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Methods of Teaching and Writing Test Items


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  • 1. METHODS OF TEACHING& WRITING TEST ITEMS Teachers’ Development Training Berean Academy Urdaneta City, Pangasinan, Philippines October 30, 2012 MARIA MARTHA MANETTE APOSTOL MADRID, Ed.D. Lecturer
  • 3. WHO NEEDS Methods, Strategies and Techniques in Teaching? A systematic plan to achieve a learning objective. It is a well-panned procedure that guides the direction in undertaking a learning activity.Students A carefully devised plan of actionTeachers to achieve an objective. A unique way of presenting a topic to the learners in adeptness in performing the steps to attain a learning objective. Style or manner of a teacher’s performance in following a procedure. The ability to carry out a task in a cautious and watchful way.
  • 4. Criteria for Method Selection Objectives to be Subjects to be pursued taught Instructional Student’s abilities equipment, tools and materialsStudent’s learning or Student’s interest experience Context of the teaching Kind of participation expected situation Knowledge and ability of the Safety precautions teacher
  • 5. Independent Study Experiential Learning Journal Writing Special Reports Narratives Student Research ,IndividualizedInstruction Problem SolvingProjects and Collections Creative WritingDiscovery ApproachConstructivist MultipleApproach Intelligence Theory
  • 6. Individualized Teaching MethodsIndependent Study Learning is Individualized and personalized Teacher acts as facilitatorWriting Journals Feedback and expression of self actualization Encourage to write interesting and insightful experiences Facilitating recall of factsNarratives in story-mode Assist in recalling learning experiences through reflection
  • 7. Individualized Teaching MethodsIndividualized Learning Activities areInstruction planned Varied materials must be availablePreparing Projects Techniques that bring outand Collections creativity and resourcefulness Train them to embark on something worthwhile Student gains first-hand experienceDiscovery Approach Materials and tools are available Exhibit scientific attitude and systematic work habits
  • 8. Individualized Teaching MethodsConstructivist Teaching is providing relevantApproach experiences Inquiry teaching –asks questionsExperiential Acquiring knowledge of skillsLearning through direct and keen observations Real-life situations in planning lesson Ability to communicate for students to gain skill andSpecial Reports experience Oral and written reports by an individual or by groups
  • 9. Individualized Teaching Methods Training to develop decisionStudent Research making and responsibility by following a scientific method Occasional questions and simple remindersProblem Solving First-hand experience- develop critical-mindedness, and HOTS Prioritize development of skills and attitudes Skill in communicating ideas isCreative writing developed Provide sufficient practice
  • 11. Cooperative Learning Inquiry Approach Approach Role Playing Reading Sociodrama Integrative Approach ,Peer Tutoring Experimenting Microteaching Using InstructionalDirect Instruction Devices
  • 12. Methodology for Small Groups Group-orientedCooperative Interdependent relationship isLearning strengthen Observe the skills (speed, willingness, etc.) Capitalizes the experiencesRole Playing gained and what was learned Capability of role players “Discuss and evaluate performances” Ability to communicate for students to gain skill andSpecial Reports experience Oral and written reports by an individual or by groups
  • 13. Methodology for Small Groups Students identify with theSociodrama persons they are portraying and therefore feel the same way Develop interactions among the role-playersPeer Tutoring Tutees receive individualized instruction, as though their own teacher Teacher should be around After a tutoring activity, evaluation performance should be undertaken After gaining an experience or aMicroteaching brief lesson, we give critique a feedback Lesson or experience must be brief but complete, feedback is guided may employ oral and written
  • 14. Methodology for Small Groups Emphasizes the learning of skillsDirect Instruction by way of demonstrating a step- by-step procedure Student and Performance based Actual DemonstrationsInquiry Approach Discovery, Scientific thinking and problem solving Facilitator and counselor Teaching Methodology requires theReading students to search information from printed and illustrated materials Guide questions, problems or subtopics
  • 15. Methodology for Small GroupsIntegrative Students form a concept fromApproach bodies of knowledge presented Discover the relationship of factsExperimenting Learning activity wherein a student investigates a problem by manipulating a variable Instructional devices take theUsing instructional center stagedevices Provide a workshop, or an orientation equipped with instruction, direction suit to the level of understanding
  • 16. Discussion Lecture Reflective teaching Simulation Concept teaching Inviting Specialists ,Interest LearningCenters Field Study Team Teaching FieldtripDemonstration
  • 17. Methodologies for a Class Orderly verbal interchange Opportunity to gain communicationDISCUSSION skills -listening, and responding approach Use Inquiry, Q and A format Use together with other methodologies to avid “continuous talk” Students recaptures his experience , thinks about itReflective Teaching and evaluates it Ex. Journal Writing and Portfolio Knowledge and experience areConcept teaching sort out to form a specific class Direct presentation – rule to example Concept attainment – example to rule method
  • 18. Methodologies for a Class Lesson is presented through aDemonstration real-life learning Prepared materials and questions and length of time neededFiled Studies Out of the school classroom activity intended to present concepts in the most realistic manner Exposure of the class to severalTeam Teaching teacher Based on competence in both knowledge and skill
  • 19. Methodologies for a ClassLecture Oral presentation of an expert Teaching by the use of simulationSimulation games Consists of role, rules language, values Listen to an interview or aInviting Specialist specialist of a topic Prepare the students Out-of-the-classroom activityFIELDTRIP where students study things in their natural setting Both involved in planning Guide questions or pointers for observation Follow-up activity
  • 20. Methods and Learning Resources Technology-Aided Strategies Audiovisual Media Community Resources
  • 21. Reference/s Methods of Teaching. Gloria Salanadan, Quezon City: Lorimar Publication, 2012. Teaching method - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 150 Teaching Methods | Center for Teaching & Learning | UNC ...
  • 23. Is an assessment intended to measure a test-takers knowledge, skill, aptitude, physical fitness, orclassification in many other topics (e.g., beliefs). A test may be administered formally or informally. An example of an informal test reading: test administered by a parent to a child. An example of a formal test: final examination administered by a teacher in a classroom or an I.Q. test administered by a psychologist in a clinic.
  • 24. A test score may be interpreted with regards to a norm or criterion, or occasionally both. A standardized test Formal testing oftenresults in agrade or atest score. A non-standardized test
  • 25. Standardized Test any test that is administered and scored in aconsistent manner to ensure legal defensibility.[ standardized tests are often used in education, professional certification, psychology, the military, and many other fields.
  • 26. Non- Standardized Testusually flexible in scope and format, variable in difficulty and significance. Since these tests are usually developed by individual instructors, the format and difficulty of these tests may not be widely adopted or used by other instructors or institutions.Maybe used to determine the proficiency levelof students, to motivate students to study, and to provide feedback to students.They may appear to be completely out of touchwith reality and may not show normal emotions.
  • 27. Types of Test Items Written testPerformance test Physical test
  • 28. Types of Test Items Written testTests that areadministeredon paper or ona computer.
  • 29. Types of Test (Written Test) Objective TypeSubjective Type
  • 30. Allows for a broader but superficialcoverage of subject matterAppropriate for checking factualknowledge Objective Type TestLess prone for subjectiveinterpretation of responseEasier to correct but time –intensive to prepare
  • 31. Allows deeper treatment of subject matter but limited in coverUseful for testing the higher levelsof thinking and reasoning Subjective Type TestUsed to check student’s ability toorganize and express his ideasEasier to construct but checking ofresponses is tedious and timeconsuming
  • 32. Criteria for Writing Test Items
  • 33. Goal-CenteredEach test item should The language of themeasure the exact objective should guide thebehavior and response process of writing thestated in the objective. assessment items.A well-written objective willprescribe the form of test Appropriate assessmentitem that is most items should answer "yes"appropriate for assessing to the followingachievement of the questions:objective. 1. Does the assessment 2. Does the assessment item require the same item provide the same performance of the student conditions (or "givens") as specified in the as those specified in the instructional objective? instructional objective?
  • 34. Learner-CenteredTest items should take This includes issues such asinto consideration the learners’ vocabulary and languagecharacteristics and needs levels, motivational and interest levels, experiences andof the learners. backgrounds, and special needs. Another important aspect ofTo start with, test items learner-centered assessment isshould be written using that the level of familiarity oflanguage and grammar that experiences and contextsis familiar to the learners. needs to be taken into consideration.Learners should not be The examples, questionasked to demonstrate a types, and response formatsdesired performance in an should also be familiar to learners, and your itemsunfamiliar context or should be free of any gender,setting. racial, or cultural bias.
  • 35. Context-CenteredWhen writing test It is important to makeitems you should your test items asconsider both theperformance context realistic and close toand the learning the performancecontext your wrote setting as possible.about. It is also important toThis will help ensure make sure the learningthe transfer of skills environment contains allfrom the learning the necessary tools toenvironment to the adequately simulate theeventual performance performanceenvironment. environment.
  • 36. Assessment-CenteredTest items should be Directions should bewell written and free clearly written to avoidof spelling, grammar, any confusion on theand punctuation part of the learner.errors. Your learners should miss questions becauseIt is also important to they do not have theavoid writing "tricky" necessary skill, notquestions that feature because your directionsdouble negatives, were unclear, ordeliberately confusing because you wanted todirections, or throw them off withcompound questions. unclear wording.
  • 37. Directions for performance and products should clearly describe what is expected of the learners.WritingDirections You should include any special conditions and decide on the amount of guidance you will provide during the assessment. In some situations you may want to provide no guidance.
  • 38. The question inevitable arises as to how many items are necessary to achieve mastery of an objective? For some skills only one item is necessary. It is essential to keep in mind that, noHow matter how many items are created formany an objective, the conclusion aimed foritems? should not be, "how many did they get correct?" but rather, "does the number correct indicate mastery of the objective?" Also keep in mind that while two items may be better than one, it may also yield a 50-50 result, with a student getting one right and one wrong. Would this indicate mastery? Gagn (1988) suggests having three items in this case instead of two, as two out of three provides a better means of making a reliable decision about mastery.
  • 39. Objective Test Types Short Answer Type1. Uses a directquestion in w/cexpected Example:response is oneor two What are the characteristics of solidsentences. matter?2. Tests recallandcomprehension.
  • 40. Alternative Answer Type (True or False/Yes or No) Example:1. Limits the answer I. True or Falseto 2 options. Direction: Write T if the2. Does not give a statement is true andpicture of the f if false on the spacestudent’s mastery of provide before eachthe subject matter. number.3.Tests lower levels ______ 1. A solar waterof cognition. heater is powered by4. If used as last electrical energy.alternative -- ______ 2. The color blackMODIFY does not reflect light. ______ 3. A shadow is the absence of light.
  • 41. 4.Include all relevant info rmation and conditions required for the stud 8.Do not use specific ents to determiners(always, never, correctly none, all, may, sometimes, answer the item in the usually ). descriptive statement. 9.Keep statements short.5.Make the statement conc Long statements are ise and clear. harder to read and more6.Make sure the propositi difficult to judge true or on that makes the false. statement true or false 7.When possible, use is evident. positive statements to7.When possible, make a minimize confusion. false statement 8.Do NOT lift test items consistent with a typica verbatim from the l misconception. book.
  • 42. Completion Type (Filling the blanks) Example:1. A statement II. Fill-in-the-blanksthat has to be Direction: Complete eachcompleted with a sentence by writing theword or phrase. words on the space provided.2. Probes 1. The first president ofstudent’s ability to the Phil Republicrecall. is _______.3. If used, make 2. A _____________ is thesure there is only place that provides anone possible organism with food,answer. water and shelter.
  • 43. Identification Example:•Uses a direct II. Identificationstatement in w/c Direction: Write theexpected word/s that bestresponse is one describe/s the following statement/s on theor two word/s space provided before•Tests recall and each number.comprehension. ________1. Spectrum of light is seen by humans. ________2. The colors of the rainbow when combined on a color wheel and spun.
  • 44. Matching Type Example: III. Matching Type Direction: Match items in Column B with items in1. Uses a direct Column A. Draw an arrowquestion in w/c from Column A to Column B.expected A Bresponse is one 1. food web a. mushrooms,or two fungi, or moldsentences.2. Tests recall and bacteria.and 2. recycle b. contaminationcomprehension. of an environment especially by man made waste.
  • 45. Multiple Choice1.Keep the stem Example: simple, I. Multiple Choice. including Direction: Encircle the letter only relevant of the correct answer. information. 1. When the colors of the2. Include the same rainbow are combined on a number of color wheel and spun, alternatives or what color is produced? options for A. black each item. B. orange C. white D. yellow
  • 46. Multiple Choice Example: I. Multiple Choice.3. Keep the Direction: Encircle the alternatives letter of the correct simple by answer. adding 2. When your body adapts common to your exercise words to the load, you should stem rather a. decrease the load than including slightly. them in each b. increase the load alternative. slightly.* c. change the kind of exercise you are doing. d. stop exercising.
  • 47. Multiple Choice Example: I. Multiple Choice. Direction: Encircle the letter4. Put of the correct answer. alternatives 3. According to the 2010 in a logical census, approximately what order. percent of the Philippine population is of Spanish or Hispanic descent? Correct: a. 25% a. 2% b. 39% b. 9 % c. 2% c. 25 % d. 9%* d. 39 %
  • 48. Multiple Choice Example: I. Multiple Choice. Direction: Encircle the letter of the5. Keep the correct answer. grammar 4. What spectrum of light is seen by consistent humans? between A. electromagnetic B. infrared stem and C. ultraviolet alternatives. D. visible 5. What is used to refract light? A. microscope B. mirror C. prism D. telescope 6. Why do rainbows appear? A. They act like concave lenses. B. They act like convex lenses. C. They act like mirrors. D. They act like prisms.
  • 49. Example: I. Multiple Choice. Direction: Encircle the letter of the correct answer. 4. When the colors of the rainbow are combined on a color wheel and spun,5. Keep the what color is produced? A. black grammar B. orange consistent C. white between D. yellow stem and 5. If you combine red lenses and yellow lenses what color will objects alternatives. appear? A. orange B. red C. white D. Yellow 6. When a pencil is dropped into a glass of water the pencil looks like it has cracked in half. What happens to light to make this happen? A. It is absorbed. B. It is emitted. C. It is reflected.
  • 50. Multiple Choice Example: I. Multiple Choice. Direction: Encircle the letter of the6. Avoid correct answer. 7. What is the best reason for listing including information sources in your research an assignment? alternative a. It is required. b. It is unfair and illegal to use that is someones ideas without giving significantly proper credit.* longer than c. To get a better grade. d. To make it longer. the rest. Correct: 7. What is the best reason for listing information sources in your research assignment? a. It is required by most teachers. b. It is unfair and illegal to use someones ideas without giving proper credit* c. To get a better grade on the project d. So the reader knows from where you got your information.
  • 51. Multiple Choice Example: I. Multiple Choice. Direction: Encircle the letter of the correct answer. 8. Which of the following is NOT true of7. Limit the the Constitution? use of negative a. The Constitution sets limits on how a s (e.g., government can operate. b. The Constitution is open to different NOT, interpretations, EXCEPT) c. The Constitution has not been amended in 50 years.* Correct 8. Which of the following is true of the Constitution? a. The Constitution has not been amended in 50 years b. The Constitution sets limits on how a government can operate* c. The Constitution permits only one possible interpretation
  • 52. Multiple Choice Example: I. Multiple Choice.8. Avoid Direction: Encircle the letter of alternative the correct answer. s that are 9. When your body adapts to your opposites exercise load, you should if one of a. decrease the load slightly the two b. increase the load slightly* c. change the kind of exercise you must be are doing true. d. stop exercising Correct: 9. When your body adapts to your exercise load, you should a. decrease the load slightly b. increase the load slightly* c. decrease the load significantly d. increase the load significantly
  • 53. Multiple Choice 12. Avoid direct9. Do not test students on quotations from a material that is text in an item. already well-learned 13. Distribute correct prior to your answers fairly instruction. evenly among the10. Avoid giving too many "letters.“ clues in your 14. Make sure your alternatives. items actually11. Limit the use of "all of measure what the above" or "none they are intended of the above” and to measure. always, never or similar terms.
  • 54. Essay Test Knowledge: recall, define, arrange, list, label, identify, match, reproduce1. Specify anddefine whatmental Comprehension: describe, explain, recognize,process you restate, review, translate, classify; give examples;want the (re)state in own wordsstudents toperform Application: apply, illustrate, interpret, operate, solve, predict, utilize
  • 55. Essay Test Analysis: analyze, compare, contrast, distinguish, examine, experiment, diagram; outline1. Specify anddefine whatmental Synthesis: design, develop, formulate, propose,process you construct, create, reorganize, integrate, model,want the incorporate, planstudents toperform Evaluation: evaluate, argue, assess, compare, contrast, conclude, defend, judge, support, interpret, justify
  • 56. Essay Type Test2. Integrate course 3. Start questions withobjectives into the an active verbessay items. (compare, contrast, explain why).4. Avoid writing essayquestions that require 5. Indicate anfactual knowledge, appropriate response(questions beginningwith interrogative length for eachpronouns :who, when, question.why, where).6. Set time limits if 7. Note graded weightsnecessary. to questions.
  • 57. Developing the InstrumentIdentify the elements to be evaluated these elements should be taken directly from the behaviors and criteria included in your objectives. Make sure that the elements you select can be observed during the performance. Paraphrase each element elements should be paraphrased to cut down on the length of the instrument.Also, make sure that a "Yes" response on the instrument always corresponds with a positive performance, and a "No" response with a negative performance. Sequence the elements on the instrument the order in which the elements are listed should match the natural order of the performance. For example, if you are creating an instrument to help assess the changing of a tire you would not put "Tightens lug nuts on new tire" at the top of the list.
  • 58. Developing the Instrument Select the type of judgment to be made by the evaluator .When evaluating a performance, product, or attitude, judgmentscan be made using checklists, rating scales, or frequency counts. Checklists provide a simple "yes" or "no" as to whether or not a learner meets a criterion or element. Rating scales take this a step further by allowing for in- between ratings instead of strictly "yes" or "no". Frequency counts are used for indicating the number of times a learner meets or displays a criterion or element. This is good if the element can be observed more than once. Determine how the instrument will be scored. With checklists you can simply add up the "yes" answers to obtain a score for each objective and for the entire process or product. With rating scales you can add up the numbers assigned for each element. Frequency counts are a little more complicated asyou have to determine how to create a score. You can add up thefrequencies for an element, but you would still have to determine what constitutes a good score and whether a lack of an occurrence would be detrimental.
  • 59. Design Evaluation ChartSkill Objective Assessment Item(s)1 Objective 1 Test item2 Objective 2 Test item3 Objective 3 Test item
  • 60. Using Scoring RubricsSample:Score Point Description 10 The response reflects a strong mastery. The writer clearly identifies the subject matter, and the essay is focused and has a fluent, clear progression of ideas and evenness of development. The writer provides specific, relevant details to support ideas. Sentence structure is varied and effective, and word choice demonstrates the ability to use a large vocabulary skillfully. 9 The response reflects a very good mastery of expository writing. There are strengths in all four criteria. The writer identifies the topic. The essay stays focused and progresses logically with no break. The writer uses specific details and clearly links events and relationships. A few minor flaws in coherence may be present. The writer addresses all aspects of the prompt and uses effective vocabulary and sentence structure.
  • 61. Types of Test (Physical Fitness Test) A test designed to measure physical strength,They are commonly agility, and endurance.employed in educationalinstitutions as part of thephysical educationcurriculum, in medicine aspart of diagnostic testing,and as eligibilityrequirements in fields thatfocus on physical abilitysuch as military or police.
  • 62. Types of Test (Performance Test) An assessment that requires an examinee to actually perform aPerformance tests are commonly task or activity, ratherused in workplace and professional than simply answeringapplications, such as professional questions referring tocertification and licensure. When specific parts. Theused for personnel selection, thetests might be referred to as a work purpose is to ensuresample. greater fidelity to what is being tested.A licensure example is the LicensureExamination for Teachers (LET) for wouldbe teachers.Another example is a driving test toobtain a drivers license. Rather thanonly answering simple multiple-choiceitems regarding the driving of anautomobile, a student is required toactually drive one while being evaluated.
  • 63. Reference/s Selected Response Items - Grade 4 - Isalin ang pahinang ito File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat Selected Response Items. Grade 4. (I). Multiple Choice. 1. If crickets live in sandy ... Use the food chain below to answer the next three questions. ... 11 - Developing Tests - NAPCE - Isalin ang pahinang ito File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - Mabilis na Pagtingin An “objective” test is a test made up of close-ended questions. Objective tests have ... There are four common types of objective questions. These are the ... Test (assessment) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tests are sometimes used by a group to select for certain types of individuals to ... As a result, these tests may consist of only one type of test item format (e.g., ...
  • 64. Harry Wong had said, trueeducators are the ones whowill always be willing toshare their knowledge andresources to othereducators.