Innovative Strategies in Teaching Communication Arts English
TeachingApproaches, Methods and Techniques in English Ma. Martha Manette A. Madrid, Ed.D. Professor, College of Teacher Education Panpacific University North Philippines Urdaneta City, Pangasinan, Philippines firstname.lastname@example.org
Three Levels ofConceptualization &Organization Approach Method Technique Technique Technique
Approach – a set of correlative assumptions dealing with the nature of language teaching and learning.Method – is an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material no part of which contradicts, and all of which is based upon, the selected approach.
Technique – the level at which classroom procedures are described. It is the medium of implementation (e.g., a particular trick, strategy, or contrivance) used to accomplish an immediate objective.
Audio-LingualWholeLanguage Basal SuggestopediaApproach Readers Management Programmed Systems Instruction Approach
Grammar-TranslationMethodGoals1. To read literature in target language.2. To memorize grammar rules and vocabulary of the target language.
Characteristics1. The major focuses are reading and writing with little or no systematic attention to listening and speaking.2. Vocabulary selection is based solely on the reading text used. Words are taught bilingual word lists, dictionary study, and memorization.3. The sentence is the basic unit of teaching and language practice. Much of the lesson is devoted to translating sentences from and into the target language.
4. Grammar is taught deductively. Rules are presented and studied then practiced through translation exercises.5. The students’ native language is used to explain new items in the target language and to enable comparisons between the foreign language and the students’ native language.6. Accuracy is emphasized. Students are expected to attain high standards in translation.
Direct MethodGoal1. To communicate in the target language
Characteristics1. A foreign language is taught without the use of the students’ native language.2. There are extensive drills in listening, imitating, and speaking so that the students’ use of the different forms of the language become second nature to them.3. There is no memorization of grammar rules. Grammar is taught inductively by generating from examples.4. Oral communication skills are developed in a carefully graded progression and organized around question-and-answer exchanges between the teacher and the student.
Audio-Lingual ApproachGoals1. To use the target language communicatively.2. To master the target language to enable the students to use it automatically as new habits are formed and native language habits are overcome.
Characteristics1. New vocabulary and structures are presented through dialogs which are learned through imitation and repetition.2. The students interact through chain drills or role playing in dialogs, all the teacher’s direction.3. Grammar is induced from models.4. There is a set natural priority of skills – listening, speaking, reading, writing-with emphasis on the first two skills.5. Pronunciation is taught from the beginning, often with language laboratory work and minimal pair drills.
6. Emphasis is given to everyday speech and a graded syllabus is used, from simple to difficult linguistic structures.7. The native language is not used in the classroom.8. Discrete-point tests are given to check the students’ knowledge of structure.9. The teacher strives to prevent student error by predicting trouble spots and tightly controlling what to teach the student to say.
Silent Way- (Caleb Gattegno, 1972)Goals1. To use language for self-expression.2. To develop independence from the teacher.3. To develop inner criteria for correctness.
Characteristics1. Teaching is subordinated to learning. The students are responsible for their own learning.2. The teacher is silent most of the time but vey active in setting up situations and listening to students; he/she speaks only to give clues. Student-student interactions is encouraged.3. The students begin with associating sounds in their native language to a sound-color chart. The teacher then provides situations to focus attention on structure. The students interact as each situation requires.4. The teacher uses errors made by the students as in index on where instruction on the target language is not effective. She/He adjusts instruction accordingly.
5. Translation is not used but the native language is considered a resource on the students knowledge.6. To encourage the development of inner criteria in the students, neither praise nor criticism is given by the teacher.7. The teacher observes the students’ ability to transfer what they have learned to a new context. The students are expected to learn at different rates. They are also expected to make progress and not necessarily to speak perfectly. Errors are considered inevitable, a natural part of learning.
Suggestopedia- (George Lozanov, 1978)GoalsTo learn at accelerated pace a foreign language for everyday communication by tapping mental powers and overcoming psychological barriers.
Characteristics1. The power of suggestion is used to help the students eliminate the feeling that they cannot succeed.2. Learning is facilitated in a relaxed comfortable environment with dim lights, and soft music.3. The students’ imagination is used to aid learning. The students assume new names and new identities and respond to the teacher accordingly, using the target language in communicating.4. Grammar and vocabulary are presented and explained but discussed at length.5. Meanings can be made clear through native language translation.
6. Communication takes place on two planes: the conscious, where the student pays attention to a dialog read (linguistic message), and the subconscious, where the music played as background suggest that learning is easy.7. The arts such as music, song, and drama are integrated into the teaching.8. At beginning levels, errors are tolerated because emphasis is on content, but in later lessons these forms are correctly used by the teacher.9. Evaluation is conducted on the students; normal in-class performance, no formal tests are given.
Community LanguageLearning-Goals1. To learn language communicatively.2. To take responsibility for learning.3. To approach the task nondefensivey, never separating intellect from feelings.
Characteristics1. Nondefensive learning requires security, aggression(students assert and involve themselves), attention, reflection(students think about language and their experience in learning it), retention, and discrimination (sorting out target language forms).2. Cooperation is encouraged; the teacher and the students together make decisions in class.3. The teacher routinely probes the students’ attitudes toward learning and helps them overcome their negative feelings.4. Particular grammar, pronunciation, and vocabulary points are treated based on the students’ expressed needs. Understanding and speaking are emphasized.
5. The native language is used in conversations, instructions, and sessions for expressing feelings.6. Learning about aspects of culture is integrated with language learning.7. A nonthreatening teaching style is encouraged; correct forms are modeled.8. There is no specific means of evaluation but adhere to principles is urged. Integrative tests are preferred over discrete-point tests.9. Self-evaluation is encouraged to promote the students’ awareness of their progress.
Total Physical Response- (James Usher, 1977)GoalsTo promote an enjoyable learning experience with minimum stress.
Characteristics1. Lessons begin with commands given by the teacher which the students execute.2. Activities are novel, often humorous, and include games and skits.3. There is teacher-student or student-student interaction: the teacher speaks, the students respond; or a student gives suggestions to another student with the teacher’s guidance.4. Oral communication is stressed; the culture or life-style of native speakers is considered when learning the target language.
5. Meanings in the target language are often made clear through actions.6. The students are expected to commit errors when they begin speaking. Only major errors are corrected and correction is done unobtrusively.7. Evaluation is done through observation of the students’ actions. Formal evaluation is achieved through commands given by the teacher and responded to by the students through a series of actions.
Communicative ApproachGoals1. To become communicatively competent.2. To use the language appropriate for a given social context.3. To manage the process of relating meaning with interlocutors.
Characteristics1. Activities are communicative; speakers have a choice of what to say and how to say it; feedback from their listeners will determine if the purpose is achieved.2. Authentic materials are used as text.3. Emphasis is on developing the motivation to learn through establishing meaningful things to do with the target language.4. Grammar and vocabulary that the students learn follow from the function, the situational context, and the roles of the interlocutors.
5. The teacher is the facilitator of the students’ learning: as manager he/she establishes situations; as adviser he/she answers questions and monitors performances; and as communicator he/she engages in communicative activity with the students.6. The students use the language through such communicative activities as games, role plays, and problem-solving tasks.7. Activities are often carried out by the students in small groups.
8. Informal evaluation is done by the teacher in his/her role as adviser or communicator. Formal evaluation is done through communicative tests.9. Errors of form are tolerated and are seen as a natural outcome of the development of communication skills.10. The use of the native language is accepted when feasible. Translation may be used when needed.
Language ExperienceApproachGoalsTo integrate listening, reading and writing skills development with the existing language of the students.
Characteristics1. Instruction is built on the use of reading materials created by writing the students’ spoken language.2. There is no built-in scope and sequence of skills or vocabulary control; skills and vocabulary are learned as they arise during dictation.3. The students’ spoken language is relied upon more than the strict adherence to standard English as the only form of acceptable language.
4. Emphasis is on familiar words, such as those that appear on labels, signs, and cooking.5. Emphasis is given to expressive words, such as dramatics, arts, music and cooking.6. This is an ungraded and individualized method in which the students progress at their own rate.7. There is early fostering of the students’ independence and self-directed learning.
Basal Reader ApproachGoalsTo learn different reading skills systematically.
Characteristics1. Sub skills of each major skills vary in difficulty and complexity and are introduced to the student in a logical, prescribed order.2. These sub skills are integrated into an instructional program so that the student can interrelate them.3. Basal series are generally from grades 1 to 6 (although some have pregrade 1). At every level, there are teachers manuals, workbooks, and testing materials to accompany the basal text. Other materials such as supplementary readers, charts, and films may be available.
4. The program identifies and introduces a controlled vocabulary of new words in isolation and in context.5. Subsequent activities involve further skills development, word recognition, comprehension and study skills.6. Enrichment activities are designed to relate the topic of the lesson to the visual arts, music, dance or literature.7. Beginning reading methods may differ among the series:a. code-emphasis programs-emphasis on decoding skills, specifically phonicsb. Meaning emphasis programs- emphasis on reading for meaning or comprehension.
Individual ReadingInstructionGoalsTo read materials of the students’ own choice and to progress at his/her rate.
Characteristics1. The students are encouraged to select reading materials that interest them. They set their own pace in reading and the quantity of materials to work on.2. There is no static grouping of students y ability for the purpose of reading instruction.3. Skills are taught as needed. Skill instruction may occur in individual, small group, or whole class setting.4. Oral reading is used to assess each student’s reading difficulty.
5. The teacher evaluates the student’s reading performance using materials chosen during individual conferences or group sessions.6. The teacher and the student share in keeping records of the student’s progress.7. The teacher uses the record to plan specific instruction and activities.8. Silent reading is emphasized to encourage wide reading and promote the student’s reading comprehension.
Management SystemsApproachGoalsTo provide an individualized, carefully monitored, and skills specific approach to reading instruction.
Characteristics1. The management systems approach is of several types:a. Program-dependent types are designed to be used with basal readers.b. Program-independent types such supplementary materials or modules are used independently of the basal readers.2. There is a list of behaviorally stated reading objectives that range from the pre-reading level to the upper grades.
3. Records, like student-profile cards, indicate the program available to parents.4. Guides are provided to match various instructional and periodic materials to the specific objectives.5. Various organization plans and grouping strategies (e.g., based on age, ability, interest, and the like) are used.6. A set criterion-referenced tests determines if the students has mastered specific objectives. Tests are individually administered.
Characteristics1. Each lesson is divided into small units that are organized for logical, sequential learning.2. The learning process may be classified into the following:a. Linear. No frame is bypassed. The student moves step-by-step through each frame.b. Branching. The student reacts through each frame. If the response is correct, the student moves to the next frame. If it is wrong, he/she passes the next frame and moves to other frames which teach him/her what he/she does not know.
3. Instant feedback and immediate correction of error are made.4. The program may come in different formats: workbook or mechanical.5. Programs are designed to require individual response or immediate feedback with reinforcement (answer is correct) or correction (answer is wrong).6. The students progress at their own rate and they check their own answers.7. Drill and practice programs focus on specific vocabulary or decoding skills.
Whole LanguageApproachGoals1. To use communication situations to express ideas and feelings.2. To foster love of reading for enjoyment.
Characteristics1. The teacher and the students work collaboratively.2. Authentic texts or real children’s literature— fairy tales, folktales, fables, legends, myths, poem s, parables, and riddles—are used for reading lessons.3. The teacher provides a lot of group interaction through a variety of strategies: speech choir, jazz chants, chamber theater, readers theater, and finger plays.
4. Comprehension is supported by active interpretation.5. Comprehension is enhanced by activating prior knowledge, using advance organizers and prediction techniques.6. Listening and speaking activities pave the way for setting the purpose, surveying the text, predicting outcomes, and considering literary elements.
Reference: • Villamin, Aracelli M., Bala, Edilberta C., Salazar, Evelyn L. & Sunga, Nilda R. Innovative Strategies in Communication Arts. Quezon: Phoenix Publishing House., Inc.. 1994