The 1st World War The aftermath of the war María Jesús Campos Chusteacher Wikiteacher
Losses and casualties• “Total war”: the combatants mobilised all their resources, military, industrial and human.• The number of men mobilised by both sides during the war totalled over 65 million.• Historians estimate that up to 10 million men died on the battlefield and around 20 million were wounded.
The Aftermath of World War I• The Armistice was signed 11 • After the war: of November of 1818 – The political map of• Everybody felt that the First Europe would be World War should be the redrawn (the Ottoman “war to end all wars”. and the Habsburg Empires dissapeared) – European countries suffered a difficult economic situation. Some countries had been devastaded.
The mood in 1919• People felt that Germany should be blamed and pay for the war.• Not only because they thought Germany has caused the war but because of the harsh conditions of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk signed between Germany and Russia.
The Paris Peace Conference, 1919-20• Took place in Versailles• 32 nations were represented but not the defeated countries• The “Big Three” (Great Britain, USA, France) took all the important decissions.
The “Big Three”George Woodrow David LloydClemenceau, Wilson, George, GreatFrance Britain USA- France had been - Was usually in thedevastated and 2/3 - Believed in middle groundsoldiers had been peaceful between Clemenceauinjured or Killed cooperation and Wilson among nations- Germany should and the right to - Germany should bebe harshly self- punished but notpunished and pay determination harshly to prevent afor the war new war
Treaty of Versailles - 1919 Treaty of Sevres 1920 - Germany Treaty of Saint Germain Treaty of - 1919Lausanne 1923 - Austria Turkey Peace Treaties of the First World War Treaty of Treaty of Trianon Neuilly - 1919 - 1919 - Hungary - Bulgaria
Treaty of Versailles, 1919Germany had to accept:• War guilt: accept the blame of the war• Reparations: pay for the damage (lifes and infrastructures) caused to the Allies• Army: limited to 100.000 soldiers, 6 battleships, no tanks, submarines or aircraft Punch, 19 February 1919. Caption: German Criminal to Allied Police: Here, I say, stop! You’re hurting me! [Aside: If I only whine enough I may be able to wriggle out of this yet.]
• The Treaty of Versailles also included the creation of the League of Nations, an international organization to keep peace and prevent war• Germany was not allowed to become a member until demonstrating “it was a peace-loving country”
German reaction to the Treaty of Versailles• Outrage: Germans did not feel that they had started the war or that they had lost it as its country has not been occupied.• Germany lost 10% of its land which meant a 12.5% of its population.• Reparations were too heavy for Germany’s weak economy. Mass demonstration against the Treaty of Versailles before the Reichstag in Berlin
• The new socialist government, led by Ebert, reluctantly signed the Treaty on 28 June 1919• The German democratic government was fragile: – The Communists attempted a coup d’etat: the Spartacists uprising – The radical right-wing attempted a coup d’etat: the Kapp putsch
The impact of the Treaty on Germany• Germany fell behind on its reparation payments in 1922• The Ruhr region was occupied by France and Belgium weakening German’s economy even more.• To pay the workers the German government printed more money which caused and hyperinflation (money became worthless)• Germans blamed the Treaty for their problems.
Nobody liked the Treaty of Versailles• Germany blamed the Treaty for their difficulties• France thought the Treaty was not harsh enough with Germany• Great Britain feared that it would bring a new war• USA’s Senate refused to be a member of the League of Nations and ratify the Treaty
Treaty of Saint Germain, 1919 Austria had to accept:• Disarmament and Reparations• The Habsburg Empire was divided into different states (Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia…)• Populations from other nationalities remained in Austria
Treaty of Sevres, 1920 & Lausanne, 1923 Turkey :• Ataturk, nationalist leader, rejected the terms of the Treaty of Sevres.• The Treaty of Lausanne recognized the Turkish rights over Smyrna and most of Anatolia.• In exchange, Turkey had to cede Lebanon and Syria to France and Palestine, Irak and Trasjordan to Great Britain.
Other consequences of the Treaties New states appeared:• Czechoslovakia (which became a strong industrialized state)• Poland (whose borders were not recognized by the USSR)• Yugoslavia (which merged Serbia with populations from Austria and Hungary)