RESEARCHMa. Martha Manette A. Madrid, Ed.D. Reviewer, Licensure Examination for Teachers(LET) Panpacific University North Philippines Urdaneta City, Pangasinan, Philippines
DIMENSIONS OF RESEARCH• Conceptual Dimension: Why we do research?• Research is a process that attempts to seek solutions or answers to problems.• Substantive Dimension: What determines the contents of research?• Research is a process of applying the scientific method.• Operational Dimension: How we arrive at answers or solutions?• Research is a process of testing hypotheses or verifying theories.
LOGICAL REASONING-is a problem-solving method combines experience, intellectual faculties, and formal systems of thought.• Inductive reasoning is the process of developing generalizations from specific observations.• Deductive reasoning is the process of developing specific predictions from general principles.
PARADIGMS• is a word view, a general perspective on the complexities of the real world. It is often characterized in terms of the ways in which they respond to basic philosophical questions: Ontologic, Epistemologic, Axiologic, and Methologic.
Two Paradigms1. Positivist paradigm is sometimes referred to as logical positivism.• Within the Positivist Paradigm, research activity is directed at understanding the underlying causes of natural phenomena.
Two Paradigms2. Naturalistic paradigm is sometimes referred to as the constructionist paradigm.• Naturalistic paradigm assumes that knowledge is maximized when the distance between the inquirer and the participants in the study is minimized.
MAJOR ASSUMPTIONS OF THE POSITIVIST AND NATURALISTIC PARADIGMS• ASSUMPTIONS• Ontologic: What is the nature of reality?• Epistemilogic: How is the inquirer related to those being researched?• Axiologic: What is the role of values in the inquiry?• Methodologic: How is evidence best obtained?
MAJOR ASSUMPTIONS OF THE POSITIVIST AND NATURALISTIC PARADIGMS• POSITIVIST PARADIGM• Reality exists; there is a real world driven by real natural causes• The inquirer is independent from those being researched; findings are not influenced by the researcher• Values and biases are to be held in check, objectivity is sought• Deductive processes
MAJOR ASSUMPTIONS OF THE POSITIVIST AND NATURALISTIC PARADIGMS• NAURALISTIC PARADIGM• Reality is multiple and subjective, mentally constructed by individuals• The inquirer interacts with those being researched; findings are the creation of the interactive process• Subjectivity and values are inevitable and desirable• Inductive processes
TYPES OF RESEARCH METHODSResearch Methods are techniques researchers use to structure a study and to gather and analyze information relevant to the research question.• Quantitative research, which is most closely allied with positivist tradition.• Qualitative research, which is most often associated with naturalistic inquiry.
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD AND QUANTITATIVE RESEARCHPositivist scientific method refers to a general set of orderly, disciplined procedures used to acquire information.Quantitative researchers use:• Deductive reasoning to generate predictions that are tested in the real world.• Mechanisms designed to control the study. Control involves imposing conditions on the research situation so that biases are minimized and precision and validity are maximized.
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD AND QUANTITATIVE RESEARCHQuantitative researchers gather: • Empirical Evidence is evidence that is rooted in objective reality and gathered directly or indirectly through the senses.
NATURALISTIC METHODS AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCHNaturalistic methods of inquiry attempt to deal with the issue of human complexity by exploring it directly.Researchers in naturalistic tradition:• Emphasize the complexity of humans, their ability to shape and create their own experiences, and the idea that truth is a composite of realities.• Places a heavy emphasis on understanding the human experience as it is lived, usually through a careful collection and analysis of qualitative materials that are narrative and subjective.• Tend to emphasize the dynamic, holistic and individual aspects of human experience and attempt capture those aspects in their entirety, within the context of those who are experiencing them.• Takes place usually in the field (i.e., naturalistic settings), often over an extended period of time.
NATURALISTIC METHODS AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH• Collection of information and its analysis typically progress concurrently; as researchers sift through information, insights are gained, new questions emerge, and further evidence is sought to amplify or confirm the insights. Through an inductive process, researchers integrate information to develop a theory or description that helps explicate the phenomenon under observation.• Yields rich, in-depth information that has the potential to elucidate varied dimensions of a complicated phenomenon. The findings are typically grounded in the real-life experiences of people with first-hand experience knowledge of a phenomenon.
PURPOSES OF RESEARCH• Basic Research is undertaken to extend the base of knowledge in a discipline, or to formulate or refine a theory. It is appropriate for discovering general principles of human behavior.• Example: Cadena (2006) studied the needs and functioning of persons with schizophrenia living in an assisted living facility in relation to the resident’s characteristics. The findings had implications for practice, but the research itself did not attempt to solve a particular
PURPOSES OF RESEARCH• Applied Research focuses on finding solutions to existing problems. It is designed to indicate how these principles can be used to solve problems.• Example: A study to determine whether any of three alternative methods in teaching reading could improve the reading performance of the pupils.
SPECIAL PURPOSES OF RESEARCH• Identification• Qualitative researchers sometimes study phenomena about which is little is known. Phenomena that has been inadequately defined or conceptualized.• Example: Study of experiences of students with autism who had undergone an intervention program. They identified a basic process of behavior modification.
SPECIAL PURPOSES OF RESEARCH1. Identification• Qualitative researchers sometimes study phenomena about which is little is known. Phenomena that has been inadequately defined or conceptualized.• Example: Study of experiences of students with autism who had undergone an intervention program. They identified a basic process of behavior modification.• Quantitative researchers begin with a phenomenon that has been previously studied or defined-sometimes in a qualitative study.
SPECIAL PURPOSES OF RESEARCH2. Description• Quantitative researchers focus on the prevalence, incidence, size and measurable attributes of phenomena.• Example: A study on the prevalence and characteristics of childhood sexual abuse among men in the Philippines.• Qualitative researchers describe the dimensions, variations, and importance of phenomena.• Example: A study to describe the factors affecting the reading comprehension of Grade 5 pupils and to describe teacher’s methods to improve their reading comprehension.
SPECIAL PURPOSES OF RESEARCH3. Exploration• Quantitative researchers begin with phenomenon of interest.• Example: A study that explored whether review classes for the Education graduates contribute to their preparedness in taking the board exam.• Quantitative researchers• Example: Bruce and Davies (2005) explored the experience of mindfulness among hospice caregivers who regularly practiced mindfulness meditation at a hospice setting in which Western palliative care and Zen Buddhist philosophy were integrated.
SPECIAL PURPOSES OF RESEARCH4. Explanation –the goals of explanatory research are to understand the underpinnings of specific natural phenomena and to explain systematic relationships among phenomena. It is often linked to theories, which represent a method of organizing and integrating idea about phenomena and their relationship.• In quantitative research, theories or prior findings are used deductively to generate hypothesized explanations that are then tested empirically.• Example: A study that tested a theoretical model to explain physical activity among older adults who survived a stroke. The model purported to explain exercise behavior on the basis of theoretically relevant concepts such as self-efficacy and outcome expectations.• In qualitative studies, researchers may search for explanations about how or why a phenomenon exists or what a phenomenon means as a basis for developing a theory that is grounded in rich, in-depth, experiential evidence.• Example: A study conducted to develop an explanatory framework for understanding ADHD students. Interviews with students were used to explain this disorder in the context of family, community and society.
SPECIAL PURPOSES OF RESEARCH5.Prediction and Control• In quantitative, it is frequently possible to make predictions and to control phenomena based on research findings.• Example: A study conducted to identify the stressors of Educators Education that affects their academic performance.
FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH TERMS AND CONDITIONS IN QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITTAIVE RESEARCH• Subjects or Study Participants – In quantitative study, this refers to the people being studied. They provide information by answering questions – e.g. by filling out a questionnaire – may be called respondents.• Informants, Key Informants or Study Participants – In qualitative study, they are the individuals cooperating in the study that play an active role rather than a passive role.• Note: In both, study participants comprise the sample.• Researcher or Investigator – the person who conducts the research.
FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH TERMS AND CONDITIONS IN QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITTAIVE RESEARCH• Settings – specific places where information is gathered.• Naturalistic settings - in the field, such as in people’s homes or places of work. Qualitative researchers are likely to engage in fieldwork in natural settings.• Laboratory settings- studies are done in highly controlled places.• Concepts – Research involves abstractions, for example pain, quality of life and resilience are all abstractions of particular aspects of human behavior and characteristics. These are called concepts.
FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH TERMS AND CONDITIONS IN QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITTAIVE RESEARCH• Phenomena- In qualitative studies, these are abstractions also called concepts.• Construct – Abstractions that are deliberately and systematically invented (or constructed) by researchers for a specific purpose.• Theory – a systematic, abstract explanation of some aspect of reality. – In a qualitative study, researchers often start with a theory, framework, or conceptual model. On the basis of theory, researchers make predictions about how phenomena will behave in the real world if the theory is true. The specific predictions deduced from the theory are tested through research, and the results are used to support, reject, or modify the theory. – In qualitative research, theories may be used in various ways. Sometimes conceptual or sensitizing frameworks –derived from various qualitative research traditions.
FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH TERMS AND CONDITIONS IN QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITTAIVE RESEARCH• Variables – In qualitative studies, concepts are usually called variables. Any quality of a person, group or situation that varies or takes on different values-typically numerical values. – Heterogeneous – When an attribute is extremely varied in the group under investigation. – Homogeneous - If the amount of variability is limited. – Attribute variables – variables that are often inherent characteristics of research subjects – such as age. – Created variables – Variables that the researcher creates – such as effectiveness of Audio-Lingual as opposed to Lecture-Discussion.
FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH TERMS AND CONDITIONS IN QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITTAIVE RESEARCH• Continuous variables – Variables that have continuum and, in theory, can assume an infinite number of values between two points.• Discrete variables – Variables that have a definite number of values between any two points.• Categorical variables – Variables that take on a handful of discrete non-quantitative values. When they take on only two values, they are called dichotomous variables, for example – male and female.• Independent variables – the presumed cause.• Dependent variables – the presumed effect.
FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH TERMS AND CONDITIONS IN QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITTAIVE RESEARCH• Conceptual Definition – presents the abstract or theoretical meaning of the concepts being studied.• Operational Definition – specifies the operations that researchers must perform to collect and measure the required information.• Research Data – Pieces of information obtained during a study.• Quantitative data - information in numeric form.• Qualitataive data – information in narrative description• Relationship – a bond or a connection between phenomena. – Cause-and-effect (or casual) relationship – when the independent variables causes of affects the dependent variables. – Functional or Associative relationship – variables are related in a noncausal way.
TRADITION IN RESEARCH1. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH: EXPERIMENTAL AND NONEXPERIMENTAL• Experimental Research – researchers actively introduce an intervention or treatment. In medical and epidemiologic research, it is called controlled trial or clinical trial. It is designed to test causal relationships.• Nonexperimental Research – researchers are bystanders-they collect data without introducing treatments or making changes. A nonexperimental inquiry is called an observation study.
TRADITION IN RESEARCH• QUALITATIVE RESEARCH: DISCIPLINARY TRADITIONS• Grounded Theory tradition – which has its roots in sociology, seeks to describe and understand the key social psychological and structural processes that occur in a social setting. Developed by Glaser and Strauss (1967).• Phenomenology – rooted in a philosophical tradition developed by Husserl and Heidegger, is concerned with the lived experiences of humans.• Ethnography – is the primary research tradition within anthropology, and provides a framework for studying the patterns, life ways, and experiences of a cultural group in a holistic fashion.
MAJOR STEPS IN A QUANTITATIVE STUDY1. Conceptual phasea. Formulating and delimiting the problem• Research problem – a perplexing or enigmatic situation that a researcher wants to address through disciplined inquiry.• Research Question – is the specific query researchers want to answer in addressing the research problem.
MAJOR STEPS IN A QUANTITATIVE STUDY• Moderator variables – research questions that affect the strength or direction of a relationship between the independent and dependent variables.• Mediating variables – research problems that intervene between the independent and dependent variables and help explain why the relationship exists.• Problem Statement –articulates the nature, context and significance of a problem to be studied.
MAJOR STEPS IN A QUANTITATIVE STUDYb. Reviewing the related literature• Literature Review – provides a foundation on which to base new evidence and usually is conducted well before any data are collected.• Primary source – the original description of a study prepared by the researcher who conducted it.• Secondary source – is a description of the study by a person unconnected with it.c. Undertaking Fieldwork2.
MAJOR STEPS IN A QUANTITATIVE STUDYd. Defining the framework and developing conceptual definitions• Framework – the overall conceptual underpinnings of a study.• Theoretical framework – a framework of a study that is based on a theory.• Conceptual framework – a conceptual underpinning of a study, including an overall rationale and conceptual definitions of key concepts. Conceptual Models or Conceptual Schemes are use interchangeably.
MAJOR STEPS IN A QUANTITATIVE STUDYe. Formulating hypothesis• Hypothesis - a statement of the researcher’s expectations about relationships between study variables. In other words, are predictions of expected outcomes; they state the relationship researchers expect to find as a result of the study.• Research hypothesis – predicts the existence of relationships• Null hypothesis – express the absence of a relationship.
MAJOR STEPS IN A QUANTITATIVE STUDY2. The design and planning phasea. Selecting a research design• Research design – the overall plan for obtaining answers to the questions being studied and for handling some of the difficulties encountered during the research process.b. Developing protocols for the interventionc. Identifying the population• Population – all the individuals or objects with common, defining characteristics.
MAJOR STEPS IN A QUANTITATIVE STUDY3. The empirical phasea. Collecting the datab. Preparing the data for analysis• Coding – process of translating verbal data into numeric form.
MAJOR STEPS IN A QUANTITATIVE STUDY4. The analytic phasea. Analyzing the data• Statistical analyses - cover a broad range of techniques, from simple procedures that we all use regularly to complex and sophisticated methods.b. Interpreting the results• Interpretation - the process of making sense of study results and of examining their implications.
MAJOR STEPS IN A QUANTITATIVE STUDY5. The dissemination phasea. Communicating the findingsb. Utilizing the findings in practice
ACTIVITIES IN A QUALITATIVE STUDY• Conceptualizing and Planning a Qualitative Study• Developing an Overall Approach• Conducting the Qualitative Study• Disseminating Qualitative Findings
JOURNAL ARTICLES• Summarizes the content, design and results of a study, primary method of disseminating research evidence.• Consists of abstract (brief description of the study or brief hypnosis of the study) and four major sections(introduction, methods, results and discussion.
JOURNAL ARTICLES – Introduction – explanation of the study problem and its context. – Methods – strategies used to address the problem. – Results – study findings. – Discussion – interpretation of findings
UNDERTAKING RESEARCH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES• Mixed research – involves the triangulation of qualitative and quantitative data in a single project.• Evaluation Research – assesses the effectiveness of a program, policy or procedures to assist decision makers in choosing a course of action.• Process or Implementation analyses –describe the process by which a program gets implemented and how it functions in practice.• Outcome Analyses – describe the status of some condition after the introduction of an intervention.• Impact Analyses – test whether an intervention caused any net impacts relative to the counter-factual.
UNDERTAKING RESEARCH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES• Survey research – examines people’s characteristics, behaviors, and intentions by asking them to answer questions. – Personal interview – interviewers meet the respondents face-to-face. – Telephone interview - – Questionnaires – are self-administered (i.e. questions are read by respondents, who then give written responses.• Secondary analyses – refers to studies in which researchers analyze previously collected data –either qualitative or quantitative.
UNDERTAKING RESEARCH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES• Needs assessment – are studies to document the needs of a group or community.• Delphi Survey – is a method of problem solving in which several rounds of questionnaires are mailed to a panel of experts.• Replication studies – include identical replications (exact duplication of methods of an earlier study in a new study).• Methodologic research – the investigator is concerned with the development, validation and assessment of methodologic tools or strategies.