Nature of DeviancyMa. Martha Manette A. Madrid, Ed.D. Professor Graduate Studies, Master in Education, Major in Special Education Panpacific University North Philippines Urdaneta City, Pangasinan email@example.com
Abnormality (behavior)• in the sense of something deviating from the normal or differing from the typical (such as an aberration), is a subjectively defined behavioral characteristic, assigned to those with rare or dysfunctional conditions.
Several conventional criteria• One criterion for "abnormality" that may appear to apply in the case of abnormal behavior is statistical infrequency. This has an obvious flaw — the extremely intelligent, are just as abnormal as their opposites. Therefore, individual abnormal behaviors are considered to be statistically unusual as well as undesirable• A more discerning criterion is distress. A person who is displaying a great deal of depression, anxiety, unhappiness, etc. would be thought of as exhibiting abnormal behavior because their own behavior distresses them.
• Another criterion is morality. This presents many difficulties, because it would be impossible to agree on a single set of morals for the purposes of diagnosis.• One criterion commonly referenced is maladaptivity. If a person is behaving in ways counter-productive to their own well-being, it is considered maladaptive.• Another criterion that has been suggested is that abnormal behavior violates the standards of society. When people do not follow the conventional social and moral rules of their society, the behavior is considered abnormal.
• Another element of abnormality is that abnormal behavior will cause social discomfort to those who witness such behavior.
• Statistical Infrequency: In this definition of abnormality behaviors which are seen as statistically rare are said to be abnormal. For instance, one may say that an individual of above or below average IQ is abnormal. This definition, however, fails to recognize the desirability of the particular incidence. This definition also implies that the presence of abnormal behavior in people should be rare or statistically unusual, which is not the case. Instead, any specific abnormal behavior may be unusual, but it is not unusual for people to exhibit some form of prolonged abnormal behavior at some point in their lives
• Deviation from Social Norms defines the departure or deviation of an individual, from societys unwritten rules (norms). For example if one was to witness a man jumping around, nude, on the streets, the man would be perceived as abnormal, as he has broken societys norms about wearing clothing, not to mention ones self dignity
• FF: The Failure to Function Adequately definition of abnormality defines whether or not a behavior is abnormal if it is counter- productive to the individual. The main problem with this definition however is that psychologists cannot agree on the boundaries that define what is functioning and what is adequately, as some behaviors that can cause failure to function are not seen as bad i.e. firemen risking their lives to save people in a blazing fire.
DIM: Deviation from Ideal Mental health defines abnormality by determining if the behavior the individual is displaying is affecting their mental well-being. As with the Failure to Function definition, the boundaries that stipulate what ideal mental health is are not properly defined, and the bigger problem with the definition is that all individuals will at some point in their life deviate from ideal mental health, but it does not mean they are abnormal; i.e., someone who has lost a relative will be distressed, but would not be defined as abnormal for showing that particular behavior.
• A common approach to defining abnormality is a Multi-Criteria approach, where all definitions of abnormality are used to determine whether an individual’s behavior is abnormal. For example, if an individual is engaging in a particular behavior that is preventing them from ‘functioning’ breaks a social norm and is statistically infrequent, then psychologists would be prepared to define this individuals behavior as abnormal.
Normality (behavior)• In behavior, normal refers to a lack of significant deviation from the average. The phrase "not normal" is often applied in a negative sense (asserting that someone or some situation is improper, sick, etc.) Abnormality varies greatly in how pleasant or unpleasant this is for other people.
• The Oxford English Dictionary defines "normal" as conforming to a standard. Another possible definition is that "a normal" is someone who conforms to the predominant behavior in a society. This can be for any number of reasons such as simple imitative behavior, deliberate or inconsistent acceptance of societys standards, fear of humiliation or rejection etc.
Adjustment Problems• Maladjustment may shortly be described as ‘inability to react successfully and satisfactorily to the demands of one’s environment’. It encompasses a wide range of physical, psychological and social conditions, but most often implies an individual’s failure to meet social or cultural expectations. In psychology, the term generally refers to unsatisfactory behaviour patterns that cause anxiety and require psychotherapy.
The term maladjustment is most simply defined as 1. Faulty or inadequate adjustment. 2. Inability to adjust to the demands of interpersonal relationships and stresses of daily living.
Let us try to see what ‘adjustment’ is.• In the very first instance, it should be seen as an honourable psychological term untainted by the contemporary derogatory colouring that attributes compromise and opportunism. It is a positive capacity to adapt to one’s circumstances and needs. This presupposes three things: • a sensitive appreciation of reality • some accommodation to environmental pressures • continuing efforts at modifying the environment to suit one’s needs
Symptoms of maladjustment• Louis Kaplan depended on hospital and clinic data, military service data and surveys conducted among the public for his studies on maladjustment. In addition to these data he lists other symptoms manifest in the society as indications of maladjustment prevalent there. These are: alcoholism, divorce and family disruption, suicide, crime, use of drugs, job f t ailures, cost of mental illness.
He classifies behavioural symptoms that reflect a deviation from normal patterns of response and adjustment as follows: • reality distortions • mental aberrations • affect distortions • motor reactions • personality disorganization • somatic reactions
• The biomedical model of mental health, has been around for centuries as the predominant model used by some physiciatrists in the diagnosis of mental disorders. The term is used by practitioners of of biological psychiatry , in contrast to the biopsychosocial model, which incorporates psychological and social factors.
• The biopsychosocial model (abbreviated "BPS") is a general model or approach that posits that biological, psychological (which entails thoughts, emotions, and behaviors), and social factors, all play a significant role in human functioning in the context of disease or illness
• Indeed, health is best understood in terms of a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors rather than purely in biological terms. This is in contrast to the traditional, biomedical model of medicine that suggests every disease process can be explained in terms of an underlying deviation from normal function such as a pathogen, genetic or developmental abnormality, or injury.
• The concept is used in fields such as medicine, nursing, health psychology and sociology, and particularly in more specialist fields such as psychiatry, health psychology, chiropractic, clinical social work, and clinical psychology.
Biomedical model Biopsychosocial model Human beings should be seen as complex systems and illness is caused by a multitude of factors and not by a single causal factor. Health psychology therefore tends to move away from a simple linear model of health and claims that illness can be caused by combination of biological (e.g. a virus), psychological (e.g. behaviours, beliefs) and social (e.g. Diseases come from outside employment) factors. This approach reflects the bio the body, invade the body psychosocial model of health and illness, which was and cause physical changes developed by Engel (1977, 1980). The bio psychosocial model within the body, or originate represented an attempt to integrate the psychological and the as internal involuntary What causes environmental into the traditional biomedical model of health physical changes. Such illness? diseases are caused by a as follows: the bio contributing factors included genetics, viruses, bacteria and structural defects. The psycho aspects of number of factors, including health and illness were described in terms of cognitions (e.g. chemical imbalances, expectations of health), emotions (e.g. fear of treatment) and bacteria, viruses and genetic behaviours (e.g. smoking, diets, exercise or alcohol predisposition. consumption). The social aspects of health were described in terms of social norms of behaviour (e.g. the social norm of smoking or not smoking), pressures to change behaviour (e.g. peer group expectations, parental pressure), social values on health (e.g. whether health was regarded as a good or a bad thing), social class and ethnicity.
Biomedical Biopsychosocial model model Illnesses arise from biological changes beyond the patients control; individuals Illnesses regarded as theWho is are therefore not result of a combination of seen as beingresponsible responsible for the factors, the individual is nofor illness? illnesses. They are longer simply seen as a regarded as victims of some passive victim. external force causing internal changes.
Biomedical Biopsychosocial model model The patient is in part The responsible for their responsibility treatment. This may takeHow should for treatment the form of responsibility toillness betreated? rests with the take medication, medical responsibility to change profession. beliefs and behaviour. They are not seen as a victim.
Biomedical Biopsychosocial model model Health and /illness are Health and illness are not seen as qualitatively qualitatively different, butWhat is therelationship different-you exist on a continuum. Ratherbetween are either than being either healthy orhealth and healthy or ill,illness? ill, individuals progress along there is no this continuum from health continuum between the to illness and back again. two.
Biomedical model Biopsychosocial model The mind and body function independently of each other. The mind There is an increasing focus on an is incapable of influencing physical interaction between the mind and matter. The mind is the body. This shift inWhat is the seen as abstract and perspective is reflected in the relating to feelingsrelationship and thoughts, and development of a holistic or abetween the body is seen in terms whole person approach to health.mind and of physical matterthe body? such as skin, muscles, The mind and body interact. The bones, brain and mind and body are considered as organs. Changes in separate but there is interaction the physical matter are regarded as between distinct structures. independent of changes in state of mind.
Biomedical model Biopsychosocial model Illness may have psychological consequences, but not psychological Psychological factors are What isthe role of causes. For seen as not only possible example, cancerpsychology may cause consequences of illness but in health unhappiness but as contributing to its and illness? mood is not seen as related to aetiology. either the onset or progression of the cancer.