as a set of behavioral norms related especially with males or females, in a given social group or system.
WordNet, it is the overt expression of attitudes that indicate to others the degree of an individual maleness or femaleness.
masculinity as having power and being in control in emotional situations, in the workplace, and in sexual relationships
femininity as being nurturing, supportive, and assigning high priority to one's relationships.
Talcott Parsons (1955), he believed that male and female has different role. In his view, feminine role was an expressive, whereas masculine role was instrumental.
19 th Century, economy shifted from agricultural to industrialization…
Middle to Upper class family–man will be the bread-winner for the family and women will stayed at home as family caretakers.
Lower class, single mother, working class family & immigrant women–find paid employment as survival.
‘ Women’s work’–Nurse, Teacher, Clerk, Secretary
‘ Men’s Work’–Lawyer, Engineer and higher paid position
Gendered Division of Labour 02/08/12 02:38
Late 20 th Century, due to globalization, industrialization and urbanization…
New job opportunities – especially those with college qualification
Roles of women – shifted as they work in professional area.
Roles of gender was quite equal as more women was seen doing ‘men’s job’– Doctors, CEOs and men’s participate in ‘women’s work’– Teachers, Nurses .
Even if women work for wages outside the home, they are still expected to take primary responsibility for the care of their home and children (Shelton, 1992).
Gendered Division of Labour 02/08/12 02:38
Exists in two different levels:
Segregation by Occupation
Women’s work and Men’s work
Within any occupations of women and men their roles are not distributed equally across the occupational hierarchy.
There is occupation with women clustered at the lower levels and men at the upper ones-even in occupations which predominantly women. E.g. teachers–male were dominant to be headmaster..
To simplify, men were more dominant as leaders while women will work under them.
Considered as a state of fairness and justness
Requires that the specific needs of particular groups are considered separately and acted upon accordingly.
e.g : All Malaysians are meant to be equal in regards to their rights and treatment by government and social institutions, their needs, interests and values will differ.
Equity leads to equality.
Defined as the nonexistence of discrimination.
Based on a person’s sex, in opportunities and the part of resources or benefits or in access to services.
Concerned with treating everyone the same.
Acknowledge and addressing different needs, interests and values, can help to overcome inequalities and arrive at equitable outcomes.
Theory of Gender Equity
Adams’ Equity Theory calls for a fair balance to be struck between an employee’s inputs and an employee’s outputs.
Find fair balance to ensure a strong and productive relationship which can result contented and motivated employees.
An employee will consider that he or she is treated fairly if he or she perceives the ratio of his or her inputs to his or her outcomes to be equivalent to those around him or her.
Approaches to Gender Equalization
Three broad approaches of gender equality by Rees, 1998:
1) Equal treatment ensuring men and women are treated the same.
2) Positive action special actions to redress disadvantage.
3) Mainstreaming equality integrate gender equality into systems, structures, institutions, programs, policies and practices.
- sets of beliefs about groups. Stereotypes may sometimes be accurate in the sense of an average group difference but the challenging aspect of stereotypes is to believe that every member of a group has all the features of the average group member.
In an individual career stereotyping still happen when society categorize certain group in particular features like work as labor in contraction just for man and it impossible to women take place this job.
Definition - D iscrimination against a person or group on the grounds of sex, sexual orientation, or gender identity. Gender discrimination in the workplace happens when an employee is treated differently because of his or her gender.
- Job Task
Effects to HR
Productivity will decrease
Vision and Mission of the organization will be difficult to achieve
HR Manager Roles in Handling Gender Role Issues
Aware of men’s role and women’s role
gender role issue is much interrelated to the stereotyping and discrimination. The equality and equity that is not equilibrium in the division of labor causes the discrimination in gender
dynamic changes in the society and culture will result a dynamic gender role issues or conflict in return
discrimination in gender role should be minimized or even better eliminated together with the stereotyping
Distribution of work is no longer looking at what gender you are, but the big question is what are you able to do.
Voice of her own
Daughters of the veil
Advameg Inc. (2007). Gender issues in mental health [On-line]. Retrieved March 6, 2007 from the World Wide Web: http://www.minddisorders.com/Flu-Inv/Gender-issues-in-mental-health.html
Answers Corporation. (November 2006). Gender role [On-line]. Retrieved March 6, 2007 from the World Wide Web: http://www.answers.com/topic/gender-role-2