Maria Ma. Martha Manette A. Madrid, Ed.D. Professor Graduate Studies, Master in Education, Major in Language Teaching Panpacific University North Philippines Urdaneta City, Pangasinan firstname.lastname@example.org
A. Understanding Pronunciation of English1. Distinguish the sounds of EnglishEx. Between add and odd, lack and lock, deed and did2. Pay attention to the stressed syllables or wordsEx. Lisa gave her present to the birthday celebrant. Lisa presents her paper to the committee.
B. Recalling Relevant Knowledge1. Response to different question types to reproduce a great recall.Example ExerciseDirection: Listen to your teacher who reads a short paragraph and answer the following questions?You may come up with the following questions:1. What does the article tell us about the family?2. What is the first information mentioned in the paragraph?3. How did you feel when you heard about this information?
The Family The family is a basic unit of society. It isthe most important unit of societybecause it assures the cooperation,discipline and a core of values among thechildren necessary for the continuedexistence of society. On the other hand,the family is also important for the childrenbecause it ensures the proper care, love,attention and training for the children.
C. Making Predictions1. Anticipate what the speaker will say before he gives an utterance.2. Accuracy of prediction will depend on your grammatical knowledge.3. Identify the type of word or semantic case frame the speaker used. Example ExerciseA. Listen to your teacher read the parts of Mrs. Santos and Reyes. Then, supply the missing dialogues.
Mrs. Santos: Have a seat, Mr. Reyes. I will tell Mr. Ramos that you’re looking for him.Reyes: _________________________________________Mrs. Santos: Mr. Ramos is still taking his breakfast. He does not usually get up from bed early.Reyes: _________________________________________Mrs. Santos: ____________________________________Reyes: Ah, so he has finished the great work. I know he has spent many years on it; I should say six years.Mrs. Santos: ____________________________________Reyes: Mr. Ramos has nice words about your services, Mrs. Santos.
A. Voice1. Use variety of volume to sustain listener’s attention.2. Vary your pitch to ensure that your audience will continue listening to you.3. Express the more important idea slowly and emphatically; say the less important idea in your natural speed.
B. Vowel and Consonant Sounds1. The way you produce vowel and consonant sounds is as important as projecting your voice.2. Distinguish Vowel and Consonant Sounds.3. Speaking out load each vowel and consonant sounds in a sequence will help you improve the quality of your vowels.Ex. shook, shoot, took, too, fool, full, pool, pull heed, hid, deed, did, sleep, slip, peak, pick The petite, pretty lady posed. He bothered to gather the bits of paper.
C. Stress1. Improper stress may result in communication breakdown between you and your listener.2. Identify the stress patternD. Intonation1. Use the correct intonation patterns in the language, changing the pitch of your voice depending on the purpose.Ex. Good morning, Mr. Ferrer. Please slow down.
Things to do before a delivery:1. Decide on the topic of your talk.2. Research on the subject.3. Ask how long you are going to speak.4. Use notes. Write statistics, quotations, keywords5. Decide on the visual aids to use.6. Structure your speech. ◦ Open your speech with any of the following devices: 1. Amusing your audience by cracking a joke or relate anecdote. 2. Ask questions and make requests. 3. Make jolting statements. 4. Remind your audience the purpose of the event. 5. Express your appreciation for the invitation to speak. 6. Try your audience what you are going to talk about.
◦ Develop your speech with any of the following techniques: 1. Highlight the key points. 2. Add details to subordinate ideas. 3. Include illustrations or examples. 4. Lighten the load of information; tell appropriate anecdotes and jokes. ◦ End your speech with any of the following methods: 1. Restate memorable lines/passages in summarizing the idea of the whole speech. 2. Give a forecast. 3. Make a suggestion.7. Try your speech on a few friends. Find out what they thought of your speech.
Things to remember when giving an oral presentation:1. Wear an attire fit for the occasion and see to it that you are well-groomed.2. Look alert and self-assured.3. Pay special attention not only to what you will say. Give as much attention to how you will say it.4. Keep your audience interested by making sure that you are heard clearly.5. Aim to make eye contact with your audience.6. Choose and use a few gestures to mask significant ideas.7. Adopt a balanced posture or relaxed position.
Criteria for Evaluating an Oral Presentation:1. Voice (10 points)a. Was the speaker’s voice loud and clear?b. Did the speaker change his/her pitch?c. Did the speaker vary his/her pace?d. Was the speaker’s voice expressive of the feeling that his/her ideas conveyed?2. Language (10 points)a. Did the speaker use language that you understood?b. Did the speaker use standard language?
3. Audience (15 points)a. Did the speaker keep the audience attentive or interested?b. Did the speaker maintain eye contact with his/her audience?4. Posture and Gesture (5 points)a. Did the speaker maintain a balanced position?b. Did he/she tailor his/her actions to his/her speech?5. Knowledge of the subject/topic(20 points)a. Did the speaker demonstrate great knowledge about the subject?b. Did the speaker discuss the subject/topic clearly?
6. Opening Statements(10 points)a. Did the speaker immediately seize the attention of the listener?b. Did the speaker immediately inform the listeners about the topic of his speech and the areas he would cover ?7. Posture and Gesture (10 points)a. Did the speaker succeed in highlighting the important ideas?b. Did the speaker present the ideas coherently?8. Closing Statements(10 points)a. Did the speaker give an effective closing?b. Did the speaker give a logical conclusion to his/her presentation?8. Visual Displays(10 points)a. Did the visual displays add to the clarity of the presentation?b. Were the visual displays used to reinforce the presentation?
A. Vocabulary Skills1. Using synonyms/antonyms.2. Using semantic/context clues.Ex. 1. The timorous tenants walked away when they saw their landlord. a. indignant b. frightened c. demanding 2. The teacher received an inane answer from his student . a. incorrect b. silly c. sensible d. intelligent
A. Comprehension Skills1. Skimming for the topic sentence.- When you skim, you look at the title and heading, read the first sentence of the first paragraph or the whole paragraph. You may also read the first sentence of each of the succeeding paragraphs.2. Scanning for important information.- When you scan for important information, direct your reading to specific paragraph where you can locate the answers to your questions or those which your teacher asks. Read slowly.
3. Noting details.- When you note details, read the text slowly, remember items in it, relate them to the topic sentence of each paragraph or differentiate them from the main idea the passage conveys.4. Getting the main idea.- When you get the main idea of a passage, look for the most important thing the author says or find the central though of the passage.5. Inferring.- When you infer, read between the lines or rely for information on clues given by the author.
6. Understanding Cause and Effect.- When you want to see cause and effect relationships, look for signal words, such as for, thus, as , since, therefore, as a result, consequently, in order that, and because. A cause indicates the reason for something; an effect shows the result of some action or cause.7. Identifying fact and opinion .- When you want to identify fact and opinion, find out if the statement can be proved true or false and if it expresses attitudes, evaluations, judgments.8. Predicting outcomes.- When you predict outcomes, analyze the events and study their relationships.
C. Study Skills1. Taking Notes- In taking notes, separate the main ideas from the supporting details.2. Summarizing- In summarizing , you present the substance or general idea of the passage in a brief and different form.3. Outlining- In outlining , you list down ideas systematically to show the relationship of one idea to the other.
D. Literary Appreciation Skills- Literary appreciation means experiencing some pleasurable aesthetic moments while reading it.1. The Plot2. The Character3. The Setting
Preparations in WritingA. Topic1. Thinking out the topic.2. Taking a specific aspect of the topic.B. Purpose1. Purpose and Disciplined Writing.2. Purposeless Writing and Its Kinds. ◦ Hodgepodge writing or failure to concentrate on one idea.
◦ Deadwood writing or failure to distinguish the relevant details from the irrelevant. ◦ Vague Writing or failure to concretize an idea through illustrations.C. Unity, Coherence and Emphasis1. Unity or oneness, the composition deals with only one thing.2. Coherence requires the parts of the composition be related to one another. ◦ Pattern of Arrangement 1. chronologic 6. specific examples 2. climactic 7. appropriate details 3. spacial 8. comparison and contrast 4. definition 9. deductive 5. cause and effect 10. inductive3. Emphasis requires that the important ideas stand out and the unimportant ones sink into the background.
Writing the CompositionA. The Introduction1. Jolting Statement2. Dramatic Scene3. Build-up Statement4. Impressionistic Description5. Stimulating Question
B. The Transitional Paragraphs1. Use of connectives2. Use of Linking Pronouns3. Use of an Echo Word4. Use of “bridge over the gap” paragraphC. The Conclusion1. Summary2. Forecast3. Question4. Suggestion5. Quotation
Giving the Title1. Must be arresting.2. Stimulate people to read further.3. Depends upon the subject of the composition.4. Imaginative subjects call for fanciful titles; informative subjects call for descriptive titles.