems.4. Concept Mapping - A concept map is a way of illustrating the connections that exist between terms or concepts covered in course material; students construct concept maps by connecting individual terms by lines which indicate the relationship between each set of connected terms.5. Visual Lists - Here students are asked to make a list--on paper or on the blackboard; by working in groups, students typically can generate more comprehensive lists than they might if working alone. This method is particularly effective when students are asked to compare views or to list pros and cons of a position
6. Jigsaw Group Projects - In jigsaw projects, each member of a group is asked to complete some discrete part of an assignment; when every member has completed his assigned task, the pieces can be joined together to form a finished project.7. Role playing8. Panel Discussions9. Brainstorming10. Debates11. Videotapes/slides12. Case studies13. Worksheet/Surveys14. Games
• Toddler Activities & Games• Animal Time Game• Age Level: Toddlers through Early Elementary• Materials Needed: Pictures or stuffed animals of different animals• Lesson Sequence:• 1. Show different animal pictures to the children. Imitate the different animal sounds to them.• 2. Let the children repeat the animal sounds to you.• Note: The children will not repeat the same sound as you or will not do it at all; since they are still learning how to make that sound.
• Butterfly Game• Age Level: Babies and Toddlers• Sit in circle. One child is a butterfly. (You can also do this yourself.) Child waves butterfly over the other while walking around the outside of the circle.• One little butterfly flew away On a very bright, warm summer day. It flew up in the sky so blue, And when it landed, it landed on you.
• Cooperative Learning Activities for High School• Cooperative learning is a type of classroom environment in which small teams work together to learn a particular subject or activity. This type of learning stresses positive interdependence, face-to-face interaction, individual and group accountability, interpersonal and small-group skills and group processing.
• Group Answers - A popular method of cooperative learning is to split your classroom into groups and give them questions to work out within the group. 1. Blackboard Work -the students split into groups, giving each group the opportunity to work on a difficult problem on the board together.
• 2. Jigsaw Group Project -This activity involves having each member of the group tackle a different part of one big group project.• 3. Role playing• 4. OTHERS..
Summary:• The teachers’ role is to explain concepts and principles, as well as to present information• They need various skills, techniques and competencies.
Conclusions:• Good management• Teachers have lots of competencies• However, it is concerned with management, not facilitating learning• Are the competencies of the teacher appropriate for the level of teaching: pre- school, elementary, secondary or tertiary.• If student fails, blame it on the teachers - blame the teacher theory
The Common Teaching Competencies Dept. of Ed. Regulations 603 CMR 7.11 (1)(a).• Competency I: Subject Matter Knowledge. The effective early childhood, elementary, middle/secondary school teacher demonstrates knowledge of:a) the subject matter of Early Childhood, Elementary, Reading, Middle, or Secondary School education, including literature and the language arts, mathematics, science, social studies,
b) the physical, social emotional, intellectual and moral d , both with and without special needs;c) multidisciplinary structures, teaming and interdisc ;d) the relationships among the disciplines taught in .
Competency II: Communication Skills. The effective teacher:a)communicates sensitively with language appropriate to students ages, levels of development, gender, race, and ethnic, linguistic and socioeconomic backgrounds, as well as individual learning styles and needs;b)interacts with students, families, and colleagues.
Competency III: Instructional Practice. The effective teacher:a)understands typical and atypical human development and is familiar with principles of curriculum and instruction, including strategies for integrating special education student ;b)teaches through diverse modes, including new technologies, reading and language arts as appropriate to age, learning style and developmental stage of the learner;
c) makes curricular content relevant to the experiences of students from diverse racial, socioeconomic, linguistic and cultura ;d) organizes and manages a classroom to support the growth and learning of diverse students;e) uses methods that develop students academic and social skills;f) works effectively with families and community sources.
Competency IV: Evaluation. The effective teacher:a)designs and uses various evaluative procedures to ; teaches through diverse modes, including new technologies, reading and language arts as appropriate to age, learning style and developmental stage of the learner;b)evaluates his or her own teaching behavior, and uses the results to improve student learning.
Competency V: Problem Solving. The effective teacher:a)deals equitably and responsibly with all learners; evaluates his or her own teaching behavior, and uses the results to improve student learning.b)understands the impact civilizations on contemporary culture and uses this knowledge to develop appropriate strategies.
Competency VII: Professionalism. The effective teacher:a) understands his or her legal and moral responsibilities;b) learns from experience and supervision;c) understands the impact of societal problems that can affect student learning negatively and uses appropriate strategies to address such issues.
Level 3. Focus: What the student does• Teachers focus on what the students does and how that relates to teaching• A student centered model of teaching, with teaching supporting learning
THEREFORE..Teaching includes mastery over a variety of teaching techniques, but unless learning takes place, they are irrelevant; the focus is on what the student does and on how well the intended outcomes are achieved.
IMPLICATION:1. Teaching is not just about facts, concepts and principles to be covered and understood, but also to be clear about: A. What it means to ‘understand’ content in the way that is stipulated in the intended learning outcomes. - This requires that we specify what levels of understanding we want when we teach a topic. It’s not good enough for us to talk about it or teach with an impressive array of visual aids; the whole point, how well the students have learned, has been ignored
B. What kind of teaching/learning activities are required to achieve those stipulated levels of understanding - This requires the teaching/learning activities to be specifically attuned to helping students achieve those levels of understanding.
Summary and Conclusions:• The focus is on what the student does; are they engaging those learning activities most likely to lead to the intended outcomes;• If not, what sort of teaching/learning context would be best help them? How can I know that they have achieved the intended outcomes satisfactorily?