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Digital Six Sigma
                         and Directed Innovation




                                       Jeff Summers...
Objectives

• Develop an understanding of how the DSS & Directed
  Innovation methodologies complement each other

• Apply...
What is Six Sigma?




What does Six Sigma
mean to you?




                             Process Excellence Week -- 3 08/3...
What is Six Sigma?
                  One Term, Multiple Meanings
Business
Impact
                                         ...
Minimizing Variation

      Variation

       Customer
     Satisfaction




• Minimizing variation is a key focus of Six ...
Using Mean and Standard Deviation

• Mean (µ)
   – Average of Values


• Standard Deviation ( )
   – How far values lie fr...
Six Sigma is Virtual Perfection!
           Three Sigma                                                                  S...
Where’s The Magic?
                                                                                             Status Quo...
How is Digital Six Sigma Different?

• New Focus – Strategically aimed at Big Y’s with a $3 Billion target


• New Organiz...
DSS Methods Overview

      DMAIC
Variation & Defect
                      Use for improving quality & service problems;
...
What can we expect from DSS?
Performance
Improvement                        The Process Half–Life Effect
100%
            ...
How do you know which approach to use?

• Often a project team may not know which methodology to use until
  after the Ana...
DSS Methodologies
DMAIC / Lean / DMADV                                                                                    ...
Digital Six Sigma Flow Chart
                                                Change Management
      Define             Me...
Six Sigma for Product Development
            Product Portfolio                                                           ...
Stakeholders            VOC                                             VOB                                 VOP




 P    ...
What causes six
sigma projects
    to fail?

                               Process Excellence Week -- 17 08/31/09 Version...
The ―Define‖ Phase Is Critical
                                   70% of process initiatives fail due to:
Project Selectio...
The Elements of Change



                                 WHO


       INTERNAL
       CONTEXT                  HOW WHAT
...
The Growth (―S‖) Curve



                                                                                         Maturit...
1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5
                                                                                               ...
Managing Transitions
How people experience and react to change and its transitions can have a significant
  impact on the ...
1.1 Complete the Business Case for Change
 defining current state, desired future state,
              gaps, and actions
C...
Business Case for Change walkthrough




                                   Process Excellence Week -- 24 08/31/09 Version...
Exercise: Developing a Business
        Case for Change

1. Break into teams                                              ...
Project Schematic Example

Big Y (VOB)                                            NPI Say/Do



Little y’s     Price      ...
Process Measures
What Are Process Measures?                               Numeric indicators of process ―health‖

Why Have...
Determine What to Measure: Listen to Customers
Effective process improvement means that the measure we use in our
business...
Translating VOC into CCRs
1. Group similar and common statements received from customers. Select or adjust
   comments fro...
CTQ & CTP Examples
                                                                                            Critical to...
Develop An Issue Statement
      Process                                         Quality                                  ...
Project Schematic Example

 Big Y (VOB)                                              NPI Say/Do



 Little y’s       Price...
Root Cause Analysis

 Identification of the few underlying factor(s) causing the problem

 Identifies the vital X’s driv...
DMAIC




                                                                              Reduce Defects using
             ...
Reduce Defects using DMAIC

Objective
• Understand & Measure the sources of defects and
  variation in your process or pro...
DSS Methodologies

      DMAIC
Variation & Defect
                      Use for improving quality & service problems;
   ...
DMAIC Phases and Tools

  Define                             Business Case, Team Charter, Stakeholder Analysis,
Opportunit...
Brainstorm Causes




                                    Process Excellence Week -- 38 08/31/09 Version 1.2
         MOTO...
Affinity Diagram
Affinity Diagrams encourage creativity by everyone on the
team at all phases of the process by breaking d...
Affinity Diagram
               Issues Surrounding Returned Orders
                          Our store and equipment      ...
5 Why‘s
  Using the Cause and Effect diagram with the major categories, begin with the
  ―most likely‖ — the questioning o...
Example of 5 Why‘s

• Problem: Order returned due to cold food.

   Why is this burger cold?
    Took too long from the g...
Cause and Effect Diagram
 Perhaps the most useful tool for identifying root causes is the cause and effect diagram. It goe...
Fishbone Example: Big Y‘s Burgers
                                                                                        ...
Fishbone Example (Affinity)
                            Computer                                           Internal Mail
 ...
LEAN
                         (DMADDD)




                                                                              I...
Digital Six Sigma Flow Chart
                                                Change Management
      Define             Me...
Maximize Efficiency using Lean

Objective
• Look for major opportunities to improve speed
• Evaluate common inputs and out...
DSS Methodologies

      DMAIC
Variation & Defect
                      Use for improving quality & service problems;
   ...
Lean (DMADDD) Phases and Tools
 Define                        Business Case, Team Charter, Stakeholder Analysis,
         ...
Value Analysis
Why do a Value Analysis?
• 80% of most processes are non-value added work!
• Design out work that consumes ...
Understanding Value Analysis
•   Introduction to Improvement Criteria
      – Team can often identify quick and simple opp...
Understanding Value Analysis

• Examples: Non-Value-Added Activities
   – Proofreading
   – Counting the amount of work
  ...
Value Analysis
                                                                                                 Job A
1) P...
Value Analysis
                                                                                                Non-Value C...
DMADV




                                                                              Design Optimal Process
           ...
Digital Six Sigma Flow Chart
                                                Change Management
      Define             Me...
DMADV

Objective: Perfecting the process so that we don’t have to
do DMAIC/ DMADDD!

   • Focuses on creating new processe...
DSS Methodologies

      DMAIC
Variation & Defect
                      Use for improving quality & service problems;
   ...
DMADV Phases and Tools

Define
                                Business Case, Team Charter, Stakeholder Analysis,
        ...
BHAG‘s
               Big, Hairy Audacious Goals
Why? BHAG’s force you to create world-class processes

How?
1. Set a goal...
Paradigm Analysis
A paradigm is a set of assumptions (believed to be true) that may
significantly limit our view of what‘s...
Ideal Design Case
The Pendulum Swings
A group of construction specialists, attempting to reduce the cost of a new office b...
Ideal Design
Ideal Design is a clean slate approach to process innovation that:
     • Encourages ―visionary‖ thinking abo...
Ideal Design
                                                                                                             ...
Successful Process Digitization
   Don’t digitize too soon! Have we done everything to improve this process
    before au...
Directed
                         Innovation




                                        Version 1.2
MOTOROLA and the Styl...
Where’s The Magic?
                                                                                              Status Qu...
What is Directed Innovation?

• New Focus – Gnarly Problems, conflicts and tradeoffs generated from
contrasting today’s so...
What can we expect from DI?
Performance
Improvement                        The Process Half–Life Effect
100%
             ...
History

• Advanced Inventing
   – Ad hoc brainstorming by project teams
   – Infrequent Patent attorney participation
   ...
History
• Strategic Portfolio Development
   –   Focused on generating solutions & patents from new promising technology
 ...
History

• Directed Innovation
   –   Agnostic facilitator
   –   Provocation/Question Banking
   –   Diverse & cross-func...
The ―Define‖ Phase Is Critical
                                   90% of innovation initiatives fail due to:
Project Selec...
Treat Your Inventing session like a
   PROJECT and MANAGE it!

                                        1.0
               ...
Directed Innovation Methods Overview
                    Use for understanding all the problems to be solved in
  Provoca...
PLAN
• Select Inventing team
   Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) in Technology Domain

   Identify/select team members
    ...
• Problem Storming (w/ critical thinkers)                                                                                 ...
Issue Statement – DI Prework

• Reframe original problem statement as several different
  open-ended, thought-provoking, g...
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions
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Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions

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We discuss the Lean Design and Digital Six Sigma methods and tools and how to integrate TRiZ and other Directed Innovation methods for higher-quality solutions to critical challenges.

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Transcript of "Digital Six Sigma integration with Directed Innovation for Generation of High-Quality Solutions"

  1. 1. Digital Six Sigma and Directed Innovation Jeff Summers – Director, Motorola University Maria Thompson - Director, Intellectual Asset Management Process & Tools Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009.
  2. 2. Objectives • Develop an understanding of how the DSS & Directed Innovation methodologies complement each other • Apply at least one DSS and one complementary Directed Innovation technique to solve a valuable problem • Develop action plan(s) for future application of appropriate DSS and/or Directed Innovation methodologies Process Excellence Week -- 2 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  3. 3. What is Six Sigma? What does Six Sigma mean to you? Process Excellence Week -- 3 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  4. 4. What is Six Sigma? One Term, Multiple Meanings Business Impact Management System Drive Vital Few Dedicated Resources Data-Driven Decisions Customer Focused Improvement Methodology (DMAIC, DMADV, DMADDD) Metric 3.4 DPMO Literal Philosophical Definition Definition DPMO = Defects per Million Opportunities MORE DETAIL AT: http://www.isixsigma.com/library/content/six-sigma-newbie.asp Process Excellence Week -- 4 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  5. 5. Minimizing Variation Variation Customer Satisfaction • Minimizing variation is a key focus of Six Sigma. • Variation means that a process does not produce exactly the same result every time the product or service is delivered. • Variation leads to defects, and defects lead to unhappy customers and Cost of Poor Quality. • Variation exists in all processes Data Variation Process Excellence Week -- 5 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  6. 6. Using Mean and Standard Deviation • Mean (µ) – Average of Values • Standard Deviation ( ) – How far values lie from the mean or average – Standard Deviation is a measure of Variation Process Excellence Week -- 6 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  7. 7. Six Sigma is Virtual Perfection! Three Sigma Six Sigma At least 54,000 wrong drug One wrong drug prescription in prescriptions per year 25 years 27 minutes of dead air time per 2 seconds of dead air time per TV channel each week TV channel each week 5 short or long landings at 1 short or long landing at all O’Hare airport each day U.S. airports in 10 years Process Excellence Week -- 7 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  8. 8. Where’s The Magic? Status Quo Tools to Drive Subjectivity, Conjecture, Objectivity & Data & Strong Personalities Driven Decisions Step By Step Process Shoot from the Hip, Figure it Out Improvement As We Go, High Variation in ―Recipes‖ Results No Metrics or Mean Based Variance Based Metrics Vs. Metrics Dedicated, Proactive Process Part Time Firefighters Improvement Resources A Leadership Tool: -A Common Language Multiple, Disjointed Initiatives -A Mobilization Platform & -A Catalyst To Drive Change ―Hobby‖ Projects 86 Process Excellence Week -- 8 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  9. 9. How is Digital Six Sigma Different? • New Focus – Strategically aimed at Big Y’s with a $3 Billion target • New Organization – Dedicated resource deployment team • New Tools – DMAIC + (Lean, DFSS and Change Management ) • New Thinking – Heavy emphasis on leadership and fact-based decisions • New Technology – IT solutions to ―hard code‖ Six Sigma solutions –Digital Cockpits to provide real-time tracking of process performance –E-Learning –Low cost web applications & workflow tools • New Applications – Six Sigma for Product Development Process Excellence Week -- 9 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  10. 10. DSS Methods Overview DMAIC Variation & Defect  Use for improving quality & service problems; Reduction reducing variation Lean Process Efficiency  Use for improving process optimization & speed & Speed DFSS New Product &  Use for developing new processes; or radical change Process in process Process Excellence Week -- 10 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  11. 11. What can we expect from DSS? Performance Improvement The Process Half–Life Effect 100% Lean/ DMADV DMAIC 50% 20% Low Hanging Fruit Traditional Management Ford 8-D 0% (Status Quo) Crisis Crisis -10% 3 6 9 12 months Ray Stata, Sloan Management Review, 1989. Process Excellence Week -- 11 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  12. 12. How do you know which approach to use? • Often a project team may not know which methodology to use until after the Analyze Phase. • Use DMAIC when… – an existing product, service or process is failing to meet customer requirements or is not performing adequately. – there are opportunities for continuous improvement without radical change – Trying to reduce defects or variation in a process • Use DMADV when… – a process is required but does not exist (or radical change) – an existing process has been optimized using DMAIC but is still failing to meet customer requirements • Use Lean when… – a process is encountering cycle time issues (often transactional) – optimizing a process for speed and efficiency • Use BLITZ when… – quick wins can be implemented to solve the majority of the problem Process Excellence Week -- 12 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  13. 13. DSS Methodologies DMAIC / Lean / DMADV The Process  Systematic methodologies focusing on problem solving & continuous improvement Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) The Product  Systematic methodology focused on creating new products  Often required to achieve true 6 capability that Customers can see - by reducing variability & preventing problems in the design phase 83 Process Excellence Week -- 13 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  14. 14. Digital Six Sigma Flow Chart Change Management Define Measure Analyze Improve Control D Business Issue Process Solutions Document & M Case Statement Mapping (VSM) Developed Standardize A I Team Process Solutions Digitize & C Charter Measurement Selected Draw Down Stakeholder Measurement DOE Analysis Systems Analysis Testing L E Risk Assessment A yes Analysis Value N Cause Root Customer Information Performance no Achieved New Process no or Product no yes D M BHAG A D Customer Needs Paradigm Ideal QFD Verify & Requirements Analysis Design V Process Excellence Week -- 14 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009 1
  15. 15. Six Sigma for Product Development Product Portfolio Product Definition & Commercialization Development Business Strategy MFSS P2D2 C D O V Product Marketing I D E A Launch Strategy DFSS C D O V Technology Strategy SDFSS I2 D O V TDFSS Technology & I2 D O V Software Platform 8 Development 3 Process Excellence Week -- 15 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  16. 16. Stakeholders VOC VOB VOP P D M D ? A Prioritization I Quick Wins Projects Decide E C S A Phase Gate Process Process Excellence Week -- 16 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  17. 17. What causes six sigma projects to fail? Process Excellence Week -- 17 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  18. 18. The ―Define‖ Phase Is Critical 70% of process initiatives fail due to: Project Selection Lack of alignment with a strategic priority Insufficient reasons for change No financial estimate Can’t be completed in 3-6 months Team Charter No clear & measurable goals Not staffed with the right people or enough time Stakeholder Key stakeholders unwilling to try new solutions Analysis Key stakeholders and managers not committed Risk Assessment Starting projects with no understanding of risk Ignoring early red flags Customer Lack understanding of customer experience & needs Requirements Process Excellence Week -- 18 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  19. 19. The Elements of Change WHO INTERNAL CONTEXT HOW WHAT EXTERNAL CONTEXT Process Excellence Week -- 19 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  20. 20. The Growth (―S‖) Curve Maturity Performance Rapid Growth Decline Formation Adapted from Nadler, D. A. (1998) Time Process Excellence Week -- 20 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  21. 21. 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 Risk 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 DMAIC LEAN DMADV Process Excellence Week -- 21 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  22. 22. Managing Transitions How people experience and react to change and its transitions can have a significant impact on the success of the initiative. The illustration below provides a good overview of how people experience change. Experiencing Change and Transition Endings Transition Zone New Beginnings Uncertainty Commitment Uncertainty Commitment Creativity Excitement Accomplishment Innovation High Energy Anticipation Learning Relief Confusion Anxiety Unsure Frustration Resistance Reservation Confusion Ambivalence Denial Skepticism Exploration Skepticism Exploration Adapted from Managing Transitions , William Bridges Process Excellence Week -- 22 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  23. 23. 1.1 Complete the Business Case for Change defining current state, desired future state, gaps, and actions Change tool used: Business Case for Change The Business Case for Change (BCC) is the most important document of any change initiative. Current situation Plan for HOW to close the gaps (WHATs) Desired future state Process Excellence Week -- 23 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  24. 24. Business Case for Change walkthrough Process Excellence Week -- 24 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  25. 25. Exercise: Developing a Business Case for Change 1. Break into teams EXERCISE 2. Read the Overview section in the case study handout 3. Develop a Business Case for Change using the information in the case study and the instructions in the BCC tool. Handout: Handout: Case Business Case for Prioritization Study Change Quick Projects Wins Decide Process Excellence Week -- 25 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  26. 26. Project Schematic Example Big Y (VOB) NPI Say/Do Little y’s Price Unit Volume Manufacturing Development <10% >75% Cost <10% Cost <5% Vital X’s Product Launch Business Case Timeliness Effectiveness • Resource Management • Customer Insight Process • Work Allocation DSS Projects • Market Size Forecasting • Specs / Requirements • Commercial DOE Testing Management • ―Do‖ Rescue Tools Kit • Digitized M-Gates Process Excellence Week -- 26 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  27. 27. Process Measures What Are Process Measures? Numeric indicators of process ―health‖ Why Have Them? • Tells you how well you are meeting customer requirements • Clarifies the ―defect‖ • Determine capability of process & amount of improvement required Quality Characteristic Numeric Indicator Customer Need Amount of change required *Accuracy *Time days, weeks, hours, minutes *Defects *Reliability % of __________________ # of (defects) per (day) Process Excellence Week -- 27 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  28. 28. Determine What to Measure: Listen to Customers Effective process improvement means that the measure we use in our business is directly tied to our customers. • Step 1: Develop a Customer-Focused Business Strategy – Assess the business needs – Identify customer segments • Step 2: Listening to the VOC – To obtain useful and valid customer information and feedback: • Select research methods to gather customer information • Probe for complete understanding • Step 3: Translating Voice of the Customer (VOC) into Critical Customer Requirements (CCRs) – Organize and verify customer needs data into CCRs – Determine CCR priorities – Identify CCR measurement and targets • Step 4: Developing Measures and Indicators – Identify customer issue statements – Translate the CCRs into output indicators: • Identify and select output indicators • Establish output performance targets Process Excellence Week -- 28 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  29. 29. Translating VOC into CCRs 1. Group similar and common statements received from customers. Select or adjust comments from each group to form a single statement which best represents the VOC. 2. Clarify, in measurable and specific terms, the customer requirement(s) associated with each key VOC statement. 3. Based on clarification gathered through Voice of the Customer and the Critical Customer Requirements, state the key customer issue associated with each VOC/CCR statement. Voice of the Customer Critical Customer Requirement Key Customer Issue Actual customer statements and The specific, precise, and measurable Describes the experience comments which reflect their expectation which a customer has surrounding the product or service expectation of a product or service. regarding a product or service. expected or desired by the customer. It should reference a process and the direction of improvement. “My burger is cold and stale.” Burger should be warm and Increase temperature of delivered fresh. food in the burger production process “I’m waiting way too long for my Total time per order should not Reduce cycle time in burger order order.” exceed 2 minutes. process “These ingredients are too messy.” All toppings should not extend Decrease variation in placement and beyond the bun’s diameter. amount of ingredients in the burger production process Process Excellence Week -- 29 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  30. 30. CTQ & CTP Examples Critical to: The Customer The Market Process Output Indicators CTQ’s Critical to: Price/Unit The Business CTQ’s Delivery Time The Regulator ________ Dimensions The Employees ________ Purity Reliability CTP’s Color Cost/Unit Service Level CTP’s Productivity Compliance with ________ Regulations ________ Changeover Time Safety Certification Process Excellence Week -- 30 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  31. 31. Develop An Issue Statement Process Quality Change Reference Characteristic Indicator Process that needs What needs Nature of the improvement improvement improvement • Design • Defects • Increase • Accounts Receivable • Cycle Time • Decrease • Order entry • Rework • Improve • Shipping of parts • Efficiency • Reduce • Invoicing • Complaints • Eliminate Process Excellence Week -- 31 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  32. 32. Project Schematic Example Big Y (VOB) NPI Say/Do Little y’s Price Unit Volume Manufacturing Development <10% >75% Cost <10% Cost <5% Vital X’s Product Launch Business Case Timeliness Effectiveness • Resource Management • Customer Insight Process • Work Allocation DSS Projects • Market Size Forecasting • Specs / Requirements • Commercial DOE Testing Management • ―Do‖ Rescue Tools Kit • Digitized M-Gates Issue Statement Improve the accuracy of the customer insight process Process Excellence Week -- 32 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  33. 33. Root Cause Analysis  Identification of the few underlying factor(s) causing the problem  Identifies the vital X’s driving the Y performance  Attacking the top 20% of causes will solve 80% of the effect (80/20 Rule)  Avoids implementing quick fixes that only cover up the problem  Builds data-driven consensus on prioritized causes Process Excellence Week -- 33 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  34. 34. DMAIC Reduce Defects using DMAIC Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009.
  35. 35. Reduce Defects using DMAIC Objective • Understand & Measure the sources of defects and variation in your process or product. • Brainstorm potential Root Causes and let the Data guide you to a decision. • Develop solutions that best address the root cause. Key Tools – Affinity Diagram – 5 Why’s – Cause & Effect Diagram (a.k.a. Ishikawa, Fishbone) Process Excellence Week -- 35 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  36. 36. DSS Methodologies DMAIC Variation & Defect  Use for improving quality & service problems; Reduction reducing variation Lean Process Efficiency  Use for improving process optimization & speed & Speed DMADV New Product &  Use for developing new processes; or radical change Process in process Process Excellence Week -- 36 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  37. 37. DMAIC Phases and Tools Define Business Case, Team Charter, Stakeholder Analysis, Opportunities VOC, CCR's, CTQ's, SIPOC, Process Maps Measure Baseline Performance, Operational Definitions, Performance Measurement Plan, QFD, Check Sheets Analyze Brainstorming, Root Cause Analysis, Cause & Effect Opportunity Diagrams, Pareto Diagrams, Affinity Diagram Improve Develop solutions, Testing, Confirming solutions, Performance Communication Plan, Solution Matrix Control SPC, Control Charts, Document & Standardize, Performance Control Plan, SOP's, FMEA Process Excellence Week -- 37 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  38. 38. Brainstorm Causes Process Excellence Week -- 38 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  39. 39. Affinity Diagram Affinity Diagrams encourage creativity by everyone on the team at all phases of the process by breaking down long- standing communication barriers. Teams use this type of diagram to overcome team paralysis which is brought on by an overwhelming array of options and lack of consensus. When using Affinity Diagrams follow these simple steps: 1. Write the issue under discussion in a full sentence 2. Brainstorm at least 20 ideas or issues 3. Without talking: sort ideas simultaneously into 5-10 related groupings 4. For each grouping, create summary cards using consensus Process Excellence Week -- 39 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  40. 40. Affinity Diagram Issues Surrounding Returned Orders Our store and equipment We must focus on the order Must be more reliable creation & fulfillment Mechanical Store Environment Order Entry Toppings problems Grill not Toppings too Not enough workers Poor Handwriting Messy at ingredients Hot enough station Not enough Wrong combination Fryer did not Cashiers at front Of toppings Stations are Counter cook french fries Too crowded thoroughly Vegetables not fresh Incorrect written order by cashier Burger Buns are stale Tip: Use Post-it Notes when brainstorming the ideas so that they can be moved around more easily. Process Excellence Week -- 40 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  41. 41. 5 Why‘s Using the Cause and Effect diagram with the major categories, begin with the ―most likely‖ — the questioning of ―why.‖ • Why does this occur? • Why does the condition exist? Root Cause – Most Basic Reason a Problem Has or Could Occur 1. Ask ―Why‖ 3-5 times. – Why is this failure mode active? Progressively becomes more difficult and a more thought provoking assignment. Symptom 1 Early questions are usually superficial, obvious; Why did this ―why‖ the later ones more substantive. Symptom 2 happen? ―why‖ Symptom 3 ―why‖ Symptom 4 And more ―why‘s‖ Probable Root Cause Process Excellence Week -- 41 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  42. 42. Example of 5 Why‘s • Problem: Order returned due to cold food. Why is this burger cold?  Took too long from the grill to customer Why did it take too long?  Had to wait for fries to be added Why did it wait for the fries?  Fries were not dropped into the fryer Why were the fries not dropped into fryer?  Fry station worker rotated to help cashier Process Excellence Week -- 42 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  43. 43. Cause and Effect Diagram Perhaps the most useful tool for identifying root causes is the cause and effect diagram. It goes by several names (Ishikawa, fishbone, etc.) and there are a variety of ways to use it. The cause and effect diagram is primarily a tool for organizing information to establish and clarify the relationships between an effect and its main causes. The cause and effect diagram identifies the root cause(s) of the problem so that collective actions can be taken to eliminate their recurrence. The cause and effect diagram develops a picture composed of words and lines designed to show the relationship between the effect and its causes. Receipt process Rushed salespeople EFFECT Hourly completion CAUSES Analyses were Problem required unable to verify Statement Rushed 40% of January Too many sales receipts Not enough sales coverage at peak times Salespeople The cause and effect diagram assists in reaching a common understanding of the problem and exposes the potential drivers of the problem. Process Excellence Week -- 43 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  44. 44. Fishbone Example: Big Y‘s Burgers 5 M’s + E Manpower Machine Material No flame Employee sick Grill Broken Stale Bread Understaffed Too cold Unreadable Ticket Not enough Wrong Wrapping Material Untrained Assigned to work Sauce Dispenser Bad lettuce Fryer Problems Returned Ticketed wrong Order Crowded Space Lunch Rush-too many orders Incorrect Order Excess Toppings Incorrect Placement Order Language Barrier Toppings Delivered to wrong customer Not enough fries Lighting Incorrect wrapping Wrong Too Messy Too much ice Toppings Wrong sizes used Environment Method Measurement Note: A Fishbone can be quantified using a Cause & Effect Matrix. See a Black Belt for more information. Process Excellence Week -- 44 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  45. 45. Fishbone Example (Affinity) Computer Internal Mail System System Cost-Reduction Program Older System Excess One Pick-Up Daily Demand Downtime Manual Workspace Equipment Sort New Process Access Limitations Excess Maintenance Lost/Misplaced Mail Demand Contractor Turnover Low Priority Inexperienced Staff Invoices paid Hiring Freeze Turnover Audit Recommendation late for Tighter Control Centralized Access Limitations Payment Manual Crowded Maximize Cash Authorization Files Space Low Priority Morale Payment Branch Offices Paycuts Delays Forward Payments Weekly Missing Documentation Productivity Deadlines Reorganization Resigned Increased Workload of Purchase Org. No Limit Manager Overtime Missing Reduced Purchase Orders Finance Staff Documentation Policy Note: A Fishbone can be quantified using a Cause & Effect Matrix. See a Black Belt for more information. Process Excellence Week -- 45 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  46. 46. LEAN (DMADDD) Improving process optimization & speed Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009.
  47. 47. Digital Six Sigma Flow Chart Change Management Define Measure Analyze Improve Control D Business Issue Process Solutions Document & M Case Statement Mapping (VSM) Developed Standardize A I Team Process Solutions Digitize & C Charter Measurement Selected Draw Down Stakeholder Measurement DOE Analysis Systems Analysis Testing L E Risk Assessment A yes Analysis Value N Cause Root Customer Information Performance no Achieved New Process no or Product no yes D M BHAG A D Customer Needs Paradigm Ideal QFD Verify & Requirements Analysis Design V Process Excellence Week -- 47 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009 1
  48. 48. Maximize Efficiency using Lean Objective • Look for major opportunities to improve speed • Evaluate common inputs and outputs for parallel paths • Quantify Value of major activities • Develop and Test Improvements Key Tools – Voice of Customer – Value Analysis Process Excellence Week -- 48 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  49. 49. DSS Methodologies DMAIC Variation & Defect  Use for improving quality & service problems; Reduction reducing variation Lean Process Efficiency  Use for improving process optimization & speed & Speed DMADV New Product & Use for developing new processes; or radical change Process in process Process Excellence Week -- 49 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  50. 50. Lean (DMADDD) Phases and Tools Define Business Case, Team Charter, Stakeholder Analysis, VOC, CCR's, CTQ's, SIPOC, Process Maps Measure Baseline Performance, Operational Definitions, Measurement Plan, QFD, Check Sheets, Surveys Analyze Brainstorming, Value Analysis: Identify process areas causing poor efficiency Design Develop & Prototype Solutions, Communication Plan Digitize Automate new solutions. Ensure Compliance to Process, Remove Parallel Draw Down Paths & „work arounds” Process Excellence Week -- 50 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  51. 51. Value Analysis Why do a Value Analysis? • 80% of most processes are non-value added work! • Design out work that consumes valuable time and energy Business 15% Requirements • Work that keeps the Business 30% organization running, Requirement Rework but has no value to Not done right first time the external customer Poor quality, rejects, • Financials returns • Hiring • Checking Bureaucracy • Approvals • Work no one uses 20% Value Added • Redundancy • Reports not used Work • Non-productive meetings Value-Added Work Bureaucracy It physically changes Idle Time the inputs • Waiting/ Delays • Backlog 10% The customer is willing to pay for it, or requires it * Features customer Last Super Bowl, the Ball cares about 25% was in motion 17 minutes! Process Excellence Week -- 51 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  52. 52. Understanding Value Analysis • Introduction to Improvement Criteria – Team can often identify quick and simple opportunities for significant improvement. – Sometimes these quick wins are sufficient for accomplishing the team’s improvement goals. • Customer Value-Added - An activity can be described as adding value for the customer only if: • The customer recognizes the value • It changes the product toward something the customer expects • It is done right the first time • Operational Value-Added - An activity adds operational value if it is not a customer value-added activity and is: • Required to sustain the workplace ability to perform customer value-added activities • Required by contract or other laws and regulation • Required for health, safety, environmental, or personnel development reasons • Done right the first time • Non Value-Added Activities • A team preparing to perform a value analysis of a process will begin by asking some questions relative to each step in the process. Some of these questions may include: – Is this step required by a customer? – Could this step be eliminated? Process Excellence Week -- 52 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  53. 53. Understanding Value Analysis • Examples: Non-Value-Added Activities – Proofreading – Counting the amount of work – Inspection and checking – Sorting work – Logging information – Checking calculations – Reviewing and approving – Moving and set-up – Monitoring work – Stamping – Any type of rework Process Excellence Week -- 53 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  54. 54. Value Analysis Job A 1) Process Walk Through As A Group: • Review each job tasks and materials • One flip chart page per job 2) Separate Value from Non-Value Work • Review each activity & input for value/non value 20% value Value Add = – Customer will pay for it – Changes inputs Value line Non-Value= – Redundant 80% non-value – Rework – Unnecessary – Inefficient • Move value added activities above the value line • Move non-value activities below the value line Process Excellence Week -- 54 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  55. 55. Value Analysis Non-Value Categories Priorities 3) Verify 80/20 Rule E.g., Walking Add up non-value vs. value activities Does number of non-value activities approximate 80%? #NVA‘s:_____ 4) Categorize Non-Value Areas Group Common Activities Record, Look up, Walk, etc... Inputs/Outputs #NVA‘s:_____ Calculate Time/Category 5) Prioritize Non-Value Areas Rank Order ―biggest‖ time wasters by # of NVA’s #NVA‘s:_____ Process Excellence Week -- 55 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  56. 56. DMADV Design Optimal Process using DMADV Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009.
  57. 57. Digital Six Sigma Flow Chart Change Management Define Measure Analyze Improve Control D Business Issue Process Solutions Document & M Case Statement Mapping (VSM) Developed Standardize A I Team Process Solutions Digitize & C Charter Measurement Selected Draw Down Stakeholder Measurement DOE Analysis Systems Analysis Testing L E Risk Assessment A yes Analysis Value N Cause Root Customer Information Performance no Achieved New Process no or Product no yes D M BHAG A D Customer Needs Paradigm Ideal QFD Verify & Requirements Analysis Design V Process Excellence Week -- 57 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009 1
  58. 58. DMADV Objective: Perfecting the process so that we don’t have to do DMAIC/ DMADDD! • Focuses on creating new processes • Or, creating a significantly new level of performance Process Excellence Week -- 58 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  59. 59. DSS Methodologies DMAIC Variation & Defect  Use for improving quality & service problems; Reduction reducing variation Lean Process Efficiency  Use for improving process optimization & speed & Speed DMADV New Product &  Use for developing new processes; or radical change Process in process Process Excellence Week -- 59 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  60. 60. DMADV Phases and Tools Define Business Case, Team Charter, Stakeholder Analysis, VOC, CCR's, CTQ's, BHAG‟s Measure Measurement Plan, Operational Definitions, QFD Analyze Paradigm Analysis, SOV Studies, CTQ Flow Down, Initial Models & Ideal Designs Design Solution Matrix, Optimized Design, DOE, Pilot Plan Verify Verify Design, Document & Standardize, Prototype, FMEA, Digitization Process Excellence Week -- 60 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  61. 61. BHAG‘s Big, Hairy Audacious Goals Why? BHAG’s force you to create world-class processes How? 1. Set a goal that will ―significantly‖ exceed current performance & industry benchmarks 2. Ask, ―What goal will make us better than the best?‖ 3. The goal should feel impossible! If it doesn’t, you’ll need to cut your stretch goal in half. Obstacles * Perception that significant improvement is impossible * Fear of not making the goal * Risk averse people or culture Process Excellence Week -- 61 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  62. 62. Paradigm Analysis A paradigm is a set of assumptions (believed to be true) that may significantly limit our view of what‘s possible and ultimately, our performance. 1. Brainstorm Paradigms 1. What the customer wants Outputs 2. What you have to do Activities 3. Your resources Inputs 1. Identify Givens—things customer/company is unwilling to change  16 data points  Hard copy  Customer isn‟t changing  No automation 2. Eliminate "Can't‖ PERISH PARADIGMS! Process Excellence Week -- 62 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  63. 63. Ideal Design Case The Pendulum Swings A group of construction specialists, attempting to reduce the cost of a new office building, proposed replacing a 10-story spiral staircase for the atrium with a 10-story brass pendulum. The architect was delighted. The owner was enthusiastic. Half a million dollars was saved! This may give visions of executives sliding down the brass pole, but it really made perfect sense. The function of the staircase was not to serve as a way to get from floor to floor. The building had elevators to do that. The spiral staircase was merely an architectural feature to convey an upsweeping dynamic vision to visitors. The group realized that projecting an image was the key to the problem. They brainstormed a variety of different ways to project such an image. In the end, they settled on the brass pendulum, partly because of the money it would save. A group less skilled at problem solving would have proposed ways to build the spiral staircase more cheaply. This group got to the nub of the matter and focused on the function of the staircase. Groups need to manage their problem-solving and communication process to find the pendulums, not cheapen the staircase. Process Excellence Week -- 63 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  64. 64. Ideal Design Ideal Design is a clean slate approach to process innovation that: • Encourages ―visionary‖ thinking about best system • Legitimizes ―letting go‖ of legacy system Start with vision & design backwards 1) Redefine Outputs (Customers true needs) • What needs are we really trying to meet? • Forget about how we currently meet the need • How else could we meet those needs? 2) Redesign Value Activities • How else can these activities be done to achieve the result? • Benchmark other companies & industries – How do the ―best of best‖ do it? 3) Re-evaluate Inputs • What information is really needed? • In what other form could you use or receive the inputs? 4) Experiment • Ideal design is Iterative, so the more tests, the quicker the success! • Retrain Process Excellence Week -- 64 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  65. 65. Ideal Design Baseline Test Paradigms Ideal Designs Output • What are your paradigms about the current output? • Brainstorm alternative output designs to achieve BHAG Value Activity • What is the last activity performed to produce output? • What are your paradigms about this activity? • Are there other ways to do this activity to achieve BHAG? Input • What are your paradigms about the current input? • Are there other ways to use the input to achieve BHAG? Process Excellence Week -- 65 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  66. 66. Successful Process Digitization  Don’t digitize too soon! Have we done everything to improve this process before automating?  Have low cost web applications or re-usable solutions been considered?  What tracking systems are needed to ensure process compliance & to prevent ―workarounds‖?  Have all supporting procedures & policies to perform the process been revised or updated?  Have supporting procedures & policies for the old process been eliminated?  Does training exist in order to teach people the new process?  Is there an acceptable ROI for digitizing this process? Can the applications be re-used? Process Excellence Week -- 66 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  67. 67. Directed Innovation Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009.
  68. 68. Where’s The Magic? Status Quo Park in the problem Fire = Invent, Ready, Aim space Manage Creativity like Get smart people in a room & a project brainstorm Identify & evaluate Subjective assessment of importance of solutions to implement, patents problems as well as solutions Vs. to file Process facilitation role with Ad hoc inventors from diverse, cross-functional same project participant pool More difficult problems & radical solutions require more Narrow, incremental participants and diverse ―inventions‖ from individual ideators inventors lead to lower-value 86 patents Process Excellence Week -- 68 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  69. 69. What is Directed Innovation? • New Focus – Gnarly Problems, conflicts and tradeoffs generated from contrasting today’s solutions with Ideal solution • New Organization – Process Facilitator,SMEs: Critical & Free thinkers, Convergent & Divergent thinkers, Inventor Mentors • New Tools – Provocation, Problem Storming, Question Banking, TRiZ, Value Analysis • New Thinking – Creative Problem Solving vs. Brainstorming, Inventing, Patenting • New Technology – Provocation worksheets, Idea Sheets, Post-it Notes, Chocolate, Mint & Cinnamon* • New Applications – Patent drafting/Claims writing, Research Project Definition, Marketing, Product Naming * Stimulate the right side of brain Process Excellence Week -- 69 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  70. 70. What can we expect from DI? Performance Improvement The Process Half–Life Effect 100% Lean/DFSS/ DMADV/DI DMAIC/DI 50% 20% Low Hanging Fruit Traditional Management 0% (Status Quo) Crisis Crisis -10% 3 6 9 12 months Ray Stata, Sloan Management Review, 1989. Process Excellence Week -- 70 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  71. 71. History • Advanced Inventing – Ad hoc brainstorming by project teams – Infrequent Patent attorney participation – Direct to patent filings Process Excellence Week -- 71 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  72. 72. History • Strategic Portfolio Development – Focused on generating solutions & patents from new promising technology – TRiZ used rarely to identify conflicts & tradeoffs in new technology – Attorney = scribe – SME = facilitator (sometimes) – Project &/or technology team participation – Participants vote on ideas to patent Process Excellence Week -- 72 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  73. 73. History • Directed Innovation – Agnostic facilitator – Provocation/Question Banking – Diverse & cross-functional team – Innovators = scribes-> Idea Sheets – Problem Storming –> Post-its – Chocolate, Cinnamon, Peppermint – Competition – Concept Evaluation by SMEs & Patent Attorney – Prior Art searching/ Patcomm review – Inventor Mentors – Balanced left brain vs. right brain activities Process Excellence Week -- 73 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  74. 74. The ―Define‖ Phase Is Critical 90% of innovation initiatives fail due to: Project Selection Lack of alignment between business & IP Strategy Long time to obtain (3-4 yrs) & leverage (8 yrs.) IP No budget allocation to future problems (AnTRIZipation) Team Charter No concise & shared problem statements Not staffed with the right people or enough planning Stakeholder Key stakeholders risk averse Analysis Key stakeholders invent themselves Risk Assessment Starting projects with no understanding of IP Landscape Ignoring early red flags – litigiousness of competitors Customer Lack understanding of variety of customers’ perspectives Requirements & issues/problems – FUNCTIONAL perspective lacking Process Excellence Week -- 74 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  75. 75. Treat Your Inventing session like a PROJECT and MANAGE it! 1.0 PLAN 4.0 2.0 ACT DO 3.0 CHECK Process Excellence Week -- 75 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  76. 76. Directed Innovation Methods Overview  Use for understanding all the problems to be solved in Provocation / Problem Storming order to implement the Ideal Solution  Use for engaging diverse population in creative Question problem solving to generate more and better solutions Banking Use for effectively capturing all solutions potentially Ideation applicable in this problem domain or closely-related ones Concept  Use for determining most feasible, revenue-producing Evaluation solutions  Use problem statements to generate specification and Disclosure / Claims Drafting all solutions to generate independent and dependent claims of patent application Process Excellence Week -- 76 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  77. 77. PLAN • Select Inventing team  Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) in Technology Domain  Identify/select team members • critical thinkers (problem-oriented) • divergent thinkers (creatives)  Facilitator (see IAF Handbook of Group Facilitation) • process observer • objectivity • no emotional connectivity to outcome Process Excellence Week -- 77 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  78. 78. • Problem Storming (w/ critical thinkers) PLAN – Describe and list all attributes of Ideal Solution(s) • see TRiZ @ http://www.triz-journal.com – Identify known solutions X and current patents Y • Describe characteristics and parameters of X and Y and why they are insufficient: CRITICAL CHALLENGES • 39 Parameters Matrix (http://triz40.com/) & 40 Inventive Principles – Once have Critical Challenges, transform these problem statements to thought-provoking questions to inspire radical thinking • Generate an open-ended question in the form of "How might we achieve the IDEAL attribute by applying X or Y technology or solution without introducing a limiting characteristic (parameter) of X or Y technologies or solutions?‖ *The format of the problem statements and related open-ended thought-provoking questions is key to successful results Process Excellence Week -- 78 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
  79. 79. Issue Statement – DI Prework • Reframe original problem statement as several different open-ended, thought-provoking, generic questions that can engage diverse set of creative problem solvers & generate portfolio of alternative solutions • Break Ideation into several 1- 1.5 hour sessions focusing on one problem/question within the domain for 15-30 minutes each • Keeps team focused! – Fast-paced – Rotate partners – Idea Sheet generation competitive Process Excellence Week -- 79 08/31/09 Version 1.2 MOTOROLA and the Stylized M Logo are registered in the US Patent & Trademark Office. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Motorola, Inc. 2009
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