Good Teaching Practice • Teaching students not content Ambrose, 2010 • Motivation • Developing community • Fostering respect • Class tone • Timely, appropriate feedback • Interaction
Good Teaching Practice Match • the method to the content • the expectation to the developmental level • the assessment to the outcome http://childpsych.umwblogs.org/developmental-theories/jean-piaget/ http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/genpsylearning.html http://www.tedxedmonton.com/speaker-georgesiemens.html
Focus – BC Asynchronous Senior Level DL Courses – What is, not what should be• Most DL schools in BC currently offer continuous enrolment in upper level courses resulting in asynchronous student participation.• This results in courses “reminiscent of the old model of correspondence education” Lemieux, 2012• Some courses that are much like the old textbook method— read this and answer these questions—discourage an active interest”BCTF
Online (Asynchronous)• Requires more self-motivation, self- direction and time management Héctor Álvarez-Trujillo, 2008• Disproportionately high drop out rate Bishop, 2002; Spitzer, 2001• Higher levels of dissatisfaction Shermis, Mzumara, Olson & Harrington, 2001
Asynchronous Online Learner Experience is Different• Learning online requires considerably more self- motivation, self-direction and time managementÁlvarez-Trujillo, 2008• Online learning has a disproportionately high student dropout rateBishop, 2002; Spitzer, 2001• Online learners have higher levels of dissatisfactionShermis, Mzumara, Olson, & Harrington, 2001
Why? • Teachers engaged in DL report that “collaboration and group work was difficult to manage in an asynchronous environment where finding a group students who were at similar points in the course was “near-miraculous.” Lemieux
Constructivist Theory Group work “should be encouragedto facilitate constructivist learning” Hooper & Hannafin, 1991; Johnson &Johnson, 1996; Palloff & Pratt, 1999A learning community both support andchallenge each other, leading to effectiveand relevant knowledge construction Wilson, 1997Ally, Theory and Practice of OnlineLearning
Online(Asynchronous) • Interaction is critical to creating a sense of presence and a sense of community...to promote transformational learning Murphy & Cifuentes, 2001 The lack of community can cause DL students to feel isolated, which can lead to frustration
The Importance of InteractionIn asynchronous onlinecourses, the “interpersonalcamaraderie [is lacking]that increases studentmotivation to learnSapp, Simon, 2005Student sense of belongingand community isdiminished
Collaborative learning illustrates potential gains in cognitive learning tasks, increased completion rates and acquisition of critical social skills Kirby & Boak, 1987Without collaboration, online students can feel isolated and frustrated. Consequently, they discontinue or are “dropped” due to inactivity.
Asynchronous Online• absence of body language cues problematicRussell, 2001• Without the visual or auditory anchors, many students...become disorientedSpitzer, 2001
Benefits of Interaction are Clear• Constructivist and connectivist theorists stress the value of peer-to-peer interaction in investigating and developing multiple perspectivesAnderson 57• Collaborative learning illustrates potential gains in cognitive learning tasks...increas[es] completion rates and acquisition of critical social skillsKirby & Boak, 1987• Peer interaction is critical to the development of communities of learningRumble, 1999; Wegner, McDermott, &Snyder, 2002
How Does This Affect Learning for the DL Student?• Students currently engaged in asynchronous online courses often feel isolated.• The lack of community, collaboration and stimulating content often result in lower level learning, boredom and frustration.• The lack of meaningful student-student engagement means that students do not develop multiple perspectives.
Face to Face StudentsFeel a sense ofcommunity andexperience a highlevel of support. Thisleads toengaged, activelearning.Increased socialization creates a cohesive and supportivelearning environmentRussell, 2001
Discussions ... [are] more authentic because participants … talk to each other in real time, see their facial expressions and clarify matters immediatelyKing, 2001; Yu, 2002
Blended Learning— Best of Both Worlds • Communities of learning • Co-creation of learning • Multiple, diverse opportunities for interactionhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/sanjoselibrary http://www.flickr.com/photos/deliciouspapa/3231743396/
Thank you!What questions/comments do you have for us?
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