Function: To cut or divide a loaf of bread into slices.The world’s first mechanical sliced bread went on sale July 7, 1928. Patent: 1,867,377 (US) issued July 12, 1932 Inventor: Otto Frederick RohwedderCriteria; First practical. Entrepreneur. Birth: July. 7, 1880 in Des Moines, Iowa Death: November 8, 1960 in Concord, Michigan Nationality: AmericanMilestones:1912 Otto Rohwedder toys with the idea of producing a machine to slice bread1916 Rohwedder begins to design a machine to slice bread1917 fire destroys his factory, prototype machine and the blueprints1926 Toastmaster begins selling pop-up toasters1927 Rohwedder finally saves enough money to begin again to build a bread slicer1928 Rohwedder files patent application for a single step bread slicing machine1928 forms a company Mac-Roh Sales & Manufacturing to build and sell the bread slicer machine1928 first mechanical pre-sliced bread goes on sale to the public in Chillicothe, Missouri1929 St. Louis, Missouri baker, Gustav Papendick, adds improvements to Rohwedder's machine. 1930 Wonder Bread begins selling pre-sliced bread, most bakeries follow suit1932 toaster sales skyrocketed, thanks to the standardized size of sliced bread1933 American bakeries were turning out more sliced than unsliced bread 1933 Rohwedder sells patent rights to and goes to work for Micro-Westco, Inc.1934 Patent 1,970,379 issued August 14, 1934 for Slicing Machine assigned to Papendick, Inc.sliced bread, bread slicer, bread slicing and wrapping machine, toaster, Otto Rohwedder, Gustav Papendick, M. Frank Bench, wonder bread, invention, history, inventor of, history of, who invented, invention of, fascinating facts. The Story:Bread is one of the oldest prepared foods, dating back to the Neolithic era when cereal grains and water were mixed into a paste and cooked. In ancient Egypt bread-making became one of the most significant areas of food preparation, along with the making of beer; both had religious significance as well. It is thought that the Egyptians invented the first closed oven for use in baking. Bread was a primary staple of diet in much of European history, from at least 1000 BC into modern times. In the 19th century people either made their own bread at home or purchased bread at the local bakery sold in loaves. But Otto Frederick Rohwedder, an inventor changed the history by creating the presliced-loaf and sealed-bag process. Without Otto Frederick Rohwedder, no one could exclaim: "It's the greatest thing since sliced bread!" Rohwedder was born Des Moines, Iowa and grew up in Davenport, Iowa. He married Carrie Johnson in 1905, and the couple had two children. Rohwedder was a jeweler by profession, and owned three jewelry stores in St. Joseph, Missouri. Beginning in 1912 while living in St. Joseph, Missouri Otto toyed with an idea for a bread slicing machine that would revolutionize the baking business. Convinced that such an invention would work, he sold his jewelry stores and used the funds to finance his new venture.He returned to Davenport at the end of 1916 and spent several months working on a prototype which included the sliced bread being held together by metal pins and was unsuccessful.. His first venture ended in tragedy in November 1917 when fire destroyed a Monmouth, Ill., factory that was to have produced the first slicing machine. Rohwedder's blueprints and prototype were also destroyed. It took Rohwedder several years to recoup his losses and assemble investors and financing for another go-at-it. In the meantime, he worked as an investment and security agent during the 1920s.In 1927 he designed a machine that not only sliced the bread but also wrapped it. His new and improved commercial bread slicer, was completed in 1928. Rohwedder' filed his application for a patent on November 26, 1928 and formed a company Mac-Roh Sales & Manufacturing to build and sell the bread slicer machine. There were objections from skeptic bakers that pre-sliced bread would quickly dry out. Despite this, Rohwedder took his slicer to the Chillicothe Baking Company in Chillicothe, Missouri where he convinced a baker friend and owner of the company, M. Frank Bench, to use it. History was made on July 7, 1928, when bread was sliced and wrapped commercially for the first time by a bread slicing machine. For the record, the brand name was Sliced Kleen Maid Bread. Customers marveled at the evenly sliced pieces, which were handy for making sandwiches and toast. A baker in St. Louis, Missouri Gustav Papendick, bought the second slicer produced by Rohwedder. He improved the cutting action, but found bakers objected to sliced bread: They felt the loaf would dry out too quickly. So, Papendick set out to invent a machine that would wrap the bread, and keep it fresh. To do this he needed to keep the sliced bread together long enough so his machine could wrap it. He first tried rubber bands and then metal pins to keep the loaves intact, but both failed. Finally a simple idea hit him: Put the bread in a collapsible cardboard tray, which would precisely align the slices so a machine could wrap them. His sliced bread made sales in St. Louis jump by a whopping 80%. The Continental Baking Company altered the course of bread forever in 1930 when it introduced sliced Wonder Bread. Sales were slow at first as suspicious consumers were slow to accept a pre-sliced bread, but convenience overruled apprehension and soon everyone wanted sliced Wonder Bread on their dinner table.This gave a boost to another new invention: Charles Strite's spring-loaded, automatic, pop-up toaster which had been languishing on the shelves since 1926. With Rohwedder's standardized slices on the market, Strite's invention suddenly made sense.By 1933, only five years after its introduction, American bakeries were turning out more sliced than unsliced bread. Rohwedder sold his invention to the Micro-Westco Co. of Bettendorf, Iowa, and he became vice-president and sales manager of the Rohwedder Bakery Machine Division of Micro-Westco, Inc. Rohwedder retired to Albion, Michigan in 1951 with his wife Carrie, where their daughter Margaret Steinhauer, and his sister Elizabeth (Rohwedder) Pickerill lived.Without Otto Frederick Rohwedder, no one could exclaim: "It's the greatest thing since sliced bread!" Rohwedder invented the first machine to slice bread. But was sliced bread really such a great thing? Yes! Sliced bread was the culmination of a century of technological innovation. It needed electricity, a uniform sized loaf of bread, a plastic wrap and a toaster to build up the demand.Rohwedder Bread Slicer Patents (1927-1936): U.S. Patent 1867377 -- Bread slicer U.S. Patent 1867378 -- Bread feeding appliance U.S. Patent 1740038 -- Bread slicer wire U.S. Patent 1591357 -- Bread rack U.S. Patent 1724368 -- Bread staples U.S. Patent 1759592 -- Bread staples U.S. Patent 1935996 -- Bread handler U.S. Patent 2034250 -- Bread handler U.S. Patent 2061315 -- Bread handler Note:Half the resources say sliced bread was introduced in Battle Creek, Michigan the other half say it was in Chillicothe, Missouri. The Missouri story has the more robust documentation.
ICE CREAM: Ice cream as a dairy delight was probably “discovered” in the 1600’s. The concept of flavored ices evolved, but no one is sure how. We do know that Charles I of England, or rather, his chef (either French or Italian), made ice cream a staple of the royal table. Depending on which version you read, either the chef had a secret recipe for ice cream and the king paid him a handsome reward to keep it a secret, or the chef was threatened with death if he divulged the recipe. Either way, once Chuck-One was beheaded in 1649, the chef blabbed. Soon nobility in Europe knew of, and enjoyed, “crème ice.”Augustus Jackson invented ice cream recipes around 1832.Give credit to Nancy Johnson. In 1843 she developed the first hand-crank ice cream maker, and despite what you might read elsewhere, received a patent for it. Much of the confusion (and lack of credit) to Ms. Johnson comes from the fact that she sold her rights to William Young for just $200 (still a pretty good sum in those days). He at least had the courtesy to call the machine the “Johnson Patent Ice-Cream Freezer.”
Everyone knows what Post-it® notes are: They are those great little self-stick notepapers. Most people have Post-it® Notes. Most people use them. Most people love them. But Post-it® Notes were not a planned product. No one got the idea and then stayed up nights to invent it. A man named Spencer Silver was working in the 3M research laboratories in 1970 trying to find a strong adhesive. Silver developed a new adhesive, but it was even weaker than what 3M already manufactured. It stuck to objects, but could easily be lifted off. It was super weak instead of super strong. No one knew what to do with the stuff, but Silver didn't discard it. Then one Sunday four years later, another 3M scientist named Arthur Fry was singing in the church's choir. He used markers to keep his place in the hymnal, but they kept falling out of the book. Remembering Silver's adhesive, Fry used some to coat his markers. Success! With the weak adhesive, the markers stayed in place, yet lifted off without damaging the pages. 3M began distributing Post-it ® Notes nationwide in 1980 -- ten years after Silver developed the super weak adhesive. Today they are one of the most popular office products available.================So, was the development of a "personal" stereo system an obvious step in the evolution of audio? ShuUeyama of Sony cites that this invention was purely accidental. Organizational changes were taking place at Sony in 1979 and the tape recorder division was pressed to market something soon, or risk consolidation. They came up with a small cassette player capable of stereo playback. The invention was born from a tweaked Pressman (Sony's monaural portable cassette recorder) and a pair of headphones.Sony chairman and founder Akio Morita heard of the invention and was eager to market it. The final design of the TPS-L2, the personal stereo cassette player was completed on March 24, 1979. Sony then formulated a unique marketing campaign to sell the contraption. But first, what to call it?The name needed to present the idea of portability, so they considered Stereo Walky. Unfortunately, Toshiba was already using the "Walky" name for their portable radio line. The new product was a descendant of the Pressman so Walkman was proposed next. Senior staff responded to this name with doubts, as it sounded like a Japanse phrase clumsily made English. The name would fly in Japan but the product would be marketed in the US as the Sound-About and in the UK as the Stowaway.Again, senior staff thought twice about the naming conventions--globally marketing a product with regional labels would prove costly, so Walkman was ambivalently accepted as the name of this new personal stereo system.The next task was marketing the product. The story behind Sony's market research was legendary: they didn't do it! Said Akio Morita in a 1982 Playboy interview, "The market research is all in my head! You see, we create markets." But how does one convince the public they need a product that they've never owned or seen? The first step was to get the word out to people who had influence on the public, like celebrities and people in the music industry. Sony sent Walkmans to Japanese recording artists, tv and movie stars free of charge. They also began an innovative marketing campaign, targeting younger people and active folks. The Walkman was engineered carefully to make it affordable to this market, priced to be around 33,000 yen (Sony was 33 years old at the time. Coincidence?) The imagery Sony successfully used around their Walkman gave the feelings of fun, youth and most importantly, freedom. Their invention allowed one to bring an exceptional listening experience anywhere. ===Sony Corp. Sony’s first MD Walkman, released in 1992. Sony Corp.’s decision last year to stop selling in Japan the cassette Walkman, an iconic gadget changed the the music world after its 1979 launch, was truly an end of an era.Now, the MD Walkman, a 1990s successor to the cassette version, is about to disappear from store shelves, in yet another reminder of the digital-music revolution that has made the MP3—and the iPod—king.The MiniDisc, or MD, developed by Sony and Philips in 1991, never caught on in the U.S. But it did have its day in the late 1990s in Japan. Japanese people in their 30s and older may remember the excitement when they first saw the MD Walkman in 1992. Only about 2.8 inches wide, the MD was tiny, yet it could pack a whole CD album.In Japan, where many people use portable music players while commuting on crowded trains, there was considerable demand to replace cassette or CD players with the smaller MD Walkman that could easily fit in pockets.But the landscape changed again after 2001, with the arrival of Apple’s iPod. Instead of using CDs or MDs, the original 2001 iPod stored music on a hard disk drive, which was later replaced by flash memory. And more importantly, the iPod became a key hardware platform for the iTunes digital-music and video store. Sony’s current digital-music players sold under its Walkman brand also use flash memory for storing data, and carry an application similar to the iTunes.The rapid change over the past decade in the way people listen to music on the go has made the MD Walkman a thing of the past. Sony said that its last remaining model, the MZ-RH1, will likely disappear in Europe next month, in Japan around September and in the rest of Asia around October. The company has already stopped selling the MD Walkman in the U.S. earlier this year.
The Value of CREATIVITY to CorporationsMaria ThompsonDirector, Innovation StrategyMotorola Solutions, IncMay 5, 2012
Who Am I? Maria B. Thompson• Director, Innovation Strategy• Masters in Mathematics & Computer Science• Passions – tools, technology, patents, creative problem solving and inventing – 2 issued patents; 8 filed – Equestrian sports – jumping, falling off, and getting back on… – Wife and Mother of two – Proud to be a GEEK!
―Chance favors only the prepared mind.‖ Louis Pasteur (1822-1892)
CREATIVITYThree reasons why people are motivated to be creative: need for novel, varied, and complex stimulation need to communicate ideas and values need to solve problems Roger von Oech – ―Creative thinking involves imaginingfamiliar things in a new light, digging below the surface to find previously undetected patterns, and finding connections among unrelated phenomena.‖
"The mere formulation of a problem is farmore often essential than its solution, whichmay be merely a matter of mathematical orexperimental skill. To raise new questions,new possibilities, to regard old problems froma new angle requires creative imaginationand marks real advances in science." Albert Einstein
Intellectual Property & InnovationINVENTION: Solution or fix to a problem Conversion of cash into ideasINNOVATION: Commercially successful use of inventions Conversion of ideas into cashInnovation is codified and protected throughINTELLECTUAL PROPERTY: PATENTS, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets, Know-how 9
Patents & Intellectual Property Rights“Next came the patent laws. These began in England in 1624, and in this country with theadoption of our Constitution. Before then, any man might instantly use what another manhad invented, so that the inventor had no special advantage from his invention. The patentsystem changed this; it secured to the inventor for a limited time the exclusive use of hisinvention, and thereby added the fuel of interest to the fire of genius in discovery andproduction of new and useful things." - Abraham Lincoln Innovate Like Edison: The Success System of America‘s Greatest Inventor by Michael Gelb, Sarah Miller Caldicott
―Nothing is more important than to see the sources of invention which are, in my opinion, more interesting than the inventions themselves.‖ Gottfried Leibniz, German Mathematician and Philosopher (1646-1716)
What is so great about PATENTS?1. Novel solution to problem2. Teach others to advance science "The patent system is nothing more than a way to encourage people to innovate... to take risks... to make the world a better place.” -- Dean Kamen, Spotlight On: The U.S. Patent System3. Prevent others from using, copying or selling your solution (invention)
Why you and your employer might need patentsConsiderations Costs – 1 patent filing (US) ~ $15,000; – 3 additional maintenance payments to keep for ~20 yrs. What is your market differentiator, core competencies or “crown jewels?” What (novel aspects of your work) do you want or need to exclude others from replicating? Who is in a position to easily practice your art or copy your idea? Who are your competitors? Do they already have patents, trademarks, copyrights? • Check out http://www.google.com/patents Freedom of Action – In what countries do you plan to ship product or provide services?
The power of patents - continuedCost Avoidance / Loss of Market Share √ RIM paid NTP $612M in litigation settlement √ RIM had to stop selling Blackberry’s in US for period of time until settledDetectability & Enforceability √ Will you be able to identify whether someone is copying (“infringing”) your product or service? √ If not, better to pursue trade secrets, copyrights, etc. NEED TO USE CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS EVERY BUSINESS DAY!
RESILIENCY rebounding from adversitySelf-efficacy: belief in ones agency and the ability to be a catalyst forChange - Shapes key human behaviors*: Courses of action people choose to pursue How much effort they put forth How long they will persevere in the face of obstacles and failures Their resilience to adversity Whether their thought patterns are self-hindering or self- aiding How much stress and depression they experience in coping with taxing environmental demands The level of accomplishments they realize *Based upon research of Albert Bandura
“Don’t worry about other people stealing yourideas. If your ideas are any good, you’ll haveto ram them down people’s throats.‖ – Howard Aiken, IBM Engineer
ALBERT EINSTEIN ―In the middle of difficulty lies opportunity.‖• ‗below average‘ student at school• could not speak until he was three• weak in Math• Aspergers? Autistic? “Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything NEW.”
ALBERT EINSTEIN• 20th century creative genius, scientist, and philosopher• Started career as a patent office clerk• Studied other people‘s ideas• learned how to analyze creative ideas and examine them in his mind - no laboratory to test the ideas• > 20 patents produced with very prolific inventors (1928– 1936)• Patents: refrigerators, electromagnetic pumps, sound reproduction apparatus and light intensity self-adjusting cameras• Einstein‘s theories continue to be exceptionally valuable source of patentable ideas (solutions!)
Thomas Edison• very curious child who asked a lot of questions• teacher whipped students who asked questions• Did not like math• Deaf due to injury• difficulty in reading until he was twelve• difficulty writing, even after 12 years of age• Parents didn‘t force him to learn things he didnt enjoy;only learned about things that interested him
Thomas Edison finding ways to make lives better, instead of learning how something works• "Genius is hard work, stick-to-itiveness, and common sense"• More patents issued to Edison than issued to any other single person in U.S. history: 1,093.• Mother home-schooled him• Read every book in public library
Thomas Edison Edison demonstrated positive attitude, perseverance, resiliency."Results! Why man, I have gotten a lot of results. I know several thousand things that wont work.""Many of lifes failures are people who did not realize how close they were to success when they gave up.""Our greatest weakness lies in giving up. The most certain way to succeed is always to try just one more time.""Just because something doesnt do what you planned it to do doesnt mean its useless."So the next time you make a mistake, or feel discouraged, ADOPT Mr. Edisons attitude on mistakes!
John Vincent Atanasoff The Man Who Invented the Computer• A physicist and mathematician who invented the computerlargely out of frustration and laziness! - designed a machine to do what his own mind could not - Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) hardly became known at all because he didn’t PATENT it!• Mauchly, patented Eniac computer, not a better scientist than Atanasoff, but more ambitious - In his Eniac patent application, claimed responsibility for >100 innovations - judge invalidated the Eniac patents, ruling Mauchly’s invention was based on the ABC
Robert Morris- cryptographer who helped develop the Unix computer operating system;- chief scientist of the National Security Agency‘s National Computer Security CenterSon: Robert Tappan Morris - Comp Sci grad student at Cornell University, wrote computer worm in 1988 -virus- able to propel itself through the Internet; intended to hide in the network, but due to design error, spread wildly out of control, jamming more than 10 percent of 50,000 internet computers - convicted under an early federal computer crime law, sentenced to probation; ordered to pay a $10,000 fine; performed community service - later PHd CS from Harvard; now teaches CS @ MIT
The Obvious Corporation Founders The Obvious Corporation makes systems that help people work together to improve the world. … relaunching the company that originally incubated Twitter with a high level of commitment to making a difference and developing productsthat matter…Also, there‘s room for innovation in how Businesses measure success and more meaningful definitions of ambition.Biz StoneGQ named him ‗Nerd of the Year‘ but Biz is better known as aprogenitor of social networking, blogging, co-founder ofTwitter, and a philanthropist. Theres more about Biz on hisfoundation site.Evan WilliamsOne of Inc. Magazine‘s Entrepreneurs of the Decade, Ev‘s the co-founder andformer CEO of two of the biggest sites on the web — Blogger and Twitter. (He‘s alsodone some stuff that‘s gone awry.)Jason GoldmanJason is a failed astrophysicist with over a decade ofexperience in product management. He led product forBlogger at Google and was VP of Product for Twitter Inc.
Our mind tends to automatically organize newinformation with our current knowledge. 33
―Even though one was correct at each stage, the situation may still have to be restructured to proceed.‖ Ed deBonoKey Insight: Be willing to rearrange what you know 34 contradictions
“Millions saw the applefall, but Newton was the one who asked why.” Bernard Baruch
How Questions Help Creative Problem SolvingClarifies problemsEngages mindsIncreases brain flowCultivates curiosityImproves ListeningPromotes analogous thinkingEnhances quality thinkingAccelerates innovationImproves idea management 3
What is the Question Banking Methodology? 1. IDENTIFY Sources of Questions 2. COLLECT Questions 3. ORGANIZE Questions 4. IMPROVE Questions 5. APPLY Questions (Questionate to Ideate) 3
Questions to Ask When Collecting Questions1. What are ALL the questions that people might answer in order to address the goal(s), challenge(s) or problem(s)?2. What are all the obstacles or challengesthat might relate to the goal(s)?3. What are the 3-5 MOST IMPORTANT questions that should be asked to address the goal(s)?
Question Banking TIPS & Checklist Search the internet for existing solutions andreframe as questions Wordsmith and polish questions Use www.thesaurus.com Increase “open-ended” questions Eliminate “closed” questions that can be answered “yes” or “no” Replace “can” and “could/should” with “might” and “may” Genericise so non-experts can engage and invent Tease out conflicts, contradictions and tradeoffs√ Quality Review CHECKLIST Brief and concise Provocative, inviting and inspiring Clear and focused Understandable by variety of people Grammatically correct Functional, action-oriented verbs that describe the desired result or outcome
Recommended Books for Skills Building Innovate Like Edison: The Success System of America‘s Greatest Inventor by Michael Gelb, Sarah Miller Caldicott Think Better: An Innovators Guide to Productive Thinking by Tim Hurson Simplified TRiZ: New Problem-Solving Applications for Engineers & Manufacturing Professionals by Kalevi Rantanen, Ellen Domb, www.triz-journal.com Making Questions Work: A Guide to What and How to Ask for Facilitators, Consultants, Managers, Coaches, and Educators by Dorothy Strachan
Ideality + Problem Storming +Innovation Exercise
Attributes 3. Ask WHY ideal (5 times) 2. Ideal 1. Focus/Goal:Attributes 2. Ideal3. Ask WHY ideal (5 times) What are all the ways we might characterize the Ideal/Perfect World solution based on the resources we have available to us? IFR
3. Opportunities w/o limitation2. limitations 1. Focus/Goal/Objective/Problem: 2. limitations3. Opportunities w/o limitation QuestionGeneration-Recipe: How might we use Opportunity #3 to overcome Limitation #2 and achieve/remove #1? OR How might we achieve/remove #1 by using #3 without #2? PS
Trend SpottingWho are all the people that use mobile devices?What are their unmet needs?When do people have access to their mobile devices?Where do people take their mobile devices?Why are people pleased with or disappointed by their mobile devices?How might peoples‘ mobile devices better serve their needs?
Trend Spotting – RolesWHO are all the people you know thatuse their mobile phones regularly? Family Spouse Children Parents Friends Classmates Co-workers Service Providers ( e.g., store owners, restauranteurs, plumbers, construction workers, tollbooth operators, government workers, ice cream vendors, security guards, etc.)
Functional Analysis / “Job”Identification WHAT are all the jobs or functions people need to do that a mobile phone application might support? user scenarios contexts activities jobs == tasks information exchange
WHEN do people have access totheir mobile devices? Before, during, in-transit to or from work At play At home Before, during, and after school With children (playing, babysitting) or out on the town without children With aging parents (e.g., doctors, hospital) Daytime – morning rituals Nighttime – evening rituals Meal-time: breakfast, dinner, lunch
CONTEXT WHERE do people take their mobile devices? Shopping Home Office Grocery store Restaurants / Pubs Sports venues Concerts Vacation (e.g., camping, skiing, cruising) Gym, Workout Center, Dance Studio, Martial Arts Parks e.g., Running, Football, walking the dog, playing with childrenWhere would people like to take their phones but can’t today?
WHY are peoplepleased with or disappointed bytheir mobile devices?Pleasing? What information is important to people? What excites or entertains people? What amuses people or makes them happy? What makes people more organized, efficient or productive?Disappointing? What frustrates people? What annoys people? What stresses or worries people? What upsets people or angers people?
HOW might peoples’ mobile devicesbetter serve their needs?What types of information might we bring to people in real-time?How might we eliminate the need to perform tasks by automating them?How might we eliminate the need for people to travel to experiences?How might we enhance existing mobile device experiences to make them more gratifying and satisfying?How might we help people perform their ―jobs‖ more effectively and efficiently in all contexts?How might we help people better connect with those they want in their lives and disconnect from those they don‘t?
Value Analysis of the Mobile ApplicationDoes it make the user able to perform a task (job) more effectively?Is the performance of a user task (job) more convenient?Is performance of the task (job) more affordable, so more users can improve their efficiencies?Are the user‘s functional, social and emotional needs met in order to perform the job perfectly?
―Technical skill is mastery of complexity while creativity is mastery of simplicity.‖ Christopher Zeeman, Mathematician (1925- )
“Don’t Ever Stop Asking Questions”- Albert Einstein