ENGLISH GRAMMAR Ma. Martha Manette A. Madrid, Ed.D. Professor Institute of Graduate Studies Panpacific University North Philippines Urdaneta City, Philippines September 22, 2012
What is Grammar? Grammar is the structural It is necessary to foundation of our ability to express ourselves. The more weknow grammar, and it are aware of how it works, the is better to write more we can monitor the grammatically than meaning and effectiveness of the way we and others use language. not, but it is well to It can help foster precision, remember that detect ambiguity, and exploit the grammar is common richness of expression available in English. And it can help speech formulated. everyone--not only teachers ofUsage is the only test. English, but teachers of anything, (William Somerset for all teaching is ultimately a matter of getting to grips with Maugham, The meaning. Summing Up, 1938) (David Crystal, "In Word and Deed," TES Teacher, April 30, 2004)
What is Grammar?1. During the MiddleAges, grammar wasoften used to describe 2. In the 19thlearning in general, century, the twoincluding the magical, versions of the wordoccult practices went their separatepopularly associated ways, so that ourwith the scholars of theday. People in Scotland study of Englishpronounced grammar grammar today mayas "glam-our," and not be quite asextended the glamorous as it usedassociation to mean to be.magical beauty orenchantment.
What is Grammar? Descriptive Prescriptive grammar grammar (definition #1) (definition #2) refers to the refers to the structure of a structure of alanguage as it is language asactually used by certain people speakers and think it should writers. be used.
What is Grammar? Specialists in Prescriptivedescriptive grammariansgrammar (called (such as mostlinguists) study editors andthe rules or teachers) lay outpatterns that rules about whatunderlie our use they believe toof words, be the “correct”phrases, clauses, or “incorrect” useand sentences. of language.
“Interface” The descriptivegrammarian would The prescriptivenote, among other grammarian,things, that the however, wouldword is made up of be morea common prefix interested in(inter-) and a root deciding whetherword (face) and or not it isthat it’s currentlyused as both a “correct” to usenoun and a verb. interface as a verb.
The Value of Studying Grammar gaining a clearer understanding of how our language works gain greater control over the way you shape words into sentences and paragraphs help you become a more effective writer.
Descriptive vs PrescriptiveDescriptive grammarians generally advise usnot to be overly concerned with matters ofcorrectness: language, they say, isnt good orbad; it simply is. As the history of theglamorous word grammar demonstrates, theEnglish language is a living system ofcommunication, a continually evolving affair.Prescriptive grammarians prefer givingpractical advice about using language:straightforward rules to help us avoid makingerrors.
Grammar and Composition Attempts to integrate these two approaches to grammar--or, at the least, present them side by side. Lesson on Correcting Errors in Subject-Verb Agreement is obviously prescriptive
Ten Types of GrammarConcerned with "a facultyof language that provides an explanatory basis for how a human being can acquire a first language.The theory of grammar is atheory of human language and hence establishes the relationship among all languages.
Ten Types of Grammar Theory of competence: A model of the psychological system of unconscious knowledgethat underlies a speakers ability to produce and interpret utterances in a language."
Ten Types of Grammar 3. Mental The generativegrammar stored All humans are born with thein the brain that capacity for constructing a Mental allows a Grammar, given linguistic experience; this capacity for speaker to language is called the Language produce Faculty (Chomsky, 1965). language that other speakerscan understand. A grammar formulated by a linguist is an idealized description of this Mental Grammar."
Ten Types of Grammar 4. Pedagogical Grammatical analysis and instruction (1) pedagogical process-- designed for the explicit treatment of elements of the target second- language systems as (part of) language language teaching students. methodology; (2) pedagogical content-- reference sources of one kind or another that present information about the target language system; and (3) combinations of process and content."
Ten Types of Grammar 9. Transformational A theory of the term rule is used not grammar that for a precept set down by accounts for an external authority but for a principle that is the unconsciously yet regularly constructions followed in the production of a language and interpretation of by linguistic sentences.transformation A rule is a direction for forming a sentence or a s and phrase part of a sentence, which structures. has been internalized by the native speaker.
Ten Types of Grammar 10. UniversalThe system of "Taken together, the linguistic principles ofcategories, Universal Grammaroperations, and constitute a theory oflanguages to be the organization ofinnate. the initial state of the mind/brain of the language learner-- that is, a theory of the human faculty for language.
References:English grammar - Wikipedia, the freeencyclopediaen.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_grammarTen Types of Grammar - Grammar andComposition - About.comgrammar.about.com/.../basicsentence
What is English Grammar?The body of rules This includes the that describe the structure of structure of words, phrases,expressions in the clauses, andEnglish language. sentences.
What is English Grammar? Generalized present- day Standard English, the form of speech Standard formsfound in types of public of British discourse including English, broadcasting, education, American entertainment, English, and government, and news reporting, including Australian both formal and English. informal speech.
1. Word Classes and Phrases Noun Open Classes Determiner Pronoun word classes that readily accept new members Verb Adjective Adverb Closed Classes Preposition word classes that readily Conjunction rarely admit new language Phrases
2. Negation combinations of auxiliary dont, cant, verbs etc. with not have isnt, etc contracted forms: can is written Also the uncontracted as a single negated form word cannot On inversion of subject and Should he not verb (such as in questions, the pay? or subject may be placed after a Shouldnt he contracted negated form: pay?
2. Negation Other elements, such as not the right noun phrases, adjectives, answer, not adverbs, infinitive and interesting, notparticipial phrases, etc., can be to enter, not negated by placing the word noticing the not before them: train, etc. I saw nothing or When other negating words I didnt see such as never, nobody, etc. anything, but not appear in a sentence, the (except in non-negating not is omitted (unlike standard speech) its equivalents in many *I didnt see languages): nothing.
3. Clause and Sentence Structure Contains a subject (a noun phrase) and a predicate (a verb phrase in the terminology used above; that is, a verb together with its objects and complements).
3. Clause and Sentence Structure Contains one independent clause and possibly one or more dependent clauses, although it is also possible to link together sentences of this form into longer sentences, using coordinating conjunctions
To learn more about the EightWord Classes, please see also Parts of a Speech
History of English Grammar The first published English grammar was a Pamphlet for Grammar of 1586, written by William Bullokar with the stated goal of demonstrating that English was just as rule- based as Latin. Bullokars grammar was faithfully modeled on William Lilys Latin grammar, Rudimenta Grammatices (1534), used in English schools at that time, having been "prescribed" for them in 1542 by Henry VIII. Bullokar wrote his grammar in English and used a "reformed spelling system" of his own invention; but many English grammars, for much of the century after Bullokars effort, were written in Latin, especially by authors who were aiming to be scholarly.
History of English GrammarJohn Walliss Grammatica Linguae Anglicanae(1685) was the last English grammar written inLatin. Even as late as the early 19th century, Lindley Murray, the author of one of the most widely used grammars of the day, was having to cite "grammatical authorities" to bolster the claim that grammatical cases in English are different from those in Ancient Greek or Latin.