Harper College Scholars PrezPresentation Transcript
The Value of CREATIVITYto Corporations Maria Thompson Director, Innovation Strategy Motorola Solutions, Inc July 20, 2011
Who Am I? Maria B. Thompson Director, Innovation Strategy Masters in Mathematics & Computer Science Passions tools, technology, patents, creative problem solving and inventing 2 issued patents Equestrian sports – jumping my thoroughbred Wife and Mother of two Proud to be a GEEK!
“Chance favors only the prepared mind.” Louis Pasteur (1822-1892)
“Imagination is more important than knowledge. Knowledge is limited. Imagination encircles the world.” Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
CREATIVITY Three reasons why people are motivated to be creative:
need for novel, varied, and complex stimulation
need to communicate ideas and values
need to solve problems
Roger von Oech – “Creative thinking involves imagining familiar things in a new light, digging below the surface to find previously undetected patterns, and finding connections among unrelated phenomena.”
"The mere formulation of a problem is far more often essential than its solution, which may be merely a matter of mathematical or experimental skill. To raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard old problems from a new angle requires creative imagination and marks real advances in science." Albert Einstein
Intellectual Property & Innovation INVENTION: Solution or fix to a problem Conversion of cash into ideas INNOVATION: Commercially successful use of inventions Conversion of ideas into cash Innovation is codified and protected through INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY: PATENTS, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets, Know-how 9
Patents & Intellectual Property Rights “Next came the patent laws. These began in England in 1624, and in this country with the adoption of our Constitution. Before then, any man might instantly use what another man had invented, so that the inventor had no special advantage from his invention. The patent system changed this; it secured to the inventor for a limited time the exclusive use of his invention, and thereby added the fuel of interest to the fire of genius in discovery and production of new and useful things." - Abraham Lincoln Innovate Like Edison: The Success System of America’s Greatest Inventor by Michael Gelb, Sarah Miller Caldicott
“Nothing is more important than to see the sources of invention which are, in my opinion, more interesting than the inventions themselves.” Gottfried Leibniz, German Mathematician and Philosopher (1646-1716)
What is so great about PATENTS? Novel solution to problem Teach others to advance science "The patent system is nothing more than a way to encourage people to innovate... to take risks... to make the world a better place.” -- Dean Kamen, Spotlight On: The U.S. Patent System Prevent others from using, copying or selling your solution (invention)
Why you and your employer might need patents Considerations
Costs – 1 patent filing (US) ~ $15,000;
3 additional maintenance payments to keep for ~20 yrs.
What is your market differentiator, core competencies or “crown jewels?”
What (novel aspects of your work) do you want or need to exclude others from replicating?
Who is in a position to easily practice your art or copy your idea?
Who are your competitors? Do they already have patents, trademarks, copyrights?
Check out http://www.google.com/patents
Freedom of Action
In what countries do you plan to ship product or provide services?
The power of patents - continued Cost Avoidance / Loss of Market Share
RIM paid NTP $612M in litigation settlement
RIM had to stop selling Blackberry’s in US for period of time until settled
Detectability & Enforceability
Will you be able to identify whether someone is copying (“infringing”) your product or service?
If not, better to pursue trade secrets, copyrights, etc.
NEED TO USE CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS EVERY BUSINESS DAY!
RESILIENCYrebounding from adversity Self-efficacy: belief in one's agency and the ability to be a catalyst for Change - Shapes key human behaviors*:
Courses of action people choose to pursue
How much effort they put forth
How long they will persevere in the face of obstacles and failures
Their resilience to adversity
Whether their thought patterns are self-hindering or self-aiding
How much stress and depression they experience in coping with taxing environmental demands
The level of accomplishments they realize
*Based upon research of Albert Bandura
“Don’t worry about other people stealing your ideas. If your ideas are any good, you’ll have to ram them down people’s throats.” – Howard Aiken, IBM Engineer
ALBERT EINSTEIN “In the middle of difficulty lies opportunity.”
‘below average’ student at school
could not speak until he was three
weak in Math
“Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything NEW.”
20th century creative genius, scientist, and philosopher
Started career as a patent office clerk
Studied other people’s ideas
learned how to analyze creative ideas and examine them in his mind - no laboratory to test the ideas
> 20 patents produced with very prolific inventors (1928–1936)
Einstein’s theories continue to be exceptionally valuable source of patentable ideas (solutions!)
very curious child who asked a lot of questions
teacher whipped students who asked questions
Did not like math
Deaf due to injury
difficulty in reading until he was twelve
difficulty writing, even after 12 years of age
Parents didn’t force him to learn things he didn't enjoy;
only learned about things that interested him
Thomas Edisonfinding ways to make lives better, instead of learning how something works
"Genius is hard work, stick-to-itiveness, and common sense"
More patents issued to Edison than issued to any other single person in U.S. history: 1,093.
Mother home-schooled him
Read every book in public library
Thomas EdisonEdison demonstrated positive attitude, perseverance, resiliency. "Results! Why man, I have gotten a lot of results. I know several thousand things that won't work." "Many of life's failures are people who did not realize how close they were to success when they gave up." "Our greatest weakness lies in giving up. The most certain way to succeed is always to try just one more time." "Just because something doesn't do what you planned it to do doesn't mean it's useless." So the next time you make a mistake, or feel discouraged, ADOPT Mr. Edison's attitude on mistakes!
John Vincent AtanasoffThe Man Who Invented the Computer
A physicist and mathematician who invented the computer
largely out of frustration and laziness!
designed a machine to do what his own mind could not
Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) hardly became known at all because he didn’t PATENT it!
Mauchly, patented Eniac computer, not a better scientist than Atanasoff, but more ambitious
- In his Eniac patent application, claimed responsibility for >100 innovations - judge invalidated the Eniac patents, ruling Mauchly’s invention was based on the ABC
cryptographer who helped develop the Unix computer operating system;
chief scientist of the National Security Agency’s National Computer Security Center
Son: Robert Tappan Morris
Comp Sci grad student at Cornell University, wrote computer worm in 1988 -virus- able to propel itself through the Internet; intended to hide in the network, but due to design error, spread wildly out of control, jamming more than 10 percent of 50,000 internet computers
convicted under an early federal computer crime law, sentenced to probation; ordered to pay a $10,000 fine; performed community service
- later PHd CS from Harvard; now teaches CS @ MIT
The Obvious Corporation Founders The Obvious Corporation makes systems that help people work together to improve the world. … relaunching the company that originally incubated Twitter with a high level of commitment to making a difference and developing products that matter…Also, there’s room for innovation in how Businesses measure success and more meaningful definitions of ambition. Biz Stone GQ named him ‘Nerd of the Year’ but Biz is better known as a progenitor of social networking, blogging, co-founder of Twitter, and a philanthropist. There's more about Biz on his foundation site. Evan Williams One of Inc. Magazine’s Entrepreneurs of the Decade, Ev’s the co-founder and former CEO of two of the biggest sites on the web — Blogger and Twitter. (He’s also done some stuff that’s gone awry.) Jason Goldman Jason is a failed astrophysicist with over a decade of experience in product management. He led product for Blogger at Google and was VP of Product for Twitter Inc.
Easy as…Sliced Bread? SLICED BREAD
ICE CREAM and PIZZA
POST-IT NOTES and SONY WALKMAN
Motorola RAZR and Apple iPod->iPhone
“I saw the angel in the marble and carved until I set him free.” Michelangelo (1475-1564)
Many Techniques to Think Creatively TRIZ 6 Thinking Hats Idea of Ideas A Whack on the Side of the Head Brainstorming
33 Our mind tends to automatically organize new information with our current knowledge.
34 “Even though one was correct at each stage, the situation may still have to be restructured to proceed.” Ed deBono Key Insight: Be willing to rearrange what you know contradictions
“Millions saw the apple fall, but Newton was the one who asked why.” Bernard Baruch
How Questions Help Creative Problem Solving Clarifies problems Engages minds Increases brain flow Cultivates curiosity Improves Listening Promotes analogous thinking Enhances quality thinking Accelerates innovation Improves idea management 36
What is the Question Banking Methodology? IDENTIFY Sources of Questions COLLECT Questions ORGANIZE Questions IMPROVE Questions APPLY Questions (Questionate to Ideate) 37
Questions to Ask When Collecting Questions What are ALL the questions that people might answer in order to address the goal(s), challenge(s) or problem(s)? What are all the obstacles or challenges that might relate to the goal(s)? What are the 3-5 MOST IMPORTANT questions that should be asked to address the goal(s)?
Question Banking TIPS & Checklist
Search the internet for existing solutions and
reframe as questions
Wordsmith and polish questions
Use www.thesaurus.com Increase “open-ended” questions Eliminate “closed” questions that can be answered “yes” or “no” Replace “can” and “could/should” with “might” and “may” Genericise so non-experts can engage and invent Tease out conflicts, contradictions and tradeoffs √ Quality ReviewCHECKLIST
Brief and concise
Provocative, inviting and inspiring
Clear and focused
Understandable by variety of people
Functional, action-oriented verbs that describe the desired result or outcome
Recommended Books for Skills Building Innovate Like Edison: The Success System of America’s Greatest Inventor by Michael Gelb, Sarah Miller Caldicott Think Better: An Innovator's Guide to Productive Thinking by Tim Hurson Simplified TRiZ: New Problem-Solving Applications for Engineers & Manufacturing Professionals by Kalevi Rantanen, Ellen Domb, www.triz-journal.com Making Questions Work: A Guide to What and How to Ask for Facilitators, Consultants, Managers, Coaches, and Educators by Dorothy Strachan
Ideality+Problem Storming+Innovation Exercise
3. Ask WHY ideal (5 times) 2. Ideal Attributes 1. Focus/Goal: 2. Ideal Attributes 3. Ask WHY ideal (5 times) IFR What are all the ways we might characterize the Ideal/Perfect World solution based on the resources we have available to us?
3. Opportunities w/o limitation 2. limitations 1. Focus/Goal/Objective/Problem: 2. limitations 3. Opportunities w/o limitation PS QuestionGeneration-Recipe: How might we use Opportunity #3 to overcome Limitation #2 and achieve/remove #1? OR How might we achieve/remove #1 by using #3 without #2?
How might we identify valuable mobile applications?
Functional Analysis /”Job” Identification
I keep six honest serving-men. They taught me all I knew; Their names are What and Why and When and How and Where and Who. Six Key Questions Rudyard Kipling Indian-born British writer and poet
Trend Spotting Whoare all the people that use mobile devices? Whatare their unmet needs? Whendo people have access to their mobile devices? Wheredo people take their mobile devices? Whyare people pleased with or disappointed by their mobile devices? Howmight peoples’ mobile devices better serve their needs?
Trend Spotting – RolesWHO are all the people you know that use their mobile phones regularly?
Service Providers ( e.g., store owners, restauranteurs, plumbers, construction workers, tollbooth operators, government workers, ice cream vendors, security guards, etc.)
Functional Analysis / “Job” Identification
WHATare all the jobs or functions people need to do that a mobile phone application might support?
jobs == tasks
WHEN do people have access to their mobile devices?
Before, during, in-transit to or from work
Before, during, and after school
With children (playing, babysitting) or out on the town without children
With aging parents (e.g., doctors, hospital)
Daytime – morning rituals
Nighttime – evening rituals
Meal-time: breakfast, dinner, lunch
CONTEXTWHERE do people take their mobile devices?
Restaurants / Pubs
Vacation (e.g., camping, skiing, cruising)
Gym, Workout Center, Dance Studio, Martial Arts
e.g., Running, Football, walking the dog, playing with children
Where would people like to take their phones but can’t today?
WHY are people pleased with or disappointed by their mobile devices?
What information is important to people?
What excites or entertains people?
What amuses people or makes them happy?
What makes people more organized, efficient or productive?
What frustrates people?
What annoys people?
What stresses or worries people?
What upsets people or angers people?
HOW might peoples’ mobile devices better serve their needs?
What types of information might we bring to people in real-time?
How might we eliminate the need to perform tasks by automating them?
How might we eliminate the need for people to travel to experiences?
How might we enhance existing mobile device experiences to make them more gratifying and satisfying?
How might we help people perform their “jobs” more effectively and efficiently in all contexts?
How might we help people better connect with those they want in their lives and disconnect from those they don’t?
Value Analysis of the Mobile Application
Does it make the user able to perform a task (job) more effectively?
Is the performance of a user task (job) more convenient?
Is performance of the task (job) more affordable, so more users can improve their efficiencies?
Are the user’s functional, social and emotional needs met in order to perform the job perfectly?
“Technical skill is mastery of complexity while creativity is mastery of simplicity.” Christopher Zeeman, Mathematician (1925- )
“Don’t Ever Stop Asking Questions”- Albert Einstein