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Policies and Guidelines of Special Education in the Philippines
 

Policies and Guidelines of Special Education in the Philippines

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    Policies and Guidelines of Special Education in the Philippines Policies and Guidelines of Special Education in the Philippines Presentation Transcript

    • Maria Martha Manette Apostol Madrid, Ed.D. Professor Institute of Graduate Studies Panpacific University North Philippines Urdaneta City, Pangasinan, Philippines martzmonette@yahoo.com
    • Article 1: Philosophy, Goals and Objectives Section 1: The State shall promote the right of every individual to relevant quality education regardless of sex, age, breed, socio-economic status, physical and mental condition, social or ethnic origin, political and other affiliation. The State shall therefore promote and maintain equality of access to education as well as the enjoyment of the benefits of education by all its citizen. (BP Blg. 232)mental condition, social or ethic origin, political ) Section 2: Every child with special needs has a right to an educational program that is suitable to his needs. Special education shares with regular education basic responsibilities of the educational system to fulfill the right of the child to develop to his full potential.
    • Article 1: Philosophy, Goals and Objectives Section 3: Special education shall aim to develop the maximum potential of the child with special needs to enable him to become self-reliant and shall be geared towards providing him with the opportunities for a full and happy life. Section 4: The specific objectives of special education shall be the development and maximization of learning competencies, as well as the inculcation of values to make the learners with special needs a useful and effective member of society. Section 5: The ultimate goal of special education shall be the integration or maintenance of learners with special needs into the regular school system and eventually in the community.
    • Article 2: Definition and Scope Section 1: Special education refers to the education of persons who are gifted or talented and those who have physical, mental, social or sensory impairment and cultural differences so as to require modifications of the school curricula, programs and special services and physical facilities to develop them to their maximum capacity. These persons may be gifted/talented, fast learner, mentally retarded, visually impaired, hearing impaired, with behavior problems, orthopedically handicapped, with special health problems, learning disabled, speech impaired or multiply handicapped. Section 2: These policies and guidelines shall apply to all schools, centers and classes (national or local, public or private, formal or nonformal) established under the educational system of the Philippines for the education of children with special needs.
    • Article 3: Identification, Screening, Assessment and Evaluation of Children Section 1: Identification, screening, assessment and evaluation of children with special needs shall be conducted by the school and the community utilizing appropriate assessment instruments. 1.1 Identification and assessment of every child shall be conducted as early as possible. 1.2 The team approach shall be used in the identification and assessment procedures. The team shall be composed of persons with working knowledge and understanding of children with special needs, such as the following: 1.2.1 parents/guardians/extended families, neighbors and friends 1.2.2 regular teachers
    • Article 3: Identification, Screening, Assessment and Evaluation of Children 1.2.3 special education teachers 1.2.4 guidance counselors 1.2.5 school administrators 1.2.6 health workers 1.2.7 social workers 1.2.8 psychologists 1.2.9 speech and physical therapists 1.2.10 law enforcement officers 1.2.11 probation officers
    • Article 3: Identification, Screening, Assessment and Evaluation of Children 1.3 Aspects to be covered in the identification, screening, assessment and education of children with special needs shall cover the following aspects: 1.3.1 Physical:  1.3.1.1 height and weight  1.3.1.2 physical deformities  1.3.1.3 gross and fine motor coordination  1.3.1.4 hearing  a.3.1.5 visual function  1.3.1.6 oral hygiene and dental developmen 1.3.2 Psycho-social  1.3.2.1 family history  1.3.2.2 personality  1.3.2.3 behavior 1.3.3 Educational  1.3.3.1 learning disabilities  1.3.3.2 language and speech  1.3.4 Medical
    • Article 3: Identification, Screening, Assessment and Evaluation of Children 1.4 Appropriate assessment instruments shall be developed or adopted in order to identify handicapping conditions as early as possible. 1.5 Identification and assessment of children with special needs shall be a continuing process 1.6 The synthesis of identification and diagnostic information shall be the basis for the appropriate educational placement of the child with special needs.
    • Article 4: School Admission and Organization of Classes Section 1:Children with special needs shall enjoy equality of access to formal and nonformal education. 1.1 Educational help for the handicapped child shall be made available as early as possible. 1.2 Every school division shall organize special classes and provide special services for children with special needs. (PD 603) 1.3 All schools at the preschool, elementary, secondary and tertiary levels shall admit children and youth with special needs. 1.4 Preschool education and post secondary education for technical and vocational courses shall be salient features of the formal education of children with special needs.
    • Article 4: School Admission and Organization of Classes 1.5 The school entrance age of a child with special needs to formal academic instruction shall follow the current regulation of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports. He may be admitted any time during the year, if circumstances warrant such admission. No age requirement nor time limitation shall be imposed for attendance to nonformal education programs. 1.6 Only persons with special needs shall be eligible for enrolment in special schools. 1.7 Special educational provisions shall be made in hospital schools during treatment periods of handicapped children. 1.8 An assessment test to determine proper grade placement shall be administered to special students who cannot present school credentials. Their admission shall be subject to the approval of the regional director.
    • Article 4: School Admission and Organization of Classes 1.9 Over-aged students assessed by the Philippine Educational Placement Test but found deficient in communication and other skills, shall be admitted provided that they shall undergo remedial instruction in the areas of deficiency. 1.10 Admission requirements for regular students taking degree courses at the tertiary level shall apply to students with special needs. 1.11 Adaptation in the administration of college entrance tests and other examinations given by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports and other agencies shall be provided to meet the needs of special students.
    • Article 4: School Admission and Organization of Classes Section 2: For maximum efficiency, class size at any given time shall be as follows:  Exceptionality...One-Grade Level...Multi-Grade or Multi-Level  Gifted/Fast Learner...30-35...15-20  Mentally retarded...8-15...8-10  Blind 7-10 5-6  Deaf 7-15 6-8  Behavior Problems 15-20 7-12  Orthopedically Handicapped 10-15 10-15  Multiply Handicapped 5-8 3-6  Speech Defective 10-15 10-15  Learning Disabled 7-10 5-6
    • Article 4: School Admission and Organization of Classes 2.1 Placement in a special class shall be temporary and not terminal, thus a continuous assessment process is essential. 2.2 A maximum of only 2 children with the same or different type of handicapping condition shall be integrated in a regular class at any given time. 2.3 An itinerant teacher shall have a case load of not more than five children with special needs. 2.4 The special education teacher shall be assisted by one or more teacher aide when necessity demands and whenever possible. Section 3: Promotion of children with special needs shall follow the promotion policy for the regular grades. 3.1 The promotion from grade to grade or from level to level shall follow the promotion policy for the regular grades.
    • Article 4: School Admission and Organization of Classes 3.2 The following modifications shall be made for special learners.  3.2.1 Promotion Scheme for Gifted/Talented/Fast Learners  3.2.1.1 Yearly progression  3.2.1.2 Acceleration  3.2.1.3 Finishing the last three grades in the elementary grades in 2 years  3.2.1.4 Advanced placement  3.2.2 The levels of instruction for the mentally retarded shall be as follows:  3.2.2.1 Preschool  3.2.2.2 Lower Primary  3.2.2.3 Upper Primary  3.2.2.4 Intermediate  3.2.2.5 Advanced  3.2.2.6 Post-Secondary  3.2.3 For the multiply handicapped, individualized promotion shall be adopted on a case to case basis.
    • Article 5: Curriculum Content, Instructional Strategies and Materials Section 1: Curriculum Content, Instructional Strategies and Materials 1.1 The following schemes or options may be adopted for Special Education Programs  1.1.1 Regular curriculum - the curriculum prescribed for regular children.  1.1.2 Modified curriculum - the curriculum prescribed for regular children with certain adaptations to meet the needs of special children.  1.1.3 Special curriculum - the curriculum for children with special needs aimed primarily at developing special adoptive skills to maximize their potentials. 1.2 Curriculum plans shall be research-based, tested successfully on a pilot basis before their implementation on a bigger scale, and evaluated periodically. These plans shall be accompanied by a variety of instructional materials.
    • Article 5: Curriculum Content, Instructional Strategies and Materials 1.3 The modified curriculum for the visually impaired shall include sensory training, special instruction in Braille reading and writing, mathematics, orientation and mobility, Braille music, and typing. 1.4 The modified curriculum for the hearing impaired shall emphasize communication and language development based on the philosophy of TOtal Communication which is tailored to meet the individual childs communication, and educational needs. The curriculum, in addition, shall include special instruction in speech and speechreading, auditory training and rhythm. The multi-sensory approach shall be maximized and speech/speechreading and sign language shall be encouraged starting in Grade I.  1.4.1 Pilipino Sign Language shall be used in the education of the hearing impaired.
    • Article 5: Curriculum Content, Instructional Strategies and Materials 1.5 The modified curriculum for children with behavior problems shall include special activities and instructional techniques for the normalization of behavior with emphasis on moral, civic and spiritual values as well as training in livelihood, and technical and academic skills to prepare them for the world of work. 1.6 The curriculum for the physically handicapped child shall include functional exercises. 1.7 The special curriculum for the mentally retarded shall emphasize training in self-care, socialization, motor and pre- vocational and vocational skills. For the more severely ratarded child, emphasis shall be on development of self-care skills. 1.8 Teaching strategies shall be creative and multi-dimensional. They shall make maximum use of all remaining sense modalities and provide for active participation in the learning process.
    • Article 5: Curriculum Content, Instructional Strategies and Materials 1.9 All special schools shall strengthen their vocational and technical training programs. Arrangements shall be made to enable the child with special needs to attend special courses offered in the regular vocational schools whenever practical. 1.10 A community-based, home-based or any useful alternative special education delivery system shall be established to reach those who cannot avail of regular institution-based programs. 1.11 Effective guidance and counselling programs shall be developed and maintained. Section 2: Instructional Materials 2.1 Low cost and indigenous materials shall be developed for the use of children with special needs.
    • Article 6: Organization Patterns Section 1: Children with special needs shall be provided with a variety of educational patterns and services. 1.1 The assessed needs of each child shall be the primary consideration in determining his particular program and services. 1.2 Programs may be organized in a variety of settings, namely:  1.2.1 Integration/Mainstreaming. This refers to the enrolment of a child with special needs in a regular school with additional teaching/care resources. There are degrees of integration. In partial integration, a child enrolled in a special class in a regular school is integrated with regular children in non-academic activities like work education, physical education, arts, school programs, etc. Later on, qualified children may be integrated gradually in one or more academic subjects. In full integration (sometimes called "zero reject model"), the handicapped child sits in the regular classes in all subjects, academic or non-academic.
    • Article 6: Organization Patterns 1.2.2 Resource Room Plan. Under this scheme, the child with special needs is enrolled in the regular school program but goes to a resource room to use the specialized equipment either in a tutorial situation or in a small group. The resource room teacher functions both as an instructor and as a consultant. The usual procedure is for the resource room teacher to serve the area of exceptionality in which she has had training. However, occasionally in small communities, necessity may dictate that she serves children with a variety of learning disabilities. Such a resource room service that does not constitute a complete program of special education should not turn out to be a segregated plan. 1.2.3 Itinerant Teacher Plan. Under this plan, an itinerant or traveling teacher serves one or more regular schools depending on how many pupils need special help. She gives direct and consultative services to children. In addition, these specialists observe, diagnose, make referrals, requisition textbooks and equipment, prepare instructional materials and evaluates performance. 1.2.4 Cooperative Class Plan (Part-Time Special Class Plan). In this plan, the child with special needs is enrolled in a special class but receives some of his academic instruction in the regular grades. In this way, the child is, to a varying extent, integrated into regular education.
    • Article 6: Organization Patterns 1.2.5 Special Class Plan (Self-Contained/Segregated Plan). Under this plan, usually, pupils with only one type of exceptionality label are enrolled in the special class. This plan is needed for those with more sever problems which makes it impossible for them to learn in a regular classroom setting. At times, they may be with their normal peers, but not usually in an academic situation. 1.2.6 Special Education Center. A growing alternative service delivery system is the Special Education Center which holds classes for children with special needs within the regular school. Itinerant, resource room services, special and cooperative classes are held in the special education center. Classes range from three to more than twenty, depending upon the population and affluence of the community. The school-within-a-school concept receives much support from parents of the children themselves and from civic and social community organizations. The Center is administered by a principal and operated according to the rules and regulations that govern a regular school.
    • Article 6: Organization Patterns 1.2.7 Special Day School. This type of school serves specific types of children with moderate to severe disabilities. It offers a range of trained special educators and a comprehensive array of medical, psychological and social services. 1.2.8 Residential School. The reason for placing a child in a residential school is based on the premise that he can make greater progress in such setting than in any other. Residential schools provide special education services that are qualitatively and quantitatively superior to those available in local communities. They also offer comprehensive diagnostic and counselling services, and vocational and recreational services. 1.2.9 Hospital Instruction. Provision of children confined to hospitals, sanatoria, and convalescent homes is a service of special education. The types of children in need of hospital instruction are the severely emotionally disturbed, the profoundly retarded who are bedbound, the crippled, those with chronic and/or serious health disabilities, and recovering patients. Both bedside tutoring and group instruction are made available to the above.
    • Article 6: Organization Patterns 1.2.10 Homebound Instruction. This plan is provided by the local school system to serve the chronically ill, usually the bedridden, the convalescents from operation, accident or temporary illness, the disturbed, and the retarded pupils. Services are provided by either a full time itinerant teacher who instructs each pupil in his own home about three times a week, or the regular class teacher who instructs her temporarily homebound pupils. 1.2.11 Community-based Delivery System. This is a plan for children with special needs who reside in distant communities and cannot avail of existing special education programs. They are reached by teachers, para-teachers or volunteers trained to teach the basic 3 Rs and self-help activities to prepare them for useful and independent living.
    • Article 6: Organization Patterns 1.3 A combination of plans may be considered where special children are not concentrated in a particular geographic area; where there are not enough children to justify employing more than one teacher or where the spread is great; and/or where a variety of services is not feasible. Examples of variation: a) A Resource Room Plan may be established and the special teacher works part-time as an itinerant teacher, since the children enrolled for the Resource Room Program can be scheduled to attend the regular classroom when he is not in the building. b) A plan such as the one described above may also be established when one special teacher must meet the needs of children at both elementary and secondary levels. c) The Cooperative Class Plan may be maintained for some pupils and other pupils scheduled under the Resource Room PLan, particularly when a program is being changed from a Cooperative Class Plan to a Resource Room Plan. d) If the Cooperative Class Plan is being used, the special teacher could leave her class for a portion of time to serve as an itinerant teacher when a provision is made for the children enrolled in the Cooperative Class.
    • Article 6: Organization Patterns 1.4 Appropriate referral system shall be established if the result of an assessment merits residential school placement, e.g., for the child who lives too far from existing special education services. Otherwise, homebound instruction shall be provided. 1.5 Special supportive services like readers, interpreters, notetakers, and others shall be provided when necessary. 1.6 Special programs for the gifted, talented and creative shall be developed and maintained.  1.6.1 Special provisions for the gifted, talented and creative may take the following prototypes, singly or in combination:  1.6.1.1. Grouping - clustering of small groups from different sections to be placed with a teacher who can modify the curriculum to suit the gifted as in seminars, mini courses, a library period a week, etc.  1.6.1.2 Vertical Acceleration - early school admission, double grade promotion, advanced placement, tutoring; correspondence courses; independent study, acceleration by grade skipping or time compression.  1.6.1.3 Horizontal Acceleration - mentorship wherein gifted students are paired with adults who serve as their mentors in a subject of mutual interest; individual or group research projects; honors classes; a core or block program for the integration of ideas from two or more subjects.  1.6.1.4 Guidance - individual conferences; community-sponsored programs; scholarship societies; career and vocational counseling; peer facilitator.
    • Article 6: Organization Patterns Section 2: The goal of special education shall be integration or mainstreaming of children with special needs. 2.1 Integration or mainstreaming of children with special needs shall be viewed as a developmental process. 2.2 Special supportive services like readers, interpreters, notetakers, and other auxiliary services shall be provided when necessary. 2.3 The school division shall extend such services as orientation and training of administrators, teachers, other school personnel and regular popils on special education.
    • Article 7: School Plant Facilities Section 1: Adequate physical facilities and equipment shall be provided to assure quality education for all children with special needs. 1.1 The school system shall assign buildings and resource rooms and adapt physical facilities to suit children with special needs. 1.2 The school system shall provide appropriate specialized equipment, instructional materials and supplies. 1.3 Requirement for school site, school plants, physical facilities and classroom size shall be for the purpose of securing permit for operation of special schools modified in accordance with the type of exceptionality and enrolment size. 1.4 The minimum requirement for basic classroom equipment for children with special needs prepared by the Ministry of Education, culture and Sports including medical and dental facilities shall be complied with.
    • Article 7: School Plant Facilities Section 2: Buildings and facilities shall be made accessible to persons with special needs. 2.1 Steps shall be taken to remove architectural barriers to and within buildings (walkways, corridors, doors, washrooms and toilets) to enhance mobility of disabled persons.
    •  Article 8: Personnel Recruitment, Welfare and Development Section 1: For the effective implementation of the special education program, the education, welfare and training of personnel shall be given high priority. 1.1 All personnel involved in the education of children withspecial needs shall have adequate and appropriate educationalbackground and training and personnel qualities specified asfollows: 1.1.1 Education and Work Experience 1.1.1.1 For a special education teacher  Bachelor of Elementary Education specializing in special education  Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education or Secondary Education, major in Special Education  Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education or Secondary Education plus 18 units in special education in the graduate level
    •  Article 8: Personnel Recruitment, Welfare and Development  Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education or Secondary Education plus 16 units in special education with 4 years of very satisfactory experience in the regular schools  Bachelor of Science in Elementary or Secondary Education plus 14 units in special education with 4 years of very satisfactory experience in the regular schools  Bachelor of Science in Elementary or Secondary Education plus 12 units in special education with 6 years of very satisfactory experience in the regular schools 1.1.1.2 For Regional and Division Supervisors, coordinators, and administrators of special schools and centers  Master of Arts with 18 units in special education or any related field
    •  Article 8: Personnel Recruitment, Welfare and Development 1.1.2 Civil Service Eligibility For security of tenure of all personnel, possession of an appropriate civil service eligibility is required. 1.1.3 Personal Qualities Must demonstrate positive attitudes, desirable personal values and commitment toward children with special needs.
    •  Article 8: Personnel Recruitment, Welfare and Development 1.2 In the absence of qualified teachers in the division, equivalent experience or training in handling children with special needs and demonstrated commitment shall be considered for appointment. 1.3 Teaching and non-teaching personnel working with children with special needs shall be provided with on-going and various training opportunities to ensure staff competence. 1.4 Training programs shall be upgraded periodically to emphasize early identification, screening, assessment and evaluation of children with special needs. It shall include courses in psychology to develop the right attitudes toward handicapped persons. 1.5 The hiring rate of special education teachers shall be at least two ranges higher than that of regular teachers.
    •  Article 8: Personnel Recruitment, Welfare and Development 1.6 Incentives shall be given to special education personnel through the following: 1.6.1 master teacher positions when they meet the requirements; 1.6.2 awards for consistent outstanding performance for the last 3 years; 1.6.3 priority in recommendations to related scholarships and fellowships; 1.6.4 attendance to conferences or observations of special education programs in countries with more advanced programs in special education.
    •  Article 9: Administration and Supervision Section 1: The Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports shall have overall responsibility for the administration and supervision of special education in the country. 1.1 The Bureau of Elementary Education through the Special Education Division shall provide leadership and guidance over the Special Education program for learners with special needs in the elementary level. The Bureau of Secondary Education and the Bureau of Higher Education shall likewise establish a division or unit that shall provide similar functions and responsibilities over learners with special needs in their respective levels. 1.1.1 Until such divisions or units are established, said Bureaus shall send a representative to an ad hoc group based at the Bureau of Elementary Education to facilitate the administration and supervision of the special education program in these upper levels.
    •  Article 9: Administration and Supervision 1.2 The Special Education Division shall provide supervisory and consultative services to assist regional and division offices develop and expand their program and to ensure quality and continuity of services. It shall meet these responsibilities through the following main functions:  1.2.1 provision of a broad framework and minimum standards for use in establishing and maintaining field programs for children with special needs;  1.2.2 supervision of programs for children with special needs. It shall provide assistance in planning, establishing andmaintaining such programs and for the interpretation of the needsof such programs;  1.2.3 development and validation of prototype instructional materials for children with special needs; and  1.2.4 consultation and coordination of services with other divisions and bureaus within the MECS and with other national, public and private agencies for the proper development and maintenance of programs in special education.
    •  Article 9: Administration and Supervision 1.3 The implementation of these four functions shall be carried out by the Special Education Division in the following ways: 1.3.1 provision of a broad framework and minimum standards; 1.3.1.1 development of policies and guidelines to serve as guide for the field in establishing and maintaining programs for children with special needs; 1.3.1.2 cooperation with public and private agencies to insure the development of all services in the best interests of gifted and handicapped children; 1.3.1.3 collaboration with other divisions and bureaus within the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports for the proper development and maintenance programs; 1.3.1.4 development and coordination of policies and procedures relative to the preparation and monitoring of programs/reports to the Director, Bureau of Elementary Education.
    •  Article 9: Administration and Supervision 1.3.2 supervision of programs for children with special needs. This is basically the responsibility of the regional and division offices. It shall be carried out through the following means: 1.3.2.1 encourage schools to initiate and develop programs for children with special needs; 1.3.2.2 assist schools in the identification and diagnosis of such children. The Division of Special Education shall encourage schools to conduct vision screening programs and to follow up these programs by requiring that students who are identified as having vision problems be referred to a qualified eye specialist for accurate diagnosis; 1.3.2.3 assist schools in the selection of teachers, suitable classroom facilities, and special instructional materials and equipment needed by children with special needs; 1.3.2.4 interpret policies and regulations for the development and maintenance of programs; 1.3.2.5 plan and conduct workshops for teachers, school administrators and other interested persons to provide an understanding of the program; 1.3.2.6 serve as in-service consultant to field programs; and 1.3.2.7 assist schools in the utilization of services available from other local and national agencies.
    •  Article 9: Administration and Supervision 1.3.3 development and validation of prototype instructional materials for children with special needs. Such materials shall be managed and handled in accordance with existing rules and regulations; and 1.3.4 consultation and coordination with public and private agencies. The following procedures shall be used to complement this function:  1.3.4.1 consultation and coordination of activities with public and private agencies that have responsibilities for the diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of children with special needs, such as the National Commission Concerning Disabled Persons, the Ministry of Social Services and Development and the Ministry of Health;  1.3.4.2 promotion and carrying out a program of cooperation and coordination with private agencies having programs for such children;  1.3.4.3 consultation with institutions of higher learning with regard to recruitment of persons for training as special education teachers and the development of programs in the area of special education;  1.3.4.4 act in advisory capacity, upon request, to private groups maintaining programs for children with special needs; and  1.3.4.5 serve as representative to regional, national and international professional organizations dealing with children with special needs.
    •  Article 9: Administration and Supervision Section 2: The Regional and Division Offices shall have the primary responsibility for the initiation and implementation of programs for children with special needs. The education of these children is the responsibility of the total school system. The overall effectiveness of the program will depend largely upon the leadership and cooperation of the regional/division promotional and administrative staff and teachers. 2.1 Regional Director The Regional Director shall have overall responsibility for the administration and supervision of special education in the region. 2.2 Chief of Elementary Education Division The Chief of Elementary Education Division shall directly assist the Regional Director in the development and implementation of policies, plans and programs in special education for the region. He may preferably assign one who had training in special education the responsibility of supervising the program.
    •  Article 9: Administration and Supervision 2.3 Schools Superintendent The Schools Superintendent shall have the overall responsibility for the administration and supervision of special education in the division. He shall be assisted preferably by a Division Supervisor who had training in special education whose responsibility of the program shall include the following: 2.3.1 assisting in the integration of the program into the division or district total school program; 2.3.2 assisting the special education teacher in an itinerant program to arrange a workable district-wide schedule 2.3.3 arranging with district supervisors/principals for adequate classroom facilities for the special education program; 2.3.4 helping the special education teacher secure materials and equipment necessary to his particular program;
    •  Article 9: Administration and Supervision 2.3.5 providing assistance to special education teachers through the conduct of in-service training, seminars and workshops 2.3.6 visiting the program periodically to gain a better understanding of the special education teachers work; 2.3.7 arranging periodic conferences with the special education teacher; 2.3.8 assisting special education teachers to monitor records 2.3.9 scheduling opportunities for the special education teacher to discuss and explain his program; 2.3.10 assigning special education teachers who are promoted as administrators to schools wih the special education program; and 2.3.11 urging all administrators/supervisors of schools/districts who underwent training in special education to organize special education in their respective schools/districts.
    •  Article 9: Administration and Supervision 2.4 District Supervisor The District Supervisor shall have the overall responsibility for the administration and supervision of special education in the district. 2.5 School Principal and Other School Administrators The principal and other school administrators shall help maximally in the development and continuing success of an effective special education program by: 2.5.1 creating within the school an atmosphere of acceptance of the program; 2.5.2 including the special education teacher in all staff activities and programs in the school; 2.5.3 coordinating the program with other programs offered by the school including guidance services, physical education activities, music activities, home economics and other programs;
    •  Article 9: Administration and Supervision 2.5.4 providing an adequately equipped room for a Resource Room, or on an adequate place for the itinerant teacher, if this plan is used; 2.5.5 Securing necessary equipment and materials which are available within the school building for the special education teacher; 2.5.6 making available to special education teachers pertinent data concerning the family background, scholastic and other pertinent records of all children enrolled in the program; 2.5.7 assisting the special education teacher with scheduling classes for each child; 2.5.8 encouraging classroom teachers to consult with the special education teachers regarding any problem which might arise in relation to the child in their classroom;
    •  Article 9: Administration and Supervision 2.5.9 notifying the special education teacher (especially the itinerant teacher) in advance when special activities or programs will prevent children from following their regular schedule; 2.5.10 visiting the special education program as he does the regular classroom program; 2.5.11 arranging for classroom teachers to visit periodically the class for children with special needs; and 2.5.12 arranging for the special education teacher to talk with parents, teachers and other community groups about his program. Section 3: Teacher Responsibilities It is important to the effective functioning of a school program for children with special needs to have full cooperation of all teachers in the school.
    •  Article 9: Administration and Supervision 3.1 Classroom Teacher Of primary importance to the successful functioning of the child in the regular classroom are the attitudes of people he meets, his self-regarding attitudes and the attitudes he develops. The positive attitudes that are essential are most likely to develop where accurate information is available. It is the responsibility of the special education teacher to provide such information when possible; however, in some instances where there is no special education teacher available, to following are suggested for the classroom teacher to do: 3.1.1 be alert to the behavioral signs and physical symptoms of difficulties in all children. Be sure that proper referrals have been made and everything possible has been done to correct or ameliorate the problems;
    •  Article 9: Administration and Supervision 3.1.2 accept and provide for a wide range of individual differences on many dimensions among the children with special needs; 3.1.3 view the physical, mental and social limitations of the child as only one of his attributes; 3.1.4 accept the child as much as you would any other child; 3.1.5 provide a setting for, and expect achievement of the pupil in terms of his scholastic aptitude and other attributes; 3.1.6 provide lesson presentations which utilize all senses; 3.1.7 arrange preferential seating for the child in terms of his needs;
    •  Article 9: Administration and Supervision 3.1.8 obtain assistance in the form of constructive consultation and specialized materials and equipment from those who assume special responsibilities for the child; 3.1.9 help the child to develop concepts meaningful to himself and in line with his own reality; 3.1.10 if possible, provide first-hand experiences for the child rather than vicarious ones; and 3.1.11 do not expect the special education teachers to re-teach what has been taught in the regular classroom. The itinerant teachers role is to facilitate learning (more than to teach directly) through assistance to the regular teachers and to the child.
    •  Article 9: Administration and Supervision 3.2 Responsibilities of the Resource Room Teacher The resource room teacher shall: 3.2.1 share the responsibility for program planning and scheduling with the classroom teacher, principal, guidance counselor, and other appropriate school personnel; 3.2.2 interpret the childs needs to the classroom teacher and other school personnel who will be working with him; 3.2.3 advise the classroom teacher as to the best seating arrangement for the visually impaired or hearing impaired child; 3.2.4 interpret to the classroom teacher and other school personnel, practices and procedures which make learning tasks easier for the child; 3.2.5 assume the responsibility for procuring texts, supplementary materials, educational aides and equipment needed by the handicapped child; and 3.2.6 see that the child is provided with the necessary materials, in appropriate media, for full participation in the regular classroom.
    •  Article 9: Administration and Supervision 3.3 Responsibilities of the Itinerant Teacher The itinerant teacher shall: 3.3.1 share the responsibility for program planning and scheduling with teachers, principals, guidance counselors and other school personnel; 3.3.2 confer with the classroom teacher in order to determine: a) when the child needs help b)how often he will work with the child c) other matters related to his work 3.3.3 reinforce the work of the classroom teacher and do intensive teaching of certain phases of a subject as the need arises; 3.3.4 consider the following in scheduling for: a) working with the child with the least interruption of his class participation b) keeping travel time to the minimum c) conferring with teachers, parents and other personnel d) preparing and delivering needed materials and equipment
    •  Article 9: Administration and Supervision 3.3.5 maintain records and exchange information about the child with the classroom teacher on a regular basis; 3.3.6 prepare a master schedule to be given to his superior and the principal of each building in which he works; 3.3.7 work within the framework and policies of the schools in which he serves children; 3.3.8 understand the pertinent medical reports concerning the children; 3.3.9 prepare appropriate materials for the handicapped child being served; and 3.3.10 assist in the initiation of new services and coordinate existing ones for use in the educational program; interpret to the general educators resources of value in the education of children with special needs.
    •  Article 9: Administration and Supervision 3.4 Responsibilities of the Cooperating Classroom Teacher The cooperating classroom teacher shall: 3.4.1 maintain all school records for children in his class; 3.4.2 be responsible for the overall educational program for each child; 3.4.3 determine the amount of participation each child can manage in the regular classes 3.4.4 teach much of the subject matter and arrange with the classroom teacher and other school personnel (principal, guidance counselor, and other appropriate school personnel for pupils to participate in some of the activities of the regular classroom and of the entire school; and 3.4.5 see that the child has all the materials needed for participation in the regular class.
    •  Article 9: Administration and Supervision 3.5 Responsibilities of the Special Class Teacher The special class teacher is responsible for teaching the basic academic subjects with minimum integration with the non-handicapped in physical education, for socialization purposes. He must interpret the childs needs and abilities to the regular classroom teacher or any other school personnel. He must work closely with all personnel in the school in planning a program which will be beneficial to these special children.
    •  Article 10: Evaluation of Programs and Services Section 1: The Ministry of Education, CUlture and Sports shall develop and implememnt a system of evaluating special education programs and services. 1.1 An internal and external evaluation of programs shall be conducted. It shall include an investigation of all program components such as curriculum, staff development, physical facilities, funding and research. 1.2 Private schools for children with special needs shall be acrredited upon compliance with the minimum standards that shall be prescribed by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports. 1.3 Results of evaluation and feedback shall be used for program improvement and decision-making.
    •  Article 10: Evaluation of Programs and Services Section 2: The government shall provide through legislation, incentives for individuals, governmental and non-governmental entities and agencies engaged in special education and as: 2.1 franking privilege 2.2 tax exemption 2.3 tax reduction 2.4 educational grants or scholarships and fellowships 2.5 loans from government financial institutions Section 3: Government assistance in job placement for beneficiaries of the special education program shall be provided by: 3.1 allocating positions in government offices for them 3.2 creating positions for them through the establishment of skills training centers (faarmers handicarft, etc.)
    •  Article 11: Research and Special Studies Section 1: Research relevant to the education of children with special needs shall be conducted to provide empirical basis for the improvement of instruction at all levels. 1.1 Research on the theory and practice of special education in the country and abroad should be given equal opportunity. 1.2 Specifically, researches should include: 1.2.1 theoretical and conceptual models in special education 1.2.2 identification, screening, assessment and evaluation of children with special needs; 1.2.3 programs and delivery systems 1.2.4 curricular content, instructional strategies and materials 1.2.5 program evaluation schemes 1.2.6 policy analysis
    •  Article 11: Research and Special Studies 1.3 Research proposals shall come from all sectors of society, e.g., government ministries including the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports, non-government organizations, the academic community, research centers and private persons. 1.4 A scheme for the dissemination and utilization of research findings should be evolved and applied. Section 2: Special studies shall be made in other areas not specified but needed in the development of the special education program.
    •  Article 12: Parent Education and Community Involvement Section 1: Parents of children with special needs are valuable members of the educational team in the program of rehabilitation for independent living of their children. 1.1 Parent education shall be a necessary component of the special education program. As early as possible, parents shall be made aware of their childrens handicaps and the intervention strategies needed to help facilitate each childs academic, social-emotional and communicative development. 1.2 Parents shall be provided with information, and a process of sharing experiences continuously with other parents experiencing similar problems. 1.3 Parents of children with special needs shall be directly involved in the planning of educational and special services for their children. They shall be helped to develop confidence in their abilities to cope with, care for and teach their disabled children.
    •  Article 12: Parent Education and Community Involvement 1.4 The family of the child shall be involved in the process of habilitation and rehabilitaion. It shall be encouraged as the major rehabilitation unit. 1.5 The training of trainors from among community volunteers, including parents and family members of children with special needs, in basic special education techniques as part of the community-based or home-based rehabilitation services shall be conducted to promote programs on early identification and intervention and to enhance home-school relationships.
    •  Article 13: Linkages Section 1: Linkages with government and non-government organizations shall be established, maintained and expanded. 1.1 Special education shall be a component of all community- based, home-based and other rehabilitation services. These shall be coordinated with medical, social and vocational rehabilitation services. 1.2 All health, welfare and other community services, like parent- teacher organizations, socio-economic clubs, and other groups which can help children with special needs and their families shall be tapped. 1.3 Carefully designated pilot programs that shall demonstrate the effective collaboration of education, medical, health care, and social services shall be undertaken.
    •  Article 13: Linkages 1.4 A system of referral, collaboration and follow-up among various disciplines and services for specific areas shall be established and intensified. 1.5 A directory or service information center that lists all rehabilitation services available in a particular geographical areas and the types of children with special needs that can be served shall be prepared and made available. 1.6 The school shall exert effort to link with the community in providing wholesome recreational and other facilities that would enable children with special needs to interact with their normal peers.
    •  Article 14: Public Information, Education and Communication Section 1: A nationwide information dissemination campaign on the prevention, early identification and intervention of children with special needs shall be intensified. 1.1 Mass media shall be utilized to make the public aware of the importance and availability of services for children with special needs. 1.2 Short radio and TV messages that are easy to grasp shall be aired utilizing language that parents and laymen can understand to change and improve public attitudes towards children with special needs. 1.3 Information dissemination on special education services shall be the responsibility of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports.
    •  Article 14: Public Information, Education and Communication 1.4 Guidelines to disseminate relevant information concerning educational programs for children with special needs, as distinguished from other disciplines, shall be issued as often as necessary. 1.5 Annual celebration and activities on special weeks like Sight Saving, Hearing Conservation, and others shall be publicized for the information of the public. 1.6 Data bank in special education shall be developed and maintained at the regional, division and district levels.
    •  Article 15: Funding Section: The cost of educating children with special needs shall be borne by the national and local governments 1.1 The national government shall provide for the items and salaries of special education teachers and other school personnel. 1.2 The national government shall authorize the reclassification of the present items of personnel presently involved in special education to special education items at all levels whenever requirements are met. 1.3 The national government shall provide for the construction of appropriate buildings and the procurement of special equipment, tools and supplies.
    •  Article 15: Funding 1.4 The regional office shall allot funds for research and evaluation, the training of special education personnel, the cost of special equipment, facilities and instructional materials ans travel allowance of their own personnel. 1.5 The division office and local government units shall allot funds for the travel allowance of itinerant teachers and division supervisor in-charge of the program and, where possible, transportation of pupils. 1.6 The City and/or Provincial school board shall provide for additional funds for facilities and instructional materials, and for yearly inservice training of teachers and scholarship grants to qualified teachers and administrators.
    •  Article 16: Policy Support Legislation Section 1: Legislative measures to strengthen the special education program shall be passed. These shall be geared towards: 1.1 Maximization of (1) teacher salaries and other benefits, and (2) opportunities for professional growth. 1.2 Provision of sufficient appropriation for continuing research, establishment of diagnostic centers, facilities and supplies, etc. 1.3 Greater family and community involvement. 1.4 Establishment of special day and residential schools.
    •  Article 17: Special Provisions Section 1: Special schools shall provide the following levels of instruction by themselves or in consortia with other institutions: - Preschool - Elementary - Secondary - Continuing education for technical and vocational training if faculty and facilities are available and upon approval by proper authorities. Short term courses only. - Tertiary level - Graduate level
    •  Article 17: Special Provisions Section 2: Special schools shall serve in a variety of alternative settings which may be one or more of the following: - Residential school - Day school - Hospital school - Homebound instruction - Rehabilitation Center (also for drug dependents and juvenile delinquents) Section 3: Special schools shall expand their role from being primarily an educational institution to that of a resource development and service center for the special education program in the community.
    •  Article 17: Special Provisions Section 4: Criteria for admission to a government dormitory for children with special needs shall take into account the following factors: - Age (at least 5 years old) - Good health (as certified by a government physician) - Financial status (preferably those with low family income as shown in the family income tax returns) - Distance of residence from school (inaccessible by transportation or travel is risky for the pupil) Section 5: The quality of instruction in special schools shall equal or be better than that of the general school system, and closely linked to it.
    •  Article 18: Special Provisions Amendment Clause  Any revision or amendment of these policies and guidelines to be made by the implementing offices shall be referred to the respective Divisions which shall in turn recommend its promulgation to the Minister of Education, Culture and Sports.
    •  Article 19: Effectivity These policies and guidelines shall take effect immediately upon its approval by the Minister of Education, Culture and Sports.
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