THE COMPLEX AND
DYNAMIC THEORY OF
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1: Bernoulli’s Principle
Chapter 2: Overview Principles of Flight
Chapter 3: Federal Aviation Administration Explanation:
- How Weather Effects Flight
Theory of Flight Contains Aspects of Physics to
Develop an Understanding of How Aircrafts Fly
• Bernoulli Introduced the Theory of Flight with Involvement in Physics
• Bernoulli’s Principles and Formulas all Include Aspects of Physics
• Daniel Bernoulli was a Swiss mathematician that included
his own experiments on how flight is effected. Even
though principles of flight were not developed in 17th
Century, his experiment enhanced the understanding of
principles of flight in Modern Technology.
• All Aircrafts That Have Wings Fly With the Principle of Lift.
- Bernoulli’s Principle stated that “as a fluid's velocity increases its pressure decreases”
• Bernoulli’s Principle of Fluid Determined How an Aircraft Can Fly Through the Sky Being Heavier-Than-Air.
• The Reason why Bernoulli’s Principle is Applied in Flight, is Because Lift is Generated By Fluid in the Surrounding Air.
Bernoulli Created an Equation Regarding How Pressure Varies
Through Flowing Air. (Lift)
- The Equation is Shown As:
P + ½p V2= constant
Where: p= Pressure
rho= Density of Fluid
V= Velocity of Moving Fluid
To Further Understand This Equation, One Must Know The
Equation of Continuity.
- The Equation is Shown As:
P A V = constant
Where: p= Pressure
A= Cross Sectional Area of Flow
LIFT IS THE GREATEST
FORCE ON THE
LIFT IS ESTABLISHED BY THE WINGS OF THE AIRCRAFTS.
- Wings are designed to have a flat edge in the front and a curved shape to
the back. Reason: The aircraft needs air particles from the front of the wing
to reach each other at the same time at the back.
- The air particles will move at a faster speed at the top of the wing then the
air particles at the bottom of the wing.
- Regarding Bernoulli’s principle of fluid, the air particles is mainly water, or
fluid. So, as the fluid reaches the wing, the pressure changes around it.
More pressure is created from the bottom of the wing pushing up, than less
pressure of the wing pushing down.
DIFFERENCE IN THRUST AND DRAG:
TWO FORCES THAT EFFECT THE AIRCRAFTS MOTION.
Thrust is The Force That Accelerates The Aircraft in
A Forward Direction.
The Equation For Thrust is Written By Newton’s Second
F = MA The Directional Arrow:
Where: F= Force To The Left
M= Mass Acceleration
Drag is The Opposing Force of Thrust. The Aircraft Which
Flies Through The Air Experiences Resistance of Air Flow.
The Equation is Shown As:
Cd (1/2p V2) A
Where: Cd= Drag Coefficient The Directional Arrow:
P= Pressure To The Right
V= Velocity Drag
A= Acceleration (Air Resistance)
AERODYNAMICS PLAY A CRUCIAL ROLE IN
- THE NOSE OF THE AIRCRAFT IS DESIGNED TO ALLOW AIR FLOW TO FLOW MORE
EFFECTIVELY THEN AT THE TAIL OF THE AIRCRAFT.
- AIR FLOW WILL FLOW THROUGHOUT THE BODY OF THE AIRCRAFT FOR MORE FUEL-
EFFECTIVE FLYING AS WELL AS MORE STABLE FLIGHT.
- AERODYNAMICS ALSO REDUCES THE AMOUNT OF UNEVEN AIR PATTERN TO FLOW MORE
SMOOTHLY AROUND THE WING AND BODY FOR MORE EVEN PATTERN OF AIR FLOW.
THRUST: THE ENGINE’S
THRUST IS THE FORCE AT WHICH AIR ACCELERATES THE AIRCRAFT IN A FORWARD MOTION. TO DEVELOP THRUST, THE
AIRCRAFT HAS EITHER ONE, TWO, THREE, OR FOUR ENGINES.
The Engine Itself Is Designed To Meet The Principles of Physical Science; Thermodynamics, aerodynamics, fluid mathematics, and
The Engine Has Two Compressors. The First Compressor, N1 Compressor, is Responsible to “Suck in” Air to The Engine. The Second
Compressor, N2 Compressor, is Used as a Gas and Air Compressor.
- N1 Compressor: Rotates at High RPM’s to Increase Air Flow to The Engine.
- N2: Compressor: Burns the Air With Gas From The Aircrafts Fuel Compartment.
- However, Only 20% of The Air Is Burned From the N1 Compressor. That Air is Burned To Create Heat, Known as
Thermodynamics. After The Air Is Burned, it Exists The Engine to Create A Powerful Force To Increase Thrust. The Remaining 80%
of Air, Flows Through the Edges of The Engine and Compressor to The End of The Engine, Creating Thousands of Pounds of Thrust.
THRUST: THE ENGINE’S
THRUST IS THE SECOND LARGEST FORCE DURING FLIGHT. HOWEVER, IN
CHEMISTRY RELATIONS, IT HAS MORE OF AN IMPACT.
- Every Engine Has Fan Blades, N1 Compressor and N2 Compressor, But A
Compressor That Burns Fuel Is The N2.
- Fuel Gets Leaked Into The N2 Compressor and The Fuel and Air Will
Mix Together For A High Temperature Thrust.
- When The Aircraft Is Above 10,000 Feet, Air Temperature Is Well
Below 0 Degrees. The Burned Fuel In The N2 Compressor Is Higher
Than 4,000 Degrees, But The Air Outside The Engine Is -70 Degrees.
When The Fuel Exists The Engine, A White Streak Follows The
Engine. That White Streak Is Combustion.
- Combustion: The Transfer of Air to Heat. Then The
Heat Reduces From High Temperature to Low
Temperature. The White Streak Is The Fuel, Which
Crystallizes In The Air; Creating A White Streak.
LIFT: THE WING’S
LIFT IS CREATED BY THE AERODYNAMICS AND ENGINEERING OF THE WING.
• The Wing Airfoil Is Designed To Be Aerodynamic So The Air Flow Can Travel
Around The Wing At Faster Speeds and Create a More Amount of Lift.
• The Wing Has A Curved Structure on The Top of The Wing, and It Is Flat On
The Bottom. The Structure of The Wing Allows Air Pressures To Be Different
From Top and Bottom, Allowing Lift.
• The Force of Lift Is Greater Than The Force of Gravity and Drag, Allowing
The Aircrafts Ability To Get Off The Ground.
GRAVITATIONAL FORCE ON AIRCRAFTS
• Gravity Effects All Objects on The Ground as A Pulling Force to The Center of Earth.
- Gravity has an equation written as:
g = - 9.81 m/s2
- It is a negative number do to the force pulling DOWN.
• All Aircrafts need to have a “Balance” front the nose to the tail of the aircraft. When the aircraft has a balance
of weight, the center of gravity will be applied to the center of the aircraft, which will create a stable flight.
• With the force of Gravity and the weight of the aircraft, more lift will be needed to take the aircraft off the
ground. So, engineers create a bigger wing.
AS AIR TEMPERATURE AND SPEED OF THE AIR CONSTANTLY SHIFT, AIRCRAFTS
HAVE THE AIR RESISTANCE OF DRAG AND TURBULENCE DURING EVERY SINGLE
- Turbulence Is A Common Event In All Flights. Turbulence Itself Is Air Pockets That Is
Uneven With The Rest of The Flow of The Air On The Wing.
- The Science Behind Avoiding Severe Turbulence Is Simple; A Winglet.
- The Winglet Is About A Complete Vertical Tip On The Tip of The Wing That Will
Even Out The Air Flow On The Aircraft. Even With a Winglet, There Still is
Turbulence, But Not As Severe.
- With A Winglet, Air Flow Over The Wing is More Stable and Amount of
Turbulence Resistance is Weakened.
FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION
THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, OR FAA, EXPLAINED FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS OF
AIRCRAFT’S ABILITY TO FLY.
ALL AIRCRAFTS EXPERIENCE THE SAME PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT AS WELL AS EVERYDAY
HOWEVER, MODERN TECHNOLOGY INCREASED THE AIRCRAFTS STABILITY IN FLIGHT TO PREVENT
THE ENVIRONMENT FROM EFFECTING THE AIRCRAFTS PERFORMANCE.
TEMPERATURE EFFECTS FLIGHT FROM THE GROUND AND
TEMPERATURE CHANGES DRASTICALLY, THAT IS WHY AIRCRAFTS NEED SAFETY
PROCEDURES TO HAVE STABLE FLIGHT.
As The Temperature is Colder On Sea Level, More Lift is Created.
As The Temperature is Hotter On Sea Level, Less Lift Is Created.
- Even Though The Ground Temperature is Warm or Cold, The Temperature Above 10,000 Feet is
Well Below 0 Degrees. So, How does an Aircraft Fly In Freezing Temperatures?
- Two Factors Play A Role...
1) The Aircraft Is Designed to Burn Its Fuel to High Temperatures to Heat The Aircraft As
Well As The Interior.
2) The Aircraft has De-Icers. De-Icers are Slats In The Front of The Wing So if Ice Is
Developed on The Wing, Which it Will, The Slats Will Extend Forward Cracking And Shearing Off
EFFECT PLANES EVERYDAY, BUT
HOW DO AIRCRAFTS STILL FLY?
The Federal Aviation Administration Regulated How Aircrafts
Can Fly In Thunderstorms:
1) Since Aircraft Needs More Thrust Than Drag, Aircrafts
Need to Fly Well Above The Storm To Avoid The Resistance Of
Drag Near The Storm.
2) The Turbulence Rate Will Greatly Increase Due to The
Storms Uneven Air Patterns, So Aircrafts Need to Fly A Different
Route To Avoid Direct, Uneven Air, of The Storm.
3) Due to The Capability of Electrical Surcharge In The
Aircraft, Aircrafts Develop Plastic Compounds To Have A
Negative Charge Through The Aircraft.
AIR POLLUTION CHANGES HOW AIRCRAFTS ARE DESIGNED AND
As Governments are pushing for cleaner air, aircrafts become a big factor of the air pollution throughout the world.
- A lot of todays air pollution is created by aircrafts. Aircrafts fly thousands of hours a day, burning fuel and releasing carbon
dioxide into the atmosphere.
- Engineering companies are making aircrafts much more fuel and environmentally safe to prevent air pollution to increase.
Engines are designed to burn less fuel. With that new technology, Aircrafts rely heavily on electrical compounds on the aircraft to
allow more efficient flights.
OVERVIEW: PRINCIPLES OF
THERE ARE FOUR PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT THAT ARE APPLIED ON EVERY SINGLE
- Lift These Four Principles, As Well As
Environmental Factors, Effect Flight.
- Drag Thrust And Lift Are The Two Most Important Factors
During Flight. These Two Principles Allow Aircrafts To Fly.
- Weight (Gravity)
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ARE APPLIED EVERY FLIGHT AS WELL
• Turbulence is the most common experience of aircrafts. Turbulence are uneven
pockets of air. So, when an aircraft goes through that uneven flow of air over the
wing, the plane trembles.
• Thunderstorms are dangerous events that aircrafts go through, so the FAA
created standards for all flights.
- Aircrafts need to fly a different route
- Aircrafts need to fly well above the thunderstorm
• The force of drag is greatly applied on an aircraft when it goes through a
thunderstorm. Also, the amount of turbulence is even higher during a
thunderstorm due to more uneven flow of air around the storm.
PHYSICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
- ALL AIRCRAFTS EXPERIENCE THE SAME FORCES OF NATURE.
REGARDLESS OF THE DESIGN
OR THE ENGINEERING, THE AIRCRAFT WILL STILL HAVE TO DEAL WITH NATURAL
- ALL FORCES EFFECT THE AIRCRAFT HIGHLY, HOWEVER, WITH PROPER
AIRCRAFT FLIES WITH NO ISSUE. PRIMARILY, BECAUSE ENGINEERING HELPED
MORE THRUST AND LIFT DURING FLIGHT.
- AVIATION IS THE SAFEST FORM OF TRANSPORTATION BECAUSE OF THE
ENGINEERS WHO KNOW ABOUT THE FORCES APPLIED ON AN AIRCRAFT.