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Tea And Coffee And Chocolate Class At Carnegie Mellon By Margarets Fine Imports In Pittsburgh , Part Three, Coffee, Become An Expert
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Tea And Coffee And Chocolate Class At Carnegie Mellon By Margarets Fine Imports In Pittsburgh , Part Three, Coffee, Become An Expert


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Tea And Coffee And Chocolate Class At Carnegie Mellon By Margarets Fine Imports In Pittsburgh , Part Three, Coffee, Become An Expert

Tea And Coffee And Chocolate Class At Carnegie Mellon By Margarets Fine Imports In Pittsburgh , Part Three, Coffee, Become An Expert

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    • 1. Coffee, Become an Expert Margaret Harris Margaret’s Fine Imports 5872 Forbes Ave., Pgh, PA 1521 (412) 422-1606
          • “ How sweet the coffee tastes! Lovlier than a thousand kisses, sweeter than Muscatel wine!”
      • ~ Johan Sebastian Bach (Coffee Cantata)
      • “ Sleep is a symptom of caffeine deprivation.”   ~Author Unknown
      • “ Coffee in England always tastes like a Chemistry experiment.”~ Agatha Christie
    • 2. Today’s Agenda
      • History of coffee
      • Growing regions
      • From tree to the cup
      • Decaffeinating
      • 10 min Intermission
      • Espresso, Latte or Cappuccino…
      • Brewing great coffee at home.
    • 3. History of Coffee
      • 3 rd Century Abyssinia (now Ethiopia), (province of Kaffa)
      • According to the legend goatherd Kaldi notices that his goats get very lively after eating some red berries?
      • He tries some and feels energized as well! Takes those berries to monks.
      • 6 th Century
      • First coffee plantations established near city of Mocha, Yemen across the sea from Ethiopia. From there coffee is being exported to other countries.
    • 4. History of Coffee, cont’d
      • 15 th Century
      • Coffee is being exported to North Africa, Mediterranean, and India. To secure their monopoly on cultivating coffee plants, Arabia merchants sell parched (infertile) beans, which actually produce stronger brew!
      • 1453 Constantinople ( Turks) First coffee shop Kiv Han opens.
      • 1600’s Coffee spreads to Italy, France and other European countries. In the late 1600’s trader Baba Budan, smuggles 7 live coffee beans to India. (1/3 of today’s coffee in India comes from these 7 plants!)
    • 5. History of Coffee, cont’d
      • 1690 Dutch also smuggle coffee plant out of port Mocha and soon establish their first coffee plantations in Ceylon and in their East Indian colony on Java. They also planted few coffee trees at their Hortus Botanicus arboretum in Amsterdam.
      • 1714 Dutch give coffee plant ( Arbre Mere, or Mother Tree) to Louis XIV of France. King had a glass house built to protect his coffee plant (first true greenhouse).
      • The seeds from that tree were used to start more plants, which were given as gifts to other countries, among them to Brazil & Mexico.
      • Now these varieties of coffees are known as SANTOS (Brazil) and
      • OAXACA (Mexico)
    • 6. Coffee Beginnings in America
      • Possibly brought to America by Mayflower (1620) & by later settlers
      • Later coffee supplied to the colonies by British, East India Company
      • By the middle of seventeenth century coffee beverage of choice in
      • New Amsterdam (Dutch)
      • In New York (1664), still popular but not as much as tea preferred by British settlers
      • “ A cup of Joe” term came from the order given by Secretary of the Navy, Josephus Daniels (1913-1921) that coffee instead of grog would be served on all the ships of US Navy
      • Until mid 1980s any coffee would do for average consumer, then gourmet coffee market took off, with Starbucks ® in the lead!
    • 7. Coffee Plant, Varieties & Regions
      • Coffea Arabica (70% of coffee supply)
      • Native to SE Africa (Ethiopia), but now grows in other countries: South & Central Americas, Indonesia and Arab countries.
      • Can grow as high as 20-40 ft, but trimmed at about 8 ft to make it easier to reach the fruit. It blooms with white flowers and produces cherries (first green, then ripened red), with 2 green seeds inside.
      • Tropical plant, temp high 50’s to mid 70’s, 60” rain. Altitude 3000 – 6500 ft. The best climate: South America. One tree yields 1-1 1/2lb of green coffee beans per year for 20-30 years.
    • 8. Coffee Plant, Varieties & Regions, cont’d
      • Coffea Canephora (Robusta)
      • Likes hotter temps (mid 70’s to mid 80’s), higher humidity, and lower altitudes (sea level – 3000 ft). Grows mostly in West & Central Africa, SE Asia, and in parts of South America.
      • Yields twice as much caffeine as C.Arabica (2-3 lbs of green beans per year, and contains twice as much caffeine as Coffea Arabica.
      • Considered inferior to C.Arabica: less flavorful and little bitter. Used in lower grade commercial coffee blends (instant coffees, etc.)
    • 9. Processing of the Beans
      • Plucking, done mostly by human hand
      • Extracting the beans
      • Washed Coffee Method (Wet Method)
      • After initial soaking in water, the outer skin and fruit are removed
      • Beans soaked in fermentation tanks 24-72 hours to loosen the parchment around the beans
      • Beans washed again with fresh water and dried
      • Dry Coffee Method (Natural Method)
      • Coffee cherries allowed to either dry naturally on the tree or laid out in the sun after picking
      • The pulp is then stripped away with the hulling machine
      • Beans at this stage are yellowish-green. At this point beans are bagged in 150 pounds burlap sacs
    • 10. Processing of the Beans, cont’d
      • Sorting and Grading
      • Coffee beans are sifted through several screens with different size holes, and then graded by weight. At the end they are sorted by workers on the conveyer belt.
      • Roasting
      • Roasting is done in special spinning dryers at temp up to $550 °F.
      • Roasting releases the oils and acids from the beans. Time & temperature of the roasting process will determine specific flavor and aroma of coffee. The entire process is supervised by the roastmaster .
    • 11. Types of Coffee Roasts
      • Light or Cinnamon Roast (color of bean) 8-9 min: light, low body, high acids, used for canned and institutional coffee
      • Regular, American, Medium Roast 10-11min: more flavor & body, high acidity
      • City Roast 11-15 min: high body, medium acidity, most popular
      • Dark, Italian or Viennese Roast 15-18min: full body, smooth, rich
      • French, Espresso Roast 18-22min: very dark and shiny, strong, heavy bodied, low acid, no distinctive flavor
    • 12. Decaffeinating
      • Usually 97% or more caffeine in coffee can be removed through the
      • decaffeination process.
      • Direct Process
      • Decaffeinated agent, such as ethyl acetate (natural), CO2, Methylene Chloride, is mixed with steamed green coffee beans to bind the caffeine. Next, the beans are steamed to remove the agent and then dried.
      • Indirect Process
      • The beans are mixed with water to leach out the caffeine. The water with caffeine is then separated from beans and combined with the decaffeinating agent, such as charcoal or carbon. After that water is returned to the beans and the beans are dried.
      • Swiss Water Process
      • Only water is used as decaffeinating agent. This method leaves most of the oils and coffee flavors, but removes only 94-96% of caffeine.
    • 13. Brewing Great Coffee at Home General Guidelines
      • Use good quality coffee: fresh, arabica (most gourmet coffees are arabica type), favorite roast
      • Store your coffee (preferably in the bean form) in opaque, airtight container that matches amount of coffee in size. Do not store coffee in the refrigerator (moisture & odors).
      • Preferably grind your coffee right before brewing.
      • Use proper grind:
      • -coarse for percolator or Coffee Toddy (cold brew method)
      • -medium coarse for French Press
      • -medium to fine for stove top espresso makers, automatic and manual drip coffee makers, aeropress
      • -espresso (very fine) for electric espresso makers
    • 14. Brewing Great Coffee at Home General Guidelines cont’d
      • Use good quality water: filtered or spring water the best. Do not use distilled water, coffee might taste flat
      • Measure approx. 1 rounded tablespoon (or one coffee measure) of coffee per 6oz cup . Note: one average mug hold 12-14oz of liquid.
      • Brew coffee only for the recommended time. Longer brewing will extract certain bitter, astringent substances. Recommended times:
      • - Percolator 6-8 min
      • - French Press – 4 min
      • Serve coffee as soon as it is ready. Within 30 min brewed coffee looses its flavor and aroma and begins to taste bitter. If you want to keep coffee for a longer period of time, store it hot in a vacuum thermos (carafe), or cold in the refrigerator.
    • 15. Coffee Menu
      • Espresso Coffee brewed quickly under pressure. Approx 4-6 times more concentrated that regular coffee drink. 1oz shot of espresso is made from the same amount of ground coffee that would be used to make 6oz cup of regular coffee. Can be made of any kind of coffee, even flavored (grind).
      • Caff è Latte Espresso with steamed milk and a little bit of foam
      • Cappuccino Half espresso, half steamed milk topped with foamed milk.
      • Caff è Mocha 1 part espresso, 1 part steamed milk, 1 part hot chocolate
      • Caffè Americano Espresso diluted with hot water (6oz)
      • Latte Macchiato Tall glass of steamed milk with a shot of espresso
    • 16. Approximate Caffeine Content of Coffee and Other Drinks/Foods
      • Brewed Coffee 8oz 60-120 mg
      • Instant Coffee 8oz 70 mg
      • Decaffeinated 8oz 2-4 mg
      • Espresso 1oz 30-50 mg
      • Tea black 8oz 40 mg
      • Tea green 8oz 15 mg
      • Hot Cocoa 8oz 14 mg
      • Coca Cola 12oz 34 mg
      • Milk Chocolate 1oz 6 mg
      • Dark Chocolate 1oz 20mg
    • 17. Health Benefits of Coffee
      • Benefits of Caffeine
      • stimulant, increases mental acuity, decreases fatigue, helps digestion through increased secretion of stomach acids, diuretic, aids effectiveness of other drugs: diuretics, pain relievers (migraines), cold, allergy meds
      • Adverse Effects of Caffeine
      • temporary increase in blood pressure, rapid heartbeat, stomach & bowel distress, loss of vitamin & minerals (iron), restlessness
      • Usually drinking 3 cups of coffee per day (24oz total), is safe & healthy.
      • Benefits of Coffee
      • may help manage asthma attacks, high in antioxidants, helps prevent cancers and such diseases as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s
    • 18. At least 6 studies indicate that people who drink coffee on regular basis are up to 80% less like to develop Parkinson’s Disease. Other research shows that drinking at least 2 cups of coffee per day reduced risk of colon cancer risk of liver by 25% cirrhosis by 80%, and risk of gallstones by 50%!