STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK FOR SOCIO-
ECONOMIC VIABILITY OF COMMUNITY-BASED
EARLY WARNING SYSTEM
Marc van den Homberg 22 APRIL 20...
COMMUNITY MANAGED DISASTER
RISK REDUCTION (CMDRR)
ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG
PREPAREDNESS AND COMMUNITY-BASED EARLY ...
TOWARDS SOCIO-ECONOMIC VIABILITY
OF CBEWS
ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG
DRIVERS, BARRIERS AND OBJECTIVE
Drivers
• reduc...
CROSS-BORDER COMMUNITY-BASED
EARLY WARNING SYSTEM
BACKGROUND PROJECT REGION AND PARTNERS
The Terai is a vulnerable region ...
INDIAN SIDE OF THE CROSS-BORDER PROJECT
Phase I: 15 villages 2012-2013
Phase II: 45 villages 2013
Phase III: 95 villages 2...
CBEWS: MONITORING AND WARNING
ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG
RIVER MONITORING AND WARNING MODEL
Upstream river monitorin...
INDIAN RIVER MONITORING 4 X A DAY (6 AM, 10 AM, 2 PM AND 6 PM) BY
GRAM TASK FORCE
Community creates a Gram Task Force per ...
ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG
NEPAL: DEPARTMENT OF HYDROLOGY AND METEOROLOGY RIVER WATCH
CBEWS: MONITORING AND WARNING
CBEWS: DISSEMINATION AND
COMMUNICATION
ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG
DIFFERENT COMMUNICATION CHANNELS
Increased risk: t...
The Ghaghara River flowing
on 10.8 Meter across the
danger level in Chisapani,
Nepal today at 6:00 AM and
the flood water ...
IMPACT OF CBEWS
CASE OF WEST RAPTI IN BANKE, NEPAL
1
2
4
7
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1998 2004 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 ...
STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK
ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG
THREE INNOVATION PHASES AND SIX METHODOLOGICAL GUIDELINES
DEVELOPED F...
COLLABORATION BUILDING AND
COOPERATION
ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG
DESIGN PHASE
• Started with three NGOs bringing to...
CO-CREATION, ACTIVE PARTICIPATION
AND SOCIAL EMBEDDEDNESS
ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG
DESIGN PHASE
Social embeddednes...
INSTITUTES, POLICIES AND
STRATEGIC ALIGNMENT
ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG
PILOT PHASE: LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWO...
CAPABILITIES AND EVALUATION
ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG
PILOT PHASE : CAPABILITY APPROACH (AMARTYA SEN)
Individual di...
BUSINESS MODELS AND FINANCING
ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG
COMMERCIALIZATION PHASE: EARLY WARNING INFORMATION SERVICE
...
SCALING UP
ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG
COMMERCIALIZATION PHASE
Monitoring and warning:
• Blend locally collected data...
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG
TOWARDS SOCIO-ECONOMICALLY VIABLE CBEWS
The strategic fra...
THANK YOU!
ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AND CONTACT DETAILS
We are grateful to:
Yeeshu Shukla, MSc (C...
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Iscram asia 2014 marc van den homberg20062014

  1. 1. STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK FOR SOCIO- ECONOMIC VIABILITY OF COMMUNITY-BASED EARLY WARNING SYSTEM Marc van den Homberg 22 APRIL 2014 CARE ACT SHARE, LIKE CORDAID ISCRAM Asia, Marc van den Homberg, Bineke Posthumus, 20th of June 2014
  2. 2. COMMUNITY MANAGED DISASTER RISK REDUCTION (CMDRR) ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG PREPAREDNESS AND COMMUNITY-BASED EARLY WARNING SYSTEM Cordaid works on CMDRR since 2002 in 14 hazard-prone regions As part of preparedness phase: implementation of Community-based early warning system (CBEWS) or people-centered early warning system: Risk knowledge Monitoring and warning Dissemination and communication Response capability
  3. 3. TOWARDS SOCIO-ECONOMIC VIABILITY OF CBEWS ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG DRIVERS, BARRIERS AND OBJECTIVE Drivers • reduction of the possibility of personal injury, loss of life, damage to property, environment and loss of livelihood • positive cost-benefits for high-frequency, low impact disasters (Joint World Bank/UN report on economics of EWS) Barriers to implementation and adoption: • political challenges • insufficient aggregation of the needs of vulnerable communities • difficulty in forging multi-stakeholder partnerships • … Objective Develop a strategic framework to tackle these barriers and reach socio- economic viability of a CBEWS in vulnerable geographic areas
  4. 4. CROSS-BORDER COMMUNITY-BASED EARLY WARNING SYSTEM BACKGROUND PROJECT REGION AND PARTNERS The Terai is a vulnerable region between India and Nepal with a Karnali (Nepal) and Ghaghra (India) river basin, originating in the Nepal Himalayas and flowing southwards causing severe floods in the monsoon period affecting between 100 and 150 thousand people each year ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG
  5. 5. INDIAN SIDE OF THE CROSS-BORDER PROJECT Phase I: 15 villages 2012-2013 Phase II: 45 villages 2013 Phase III: 95 villages 2014-2016 47,012 beneficiaries reached Bahraich Gonda Gorakhpur PROJECT AREAS ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG
  6. 6. CBEWS: MONITORING AND WARNING ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG RIVER MONITORING AND WARNING MODEL Upstream river monitoring (telemetry in Nepal) Downstream river monitoring (manual reading) Lead time calculated by: • comparison of highest water levels in upstream Nepal with downstream India Historical data Determination of warning level and trend
  7. 7. INDIAN RIVER MONITORING 4 X A DAY (6 AM, 10 AM, 2 PM AND 6 PM) BY GRAM TASK FORCE Community creates a Gram Task Force per village with four subgroups: : • Dissemination and coordination • Search and Rescue and First Aid • Security • Shelter and Livelihood Usually about 16 to 20 members CBEWS: MONITORING AND WARNING ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG
  8. 8. ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG NEPAL: DEPARTMENT OF HYDROLOGY AND METEOROLOGY RIVER WATCH CBEWS: MONITORING AND WARNING
  9. 9. CBEWS: DISSEMINATION AND COMMUNICATION ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG DIFFERENT COMMUNICATION CHANNELS Increased risk: then warning decided by president of Gram Task Force Siren, local resources Flag, Loud speaker Individual warning by Gram Task Force member
  10. 10. The Ghaghara River flowing on 10.8 Meter across the danger level in Chisapani, Nepal today at 6:00 AM and the flood water has come to Warning level 02 in Tikharia village and also come to on Warning level 03 in village Khairigauri. You are all requested to arrange for 5 days ration, for 2 days dry food, and essential cloths and utensils and deployed your live stock on safe places. CBEWS: DISSEMINATION AND COMMUNICATION WARNING INFORMATION VIA VOICE SMS ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG
  11. 11. IMPACT OF CBEWS CASE OF WEST RAPTI IN BANKE, NEPAL 1 2 4 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1998 2004 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 # of Deaths Community Based Early Warning System established in 2008 Highest flood in 2012 Seven times flood in 2013 monsoon ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG
  12. 12. STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG THREE INNOVATION PHASES AND SIX METHODOLOGICAL GUIDELINES DEVELOPED FOR BOTTOM OF THE PYRAMID INNOVATIONS
  13. 13. COLLABORATION BUILDING AND COOPERATION ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG DESIGN PHASE • Started with three NGOs bringing together funding, local network and expertise • then government/district entities joined (Regional Remote Sensing Centre-Uttar Pradesh, Central Water Commission) • IT solution provider (Voicetree Technologies) • Volunteer groups that were formed for CMDRR were empowered for CBEWS activities In phase III: • Engage with media • Mobilize other existing volunteer group • (boy scout’s e.g.)
  14. 14. CO-CREATION, ACTIVE PARTICIPATION AND SOCIAL EMBEDDEDNESS ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG DESIGN PHASE Social embeddedness and active participation • One Gram Task Force (GTF) per village • Several GTFs facilitated by one Village Disaster Management Committee (VDMC) with junior engineer of the Irrigation department (chair), Gram Pradhan vice president, village development officer, NGO member and village secretary. Co-creation • Participatory Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis per village: social, resource, wards vulnerability, seasonal, service and hazards vulnerability maps • VDMC facilitates establishment of CBEWS in his Panchayat, conducts trainings and mock drills before flood and adapts the village Emergency Preparedness Plan (EPP) and DRR Plan.
  15. 15. INSTITUTES, POLICIES AND STRATEGIC ALIGNMENT ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG PILOT PHASE: LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT AT NATIONAL, STATE AND DISTRICT LEVELS Ensure compliance with National Disaster Management Authority Act 2005 and Uttar Pradesh Disaster Management Act, such as one authoritative voice and link to Emergency Operations Center Lobby and advocate for mobilizing resources and strengthening inclusive institutional mechanisms towards DDMA, SDMA, NDMA, CWC through: • Show and tell • Consultation meeting • Policy papers Difficult: • high rotation • political risks can outweigh humanitarian risks >> do cost-benefits analysis?
  16. 16. CAPABILITIES AND EVALUATION ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG PILOT PHASE : CAPABILITY APPROACH (AMARTYA SEN) Individual differences Freedom to choose/conversion: • establish local knowledge base (task forces at village and Gram Panchayat level) and technical infrastructure (critical equipment placed under their control) • create critical mass of change agents Capabilities: • take into account existing coping mechanisms, such as indigenous knowledge • employ Learning Cycle on building resilient communities between community practitioners and experts successful in Philippines Realised functionings: • motivation of volunteers can drop (e.g. in reading out gauges) • continue capacity building and stimulate researchers to come with localized models?
  17. 17. BUSINESS MODELS AND FINANCING ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG COMMERCIALIZATION PHASE: EARLY WARNING INFORMATION SERVICE Basic early warning should be a public service, but vulnerable communities are currently underserved Quantify direct and indirect tangible benefits Explore supplementary ways of financing to reduce costs and increase revenue. Combine early warning with: • Enhancing access to market • Trading platform • Market prices • Livelihood related information • Diseases (crop and cattle) • Weather • Disaster resilient livelihood practices
  18. 18. SCALING UP ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG COMMERCIALIZATION PHASE Monitoring and warning: • Blend locally collected data through community- managed rain gauges and log books systematically with national meteorological and hydrological data • National institutes extend their reach and forecast at local level and with higher resolution • Use participatory games? Communication and dissemination: • Use advanced technology for blasting more than 200 voice SMS at once Response capacity: • Peer-to-peer training: let experienced villages train unexperienced villages, use video documentaries
  19. 19. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG TOWARDS SOCIO-ECONOMICALLY VIABLE CBEWS The strategic framework with six methodological guidelines and three innovation phases is very useful to identify key areas for socio- economic viability. For the cross-border CBEWS in India and Nepal: • Strengthen inclusive institutional mechanisms: • Bring bottom-up NGO activities together with top-down government activities by multi-level linkages (national, state, district, panchayat) • Proper business case: joint funding (government and donor), joint resourcing, cost pooling • Blend regular monitoring by communities systematically with nationally available meteorological and hydrological data to improve forecasting • Continuous focus on capability development, engage with government endorsed volunteer organizations, replicate from one village to another • Use serious games and video documentaries
  20. 20. THANK YOU! ISCRAM ASIA 2014 VAN DEN HOMBERG ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AND CONTACT DETAILS We are grateful to: Yeeshu Shukla, MSc (Christian Aid) dr Bhanu Mall (PVGS) Dev Datta Bhatta (Practical Action, Nepal), Munish Kaushik (Cordaid, India) Marlou Geurts, MA (Cordaid, Netherlands) Contact details: mhb@cordaid.nl marc.vandenhomberg@tno.nl +31 6 51069884 http://www.linkedin.com/in/marcvandenhomberg
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