The Indians of the West Indies - Dead or Alive?
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The Indians of the West Indies - Dead or Alive?

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Arawak, Taino, Lucayan, Ciboney, Carib people. Who were they? What was their culture? How did they encounter the Spanish invaders? Were they destined for extinction or did they leave their mark ...

Arawak, Taino, Lucayan, Ciboney, Carib people. Who were they? What was their culture? How did they encounter the Spanish invaders? Were they destined for extinction or did they leave their mark through the history of their paradise lost?

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The Indians of the West Indies - Dead or Alive? The Indians of the West Indies - Dead or Alive? Presentation Transcript

  • Dead or Alive? THE ‘INDIANS’ OF THE WEST INDIES
  • ISLANDS OF THE CARIBBEAN
  • THE CARIBBEAN BASIN Main chains:  Bahamas  Greater Antilles  Lesser Antilles  Leeward Islands  Windward Islands View slide
  • PRE-COLUMBIAN INHABITANTS OF THE CARIBBEAN ISLANDS 1. ARAWAK peoples include:  Taino of Greater Antilles  Lucayans of the Bahamas  Nepoya and Suppoya of Trinidad  Igneri, who preceded the Caribs in Lesser Antilles  Related groups (including Lucayans) in the eastern coast of South America 2. CARIBS or Kalinago from the Lesser Antilles 3. CIBONEY of Cuba and Hispaniola and GUANAJATABEY of Cuba View slide
  • THE BAHAMAS
  • THE BAHAMAS  Colon’s first voyage (August 3, 1492 – March 15, 1493)  October 12, 1492 at 2:00 am: set foot on the ‘new’ world!  One of the islands in the Bahama chain  Island of Guanahani was named San Salvador: Samana Cay, Plana Cays, or San Salvador Island (so renamed in 1925)  Inhabitants: the Arawaks: Lucayan people
  • MOMENTOUS ENCOUNTER OF TWO CULTURES
  • THE ‘INDIANS’ OF SAN SALVADOR, LUCAYANS  Peaceful and friendly  Indicate that they have to defend themselves from other tribes  Lack modern weaponry including ‘metal-forged’ swords  Could be easily conquered  (quote from Arawak Peoples p 1)  Colon kidnapped 10-25 natives, but only 7 survived the trip to Spain
  • ARAWAK ‘INDIANS’  Interest in teaching and learning  No concept of right/wrong or worship/faith  Rigid ethic code of their own  Cassava festivals, regular gatherings, singing  Meat (small animals) and fish  Vegetable farming: yuca (cassava), maize  Water transportation: rafts and canoes  Vocabulary contribution: barbacoa, hamaca, kanoa, tabaco, yuca, batata and juracan  Quote from Arawak Peoples p 2
  • GREATER ANTILLES
  • OTHER ‘DISCOVERIES’ during first voyage  Colon also explored the northeast coast of Cuba and Hispaniola  Taino Cacique Guacanagari gave him permission to establish a settlement: La Navidad in Mole-Saint- Nicolas, Haiti  In Sanama Peninsula, Dominican Republic, he encountered the only violent resistance by the Ciguayos: Bay of Arrows
  • THE TAINO PEOPLE  Theocratic Kingdoms  Gods: Zemis  Chiefs: Caciques; nobles (nitainos) – commoners (naborias  Caciques lived in rectangular huts: Bohios  Others lived in round huts: Caneyes  Painted their bodies in bright colors; tattoos, piercings  Two crops per year: cassava, manioc, maize, potatoes, peanuts, peppers, beans and arrowroot  Hunted and fished  Barbecued over an open fire  Transportation, fishing and water sports: large dugout canoes
  • TAINO VILLAGE
  • SANTA URSULA Y LAS 11,000 VIRGENES: LESSER ANTILLES  Colon’s second voyage: left September 24, 1493  Explored many islands of the Lesser Antilles  Sighted the Virgin Islands (Islas de Santa Ursula y las Once Mil Virgenes)  Named the islands of Virgen Gorda, Tortola, and San Pedro  Inhabitants: Caribs, Ciboney and Arawaks
  • CARIB PEOPLE  Origin in the Southern West Indies and Northern coast of South America  Feared warriors  Raided other groups: female Arawak captives  Cannibalism  Dominant in the Caribbean basin due to mastery of warfare  Polytheist religion  Patriarchal society  Punta music  Silver producers
  • A CARIB FAMILY
  • CIBONEY PEOPLE  Cave Dwellers  South American and possible Central American origin  Pre-farming culture  Called Guanajatabey in Cuba  Extinct within a century after ‘discovery’
  • SAN JUAN BAUTISTA  Colon reached the Greater Antilles on November 19, 1493  San Juan Bautista became Puerto Rico  Capital remained San Juan  Inhabited by the Tainos  Tainos called Borinquen or Boriken which means Land of the Valiant Lord
  • AFTER CRISTOBAL COLON  First proper settlement: Nicolas de Ovando, with 2,500 colonists in eastern Hispaniola, 1502: Santo Domingo  Jamaica, 1509  Trinidad, 1510  Florida, 1511  Caribs in eastern Caribbean resisted until end of 17th Century  Mexico, 1519  African slaves, 1518-1870
  • CONSEQUENCES OF ‘DISCOVERY’  Friendship  Navidad settlement  Kidnappings  Conflict  Anger and retaliation  Greed  Cruelty (Hatuey)  Famine  Exploitation: Enslavement/Encomienda  Epidemics: smallpox 1518 and 1519; malaria, measles, dysentery
  • BARTOLOME DE LAS CASAS (c.1484- 1566)  Dominican friar, Spanish historian, social reformer  Came to Hispaniola with Ovando in 1502  Became a slave-owner; denied confession  1511: Father Fray Montesinos sermon (quote from LC, p 3)  Conquest of Cuba; Las Casas awakening (quote p 3)  “Protector of the Indians”  “A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies,” 1552  Historia General de Las Indias,” 1561 – ‘Apologetic History of the Indies’  “All people of these our Indies are human” (quote, p 14)  Repented his advocacy of African Slavery (quote, p 14)
  • AFTERMATH  Population decline and extintion  DNA show many people (62%) in Puerto Rico are descended from Taino/Arawakan ancestors  Taino/Arawakan language spoken in Cuba  Carib descendents (several hundreds) live in Trinidad, Grenada, St. Lucia, US Virgin Islands, Antigua & Barbuda, Guadeloupe, Areba and St Vincent and South America’s mainland, but the language is extinct since 1920’s.  Punta music  Taino heritage groups
  • WHO IS WHERE TAINO CARIB  ARECIBO  BIMINI  CAICOS  CUBA  HAITI  JAMAICA  BEQUIA  CANOUAN  CARRIACOU  TOBAGO
  • LANGUAGE LESSON TAINO CARIB  BARBECUE  CANOE  CASSAVA  GUAVA  HURRICANE  MAIZE  MANGROVE  PAPAYA  SAVANNA  CANNIBAL  CARIBBEAN  CAY  HAMMOCK  IGUANA  MANATEE  MARACA  POTATO  TOBACCO
  • RECOMMENDED READING  The Island Beneath the Sea by Isabel Allende, 2009
  • CONTACT US  Dr. Maria H. Koonce and William J. Koonce  billmar@cfl.rr.com