The Parking Forest:
Linear Tree Well Design Using Structural Soil

503.334.8634
www.greengirlpdx.com
greengirl@greengirlpd...
The Parking Forest
An Assembly of Common Materials
The Parking Forest
A Close Up
THPRD in Plan
Structural Soil
Our “Secret Weapon”

Source: Cornell University – CU Structural Soil - http://www.hort.cornell.edu
How do we know it works?
Olympia Results 8 Years Later

Control Trees Planted in Compacted Native Soil

Trees Planted in S...
Assembly Procedure
Assembly Procedure
Assembly Procedure
Assembly Procedure
Assembly Procedure
Assembly Procedure
Assembly Procedure
Assembly Procedure
Sunset Swim Center Parking Lot Construction Expenses
Item
Porous Concrete

Cost
$200,000

Drain Rock

$62,000

Excavation
...
Why these materials?
•
•
•
•
•

Structural soil
Amended Native Soil
Trees
Wheel stops
Crush rock (in landscape area)
Why these materials?
Structural Soil
• Structural soil versus structural supports
Why these materials?
Proprietary mix versus mixed by contractor
Mixing Structural Soil

Photo Source: www.greelysand.com/cu-soil.html
Olympia Soil Recipe

4 cubic yards Crushed Rock ¾”-1¼”
+ 1 cubic yard Loam/organic topsoil
+ 1 pound Soil Binder “Stabiliz...
Structural Soil Costs - Olympia
“The price to supply, deliver and install the structural soil material per
cubic yard rang...
Why these materials?
Amended native soil
Amended native soil versus faster draining “3-way” mix
Why these materials?
Trees
Trees versus only shrubs &/or groundcover:
• Interception & evaporation
• Evapotranspiration
• ...
Why these materials?
Wheel stops
Wheel stops versus curbs
Why these materials?
Crushed rock
¼”x 10 crushed rock versus rounded rock or pavers
Siting Criteria
• Site is suitable for infiltration
• Non-expansive soils
• Soils should infiltrate at least 0.2 inches/ho...
The Other Project
PCC Sylvania Lot 10
• THPRD Sunset Swim Center = Redevelopment that
manages rainfall
• PCC Sylvania Lot ...
The Parking Forest Retrofit
at PCC Sylvania Lot 10

Ignore the piles
of dirt. They’re
gone.
Design Differences at PCC Sylvania Lot 10
Installed an impervious liner
adjacent to impervious
asphalt

Stakeholders
chose...
Water quality and quantity monitoring
Design Differences at PCC Sylvania Lot 10
Straight headin parking

Just trees

Donated “old school”
solid bottom wheel
sto...
Erosive forces
are an issue at PCC
Non-attentive forces
are an issue at PCC
Thank You!
Siting Criteria at PCC
• Site is suitable for infiltration
• Non-expansive soils
• Soils should infiltrate at least 0.2 in...
www.parkingforest.org
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Parking Forest Materials

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The Parking Forest is an assembly of materials to incorporate trees and stormwater management into parking lots without losing parking spaces. This presentation, part of a 4-hour training that included an overview of stormwater and water quality, tree needs, and pervious concreete, provides an overview of the assembly of materials including information on structural soils.

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Parking Forest Materials

  1. 1. The Parking Forest: Linear Tree Well Design Using Structural Soil 503.334.8634 www.greengirlpdx.com greengirl@greengirlpdx.com a certified women business enterprise Sustainability for all the places between the buildings
  2. 2. The Parking Forest An Assembly of Common Materials
  3. 3. The Parking Forest A Close Up
  4. 4. THPRD in Plan
  5. 5. Structural Soil Our “Secret Weapon” Source: Cornell University – CU Structural Soil - http://www.hort.cornell.edu
  6. 6. How do we know it works? Olympia Results 8 Years Later Control Trees Planted in Compacted Native Soil Trees Planted in Structural Soil
  7. 7. Assembly Procedure
  8. 8. Assembly Procedure
  9. 9. Assembly Procedure
  10. 10. Assembly Procedure
  11. 11. Assembly Procedure
  12. 12. Assembly Procedure
  13. 13. Assembly Procedure
  14. 14. Assembly Procedure
  15. 15. Sunset Swim Center Parking Lot Construction Expenses Item Porous Concrete Cost $200,000 Drain Rock $62,000 Excavation $35,000 Mobilization $30,000 Curbs/Sidewalk $26,000 Landscaping $23,500 Soil/Structural Soil/Installation $18,000 Demolition/Removal $11,000 Striping/Wheel Stops/Signs $10,000 French Drain / Drain Pipe $3,000 12 Trees for Linear Well $1,600 Other Stuff $8,500 TOTAL CONSTRUCTION $427,600
  16. 16. Why these materials? • • • • • Structural soil Amended Native Soil Trees Wheel stops Crush rock (in landscape area)
  17. 17. Why these materials? Structural Soil • Structural soil versus structural supports
  18. 18. Why these materials? Proprietary mix versus mixed by contractor
  19. 19. Mixing Structural Soil Photo Source: www.greelysand.com/cu-soil.html
  20. 20. Olympia Soil Recipe 4 cubic yards Crushed Rock ¾”-1¼” + 1 cubic yard Loam/organic topsoil + 1 pound Soil Binder “Stabilizer” + 46 gallons water__________ Makes 4.6 cubic yards Structural Soil
  21. 21. Structural Soil Costs - Olympia “The price to supply, deliver and install the structural soil material per cubic yard ranged from $19 to $85 with an average bid of $42, the median price was $39.50. The city paid $24 per cubic yard for the structural soil material to the low bidder. This compare to a price quote we received for the supply of CU structural soil at $65 per cubic yard plus delivery. The source was over an hour’s drive away and delivery charges were $85 per hr with a truck and trailer hauling 22 cubic yard. The expected cost delivered was $72 per cubic yard.” Excerpted from “Structural Soil Demonstration Project” http://olympiawa.gov/~/media/Files/CPD/Urban%20Forestry/Forms/StructuralSoil.as hx Source: City of Olympia -Structural Soil Demonstration Project
  22. 22. Why these materials? Amended native soil Amended native soil versus faster draining “3-way” mix
  23. 23. Why these materials? Trees Trees versus only shrubs &/or groundcover: • Interception & evaporation • Evapotranspiration • Heat island effect
  24. 24. Why these materials? Wheel stops Wheel stops versus curbs
  25. 25. Why these materials? Crushed rock ¼”x 10 crushed rock versus rounded rock or pavers
  26. 26. Siting Criteria • Site is suitable for infiltration • Non-expansive soils • Soils should infiltrate at least 0.2 inches/hour*. Clay soils are OK! *Based on 2ft of structural soil, 25% void ratio, facility empty in 30 hours to be ready for the next Type IA storm
  27. 27. The Other Project PCC Sylvania Lot 10 • THPRD Sunset Swim Center = Redevelopment that manages rainfall • PCC Sylvania Lot 10 = Retrofit that manages runoff
  28. 28. The Parking Forest Retrofit at PCC Sylvania Lot 10 Ignore the piles of dirt. They’re gone.
  29. 29. Design Differences at PCC Sylvania Lot 10 Installed an impervious liner adjacent to impervious asphalt Stakeholders chose a native conifer Left most of the parking lot unmodified/ impervious
  30. 30. Water quality and quantity monitoring
  31. 31. Design Differences at PCC Sylvania Lot 10 Straight headin parking Just trees Donated “old school” solid bottom wheel stops = not ideal
  32. 32. Erosive forces are an issue at PCC
  33. 33. Non-attentive forces are an issue at PCC
  34. 34. Thank You!
  35. 35. Siting Criteria at PCC • Site is suitable for infiltration • Non-expansive soils • Soils should infiltrate at least 0.2 inches/hour*. Clay soils are OK! *Based on 2ft of structural soil, 25% void ratio, facility empty in 30 hours to be ready for the next Type IA storm
  36. 36. www.parkingforest.org

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