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Technological Challenges and Opportunities for CO2 Capture and Sequestration - Andrei Federov, Georgia Institute of Technology
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Technological Challenges and Opportunities for CO2 Capture and Sequestration - Andrei Federov, Georgia Institute of Technology


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Andrei Federov - Georgia Institute of Technology, Speaker at the marcus evans Power Plant Management Summit Fall 2011, delivers his presentation on Technological Challenges and Opportunities for CO2 …

Andrei Federov - Georgia Institute of Technology, Speaker at the marcus evans Power Plant Management Summit Fall 2011, delivers his presentation on Technological Challenges and Opportunities for CO2 Capture and Sequestration

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  • --Typical 500 MWe coal power stations produce ~9 tons of CO2/min. 50% of power production derives from coal, accounting for ~39% of all emissions. These stations offer an attractive single point source for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. --Current liquid based capture techniques are prohibitively expensive due to high thermal requirements. Packed bed solid sorbents have been proposed as an attractive alternative to liquid sorption due to lower (sensible) heat requirements. However, these packed beds have issues associated with massive pressure drops through bed, and are impractical at the industrial scale. --For effective CO2 mitigation, low cost techniques must be developed (focus of research).
  • Liquid absorption processes based on amines use 40% wt amine solutions. Thus, every cycle you are heating and cooling 60% water, which has a high heat capacity. You are wasting this energy. By using solid adsorbants, you can replace this water with a solid with potentially a lower heat capacity and save on energy costs.
  • --Structured hollow fiber sorbents allow for the thermal advantages of solid sorbents to be utilized while circumventing the pressure drop issues traditionally associated with packed beds. The hollow fiber morphology allows for a non-contacting heat transfer fluid to be directly integrated into the sorption system—a unique advantage. --These modules have very high surface area to volume ratios—this allows traditional packed beds to be significantly scaled down. --Another key advantage of the fiber system is the fact that the fiber walls are very thin—this allows the fibers to come to thermal equilibrium very quickly. This enables very rapid cycling (~30 seconds, as opposed to ~6hr to days for traditional thermal packed beds) which increases the device’s sorption efficiency
  • Our material is designed to be robust, low cost and simple to make and scale up. Key points – 1. hyperbranching effectively uses the pore space. Most people just add a monolayer of amines. 2. covalent attachment of aminopolymer to oxide makes it robust for temperature swings – easily regenerable. 3. very easy to make.
  • Steady-state processing requires materials that behave identically time after time Repeatable many times Identical Max and Min Values -
  • Transcript

    • 1. Towards “Sustainable Carbon Economy” Technological Challenges and Opportunities for CO2 Capture & Sequestration Andrei G. Fedorov, PhD Professor & Woodruff Faculty Fellow George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology 404-385-1356 (voice) & [email_address] (e-mail) Presentation includes materials provided by Professors Jones, Koros, Chance, Eckert, Liotta and Lieuwen (Georgia Tech) & ARPA-E website
    • 2. The Need for Sustainable Energy Options 1) Reduce energy consumption (conservation; efficiency  but economic growth worldwide??? ) 2) Rely on renewable energy (solar; wind; nuclear; carbon-neutral/biofuels  but accessibility/usability/transportability & time scale for implementation??? ) 3) Sequester CO 2 emissions (capture & “permanent” storage: oceans, deep earth  but feasibility/accessibility/sustainability??? )
      • Long term challenges:
        • - Meet the growing global demand for energy ( ~25 TW by 2050 & ~45 TW by 2100 globally) as fossil fuel reserves become depleted
        • - Stabilize atmospheric CO 2 concentration at a “safe” level
      Sustainable Future in a carbon-constrained world? Every available options will have to be utilized (no silver bullet)! What is feasible/economic & time horizons for different applications?
    • 3. Energy Outlook
        • Energy demand growth to 2030 will be dominated by developing (non-Kyoto, non-OECD) countries.
        • With business as usual, fossil fuels will supply the bulk of the demand growth.
        • With business as usual, CO 2 emissions will continue to grow.
      60% of CO 2 Emissions Growth in Developing World 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 2003 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 BILLION METRIC TONS Non-OECD OECD
    • 4.
        • Continued use of fossil fuel in a carbon constrained world will require all of the following:
          • Moderating demand (e.g., by improving energy efficiency) near-term (2-5 years)
          • Implementing large scale CO 2 abatement strategies, including capture and sequestration near-term to mid-term (2-10 years)
          • Developing low/no-carbon renewable energy sources mid-term to long-term (5-10 and beyond 10 years)
      Energy Outlook and CO 2 Capture
    • 5. Active Sequestration of CO 2 Emissions
      • Bad & Good News for Electric Power Generation
      Source: DOE Large point sources (e.g. power plants) account for ~1/3 of CO 2 emission, but  steady-state, large physical size, economy of scale  well covered in literature; area of active research [DOE, industry support] Small distributed sources (transportation) account for ~1/3 of CO2 emission, but  transient operation, constrained size, convenience, harsh environments  neglected in literature; little or no active research [ few notable exceptions ]
    • 6. Economic Drivers for Technological Advances
      • Wedges with negative cost and large abatement potential (base) should drive tactical (near term) research: focus on technology development and deployment based on already established scientific foundation.
      • Strategic (longer term) wedges with largest abatement potential (base) and largest positive cost: dramatic lowering the cost will require drastic, step-change in technology based on scientific discoveries and engineering inventions.
    • 7. CO 2 Capture and Sequestration is Likely Near/Mid-Term Need as Transition to Sustainable Energy
    • 8. Carbon Capture and Sequestration
      • Can we capture fossil carbon and sequester it safely?
      • Consider our largest point sources of fossil-derived CO 2 :
      • electricity generating power plants.
      • Roughly 1/3 of US carbon emissions come from power plants.
      • Can we capture CO 2 from fossil-fueled power plants today?
      • YES! But the cost is significant………….
      • If we capture CO 2 from fossil-fueled power plants today, can we
      • sequester it in a semi-permanent manner?
      • YES! But technical and legal questions remain………
    • 9.
      • Typical 500 MW coal power stations produces ~9.2 tons of CO 2 per minute
      • Capture with current technology is expensive
      • Developing low-cost approach is key for implementation
      Power Generation with CO 2 Capture: Scale & Cost
    • 10. Carbon Capture Today : Post-Combustion CO 2 Capture
      • CO 2 capture from pulverized coal plants using liquid amine scrubbers has been developed in the oil and gas industry for removing CO 2 from methane
      • Mature, commercial technology, but expensive for flue gas applications ( could raise the cost of electricity by 65-81% from ~5 cents per kilowatt-hour to ~8-9 cents per kilowatt-hour) .
      Source: DOE-NETL
    • 11. Post-Combustion CO 2 Capture Today
      • Aqueous amine-based (liquid phase) CO 2 absorption is “mature” technology with major problems :
      • -- massive amounts of recirculating amine and
      • water needed.
      • -- large energy loss in heating the water in the stripping
      • (regeneration) step.
      • National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has estimated an 65-81% increase in the cost of electricity for capture with this mature amine technology.
    • 12. Near-Future Transition : Oxy-Combustion with CO 2 Capture
      • Burn coal using pure oxygen rather than air, producing a more concentrated CO 2 stream that is more amenable to capture and sequestration.
      • No reliable cost-increase estimates have been reported.
      Source: DOE-NETL
    • 13. Why coal?... Abundant worldwide reserves (Top 5 coal reserves ~70% of total resource: USA, Russia, China, Australia, Germany (70%) “ Coal’s future is … not a matter of resource availability or … cost but one of environmental acceptability.” (V. Smil “Energy at the Crossroads”) Coal gasification provides an avenue for CO 2 -neutral use of coal (DOE FutureGen program) Gasification is a “platform technology” that can also be used with natural gas & biomass CO 2 - Neutral Use of Coal: Is it Possible/Feasible? coal CO, H 2 O CO 2 , H 2 CO 2 capture (contaminants OK) H 2 for energy use (high purity) Partial oxidation Water gas shift
    • 14. Future Carbon Capture: Pre-Combustion CO 2 Capture
      • Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC): Gasify coal to synthesis gas (H 2 +CO), convert CO to CO 2 and more H 2 , and separate CO 2 from H 2 before combustion.
      Analysis conducted at NETL shows that CO 2 capture and compression raises the cost of electricity from a newly built IGCC power plant by 30%, from an average of 7.8 cents per kilowatt-hour to 10.2 cents per kilowatt-hour. Source: DOE-NETL
    • 15. CO 2 Sequestration What are the possibilities?
    • 16. Holistic View of Carbon Capture & Sequestration Source: IPCC, 2005
    • 17. Carbon Sequestration
      • Carbon Sequestration Options Under Evaluation:
      • Depleted Oil and Gas Reservoirs – a layer of porous rock with a layer of non-porous rock above such that the non-porous layer forms a dome.  It is the dome shape that trapped the oil and gas.  This same dome offers great potential to trap CO 2 .
      • Unmineable Coal Seams - are too deep or too thin to be mined economically.  All coals have varying amounts of methane adsorbed onto pore surfaces, and wells can be drilled into unmineable coalbeds to recover this coalbed methane (CBM). CO 2 can be pumped in, and two or three molecules of CO 2 are adsorbed for each molecule of methane released, thereby providing an excellent storage sink for CO 2 .
      • Basalt Formations - are geologic formations of solidified lava. Basalt formations have a unique chemical makeup that could potentially convert all of the injected CO 2 to a solid mineral form, thus isolating it from the atmosphere permanently.
      Source: DOE-NETL
    • 18.
      • Saline formations - are layers of porous rock that are saturated with brine.  They are much more commonplace than coal seams or oil- and gas-bearing rock, and represent an enormous potential for CO 2 storage capacity. Much less is known about saline formations than is known about crude oil reservoirs and coal seams, and there is greater uncertainty associated with their amenability to CO 2 storage. 
      • Ocean storage : many technical and legal questions…
      • How long can CO 2 be stored in the above mentioned scenarios?
      • Who “owns” the pore space in the ground? Legal differences from oil and mineral rights? Limited/no national or international laws.
      • Impacts on groundwater and ocean ecosystem?
      Carbon Sequestration Source: DOE-NETL
    • 19. Carbon Sequestration Alternatives - Utilization
      • No currently practical use of CO 2 as a feedstock for chemicals or
      • conventional fuels can make a significant impact on CO 2 emissions.
      • Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) is a current use for CO 2 , but can be
      • practiced only in specific locations and total storage capacity is small.
      • Emerging, longer-term solution for CO 2 utilization as a feedstock include algae-based biofuels and solar (photocatalytic) fuels.
      Photo from Popular Mechanics:
    • 20. Latest R&D Advances Snapshots from the ARPA-E Portfolio
    • 21. ARPA-E IMPACT Projects/Performers
      • Inertial CO2 Extraction System (ICES) Using Solid (Sublimed) CO 2 Precipitation via Supersonic Expansion and Swirling Flow Separation [ ATK Defense Contractor & ACEnT Labs ]
      • Weathering Silicate Minerals (Mg 3 Si 2 O 5 OH 4 ) as Low Cost Source of Chemical Catalysts (Mg 2+ ) for CO 2 Fixation via Carbonation (MgCO 3 ) [ Columbia Univ, Sandia Nat Lab, Reaction Eng Int ]
      • Phase-Changing Aminosilicate and Organic Liquid Amine Absorbents for Direct Gas to Solid CO2 Capture/Sequestration [ GE, Univ Pitt ]
      • Electrochemically-Mediated Quinoid Redox Active Carriers for Low Energy (Isothermal) CO 2 Capture [ MIT, Siemens ]
      • Phase-Changing (Solid-to-Liquid) Ionic Liquid (IL) Sorbents for Low Energy (via Phase Change Recovery) CO 2 Capture [ Univ Notre Dame ]
      • Non-Aqueous CO 2 -Binding Organic Liquid Solvents for Dramatic Reduction of Parasitic Energy Load for Regeneration [ RTI ]
      • Cryogenic Carbon Capture via Staged Flue Gas Compression and Component Condensation [ SES, Air Liquide, GE, BYU ]
      • Hybrid Liquid Solvent/Membrane CO 2 Capture for Reduced Energy & Solvent Loss [ Univ KY ]
    • 22. Georgia Tech R&D Advances Portfolio Overview & Examples
    • 23.
        • The CO 2 Separations Portfolio: Near-Term Options
        • CO 2 Capture from Low Concentration Sources (e.g., Flue Gas) – Profs Jones, Koros, Chance, Sholl, Realff, Fan, Eckert, Liotta, Fedorov
          • New sorbent-based separation concepts (materials and contacting systems)
          • Fundamental materials design and modeling
          • Comprehensive systems analysis
        • CO 2 Capture from High Concentration Sources (e.g., Natural Gas) – Profs Koros, Chance, Jones, Nair, Sholl, Fedorov
          • Hybrid membrane and sorbent materials
          • Inorganic membranes
        • CO2 Capture from the Atmosphere – Profs Jones, Koros, Chance
          • Air capture, if economic, can be implemented anywhere and is not tied to point sources.
        • Current Partners
          • Siemens & GE Energy (Power generation with CO 2 Capture /Sequestration)
          • Air Liquide (membrane/sorbent production for gas separations)
          • DOE-NETL, ARPA-E, NSF (CO 2 capture)
          • King Abdullah University of Science and Technology-Saudi Arabia (CO 2 Capture)
          • ExxonMobil, Chevron, Conoco Phillips (CO 2 Capture/Separation)
      Georgia Tech has a world-leading R&D program in CO 2 management
    • 24.
      • Georgia Tech is developing alternatives to the expensive liquid amine
      • scrubbing step:
      • Solid adsorbents
      • 2. Novel contactors
      • Preliminary economic
      • analysis suggests that
      • new GT technologies
      • could cut CO 2 capture
      • costs by 50% .
      Near-Term Focus: Post-Combustion CO 2 Capture
    • 25. Modules with millions of hollow fibers can provide the equivalent of 2 foot ball fields of contact area in a volume the size of a standard office desk --very compact !! GT Hollow Fiber Sorbents for Low-Cost Post Combustion CO 2 Capture (Profs. Koros & Chance) Bore fed cooling water Clean N 2 Flue gas in Thermally-moderated uptake fiber walls Clean N 2 out Flue gas with CO 2 in CO 2 cooling water in fiber bore Thermally-driven removal from fiber walls CO 2 Bore fed steam Bore fed cooling water Clean N 2 Flue gas in CO 2 Bore fed steam Rapid cycling
    • 26. GT New Solid Adsorbent Material: Hyperbranched Aminosilica (HAS) (Prof. Jones) Minimal cost is the key driver : simple amine adsorbents via an easily scalable synthesis.
      • Hyperbranching polymerization of aziridine on/in mesoporous silica.
      • Largest regenerable CO 2 capacity of any low temperature adsorbent!
      Hicks, Drese, Fauth, Gray, Qi, Jones, J. Am. Chem. Soc . 2008, 130, 2902.& Hicks, Fauth, Gray, Jones, 2006, US Patent App.
    • 27. GT New Reversible Molecular-Ionic Liquid Solvents to Replace MEA (Profs. Eckert, Liotta) Uptake of Bubbled CO 2 Regeneration by heating 1 2 3
        • Absorbs CO 2 at ambient T and P
        • Releases CO 2 with inert gas sparge or higher T
        • Completely recyclable
      Key advantages over MEAs
    • 28. Reversible ML-IL Liquid Solvents - Utilizing Dual Capture Mechanism Profs. Eckert, Liotta Added Capacity By Physical Absorption - CO 2 Ionic Liquid + CO 2 CO 2 Swollen Ionic Liquid CO 2 Swollen Ionic Liquid Highly Selective Chemical Absorption
    • 29. Reversible ML-IL Solvents - Advantages for CO 2 Capture Profs. Eckert, Liotta
      • Cost Savings
      • Minimize solvent amount (~50% less) and energy needs
      • Optimize Δ T and Δ H rxn to achieve highest uptake with least energy for regeneration
      • Take advantage of both physisorption and chemi-sorption for increased uptake
      Energy Penalty Q = mCp Δ T + Δ H rxn (regen.) Typical Conditions : P = Ambient from T low = 40-50°C to T high = 70-100°C Heat Exchanger Flue Gas Scrubbed Gas CO 2 -Rich Solvent CO 2 -Lean Solvent CO 2 Product Gas
    • 30. Summary
      • A carbon-constrained world will require a reduction in CO 2 emissions coinciding with an increased energy demand.
      • Carbon capture and sequestration technologies must be developed to facilitate transition to sustainability, as the world will continue to rely on fossil fuels for the foreseeable future.
      • A portfolio of new ideas and technologies for CO 2 capture and sequestration has been growing at leading universities and companies with recent significant support from ARPA-E.
      • The big questions remains – if successful, can any of these technologies be cost-effective and scalable to the TW level???
      • Balance of plant technologies for CO 2 capture have been unjustly neglected and may become the key barrier to scale-up!
    • 31. Back-Up Slides
    • 32. Georgia Tech R&D Advances Additional Emerging Technologies for CO2 Management
    • 33. CO 2 -capture from natural gas reserves US companies (e.g. ExxonMobil) own large natural gas fields that are contaminated with high levels of CO 2 . These fields could produce billions of dollars of natural gas if the CO 2 can readily be removed and reinjected. No current technology can achieve this chemical separation in an economical manner. High performance membranes could revolutionize this market. Membranes from this market could also play a key role in other CO 2 separations. Metal-organic frameworks : novel chemical building blocks for rationally designed porous materials Carbon nanotubes : a nanotechnology approach to creating high throughput membranes Work at GT by Prof. David Sholl and Prof. Sankar Nair is combining high performance computational methods and practical device fabrication to develop “game changing” materials for large-volume gas separations (Industrial partners: ExxonMobil, ConocoPhillips). Zeolites : versatile inorganic porous materials for harsh chemical environments
    • 34. Hydrogen membranes will play a key role in deploying gasification with carbon capture Recent work at GT by Prof. David Sholl has shown that using glassy metals increase performance of membranes by 10-100 times compared to conventional materials GT Metal/Metal-Alloy Nano-Membanes for H 2 /CO 2 Separation Profs. Fedorov, Sholl Prof. Fedorov at GT ME has shown that submicron thick Pd/Ag membranes can support record-high H2 permeation fluxes by controlling material microstructure Metal Film H 2 H H H H H H H H H H H H 2 H 2 H 2 H 2 H 2 CO 2 4 3 2 1
    • 35. Georgia Tech R&D Advances Specific Examples of Combustion & Fuel Processing for CO 2 Capture
    • 36.
      • Largest university combustion research program in the country
        • Facility shared by 5 faculty
        • ~70 staff and students
      • State-of-the-art facilities
        • Ability to simulate conditions (pressure, temperature) of modern, high efficiency systems
        • Extensive diagnostics and instrumentation
      • Focus on clean, sustainable energy for power generation and propulsion
        • Alternative fuels
        • Ultra low emissions combustion concepts
      • Industrial and Government Partners
        • Extensive industrial support
          • General Electric Energy, Siemens Energy, Exxon Mobil, Rolls Royce, Conoco-Philips, ….
        • US Government agencies
          • Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, Dept. of Defense, NASA, etc.
      “ CO 2 -Sensible” Combustion Research at GT: Ben Zinn Lab
    • 37.
      • Pre-combustion fuel decarbonization concepts
        • Carbon removed prior to combustion, producing high H 2 fuel stream
        • Burning high H 2 fuels in modern power plants poses numerous practical challenges
      Low CO 2 Combustion of Fossil Fuels Prof. Lieuwen/AE
      • Post-combustion carbon capture concepts
        • Research being performed on oxycombustion processes
        • Most concepts involve burning fuel in diluted oxygen mixture, and recycling CO2 or steam from combustion products
    • 38.
      • Biofuels have widely variable and very different combustion properties
      • Research bis eing performed on “fuel flexibility” to allow adaptation of current combustion technologies to highly variable gasifier streams
      Low CO 2 Combustion of Biofuels Fuels Prof. Lieuwen/AE
    • 39. CO 2 Capture and Sequestration with Focus on Transportation as Transition to Sustainable Energy
    • 40. The present carbon-based economy is unsustainable! Primary Energy Sources Conversion, Distribution, Infrastructure End Use Applications Carbon Economy of Today
    • 41. Electron economy? Hydrogen economy? Solar, Wind, Nuclear Solar, Wind, Nuclear Additional Reading : West & Kreith (2006) “A vision for a secure transportation system without hydrogen or oil”, J. Energy Res. Tech. , 128 , 236-243.
    • 42.
        • Georgia Tech has a world-class program in CO 2 Separations Research.
        • The CO 2 Separations Portfolio: Non-Fossil & Long-Term Options
        • On-Board CO 2 Capture & Recycle for Transportation – Fedorov
          • Fuel cell vehicles with on-board CO 2 capture.
          • Synthetic hydrocarbon fuel synthesis using recycled CO 2 and only renewable (solar) energy via photocatalysis (“solar fuels”)
      CO 2 Capture: The Georgia Tech Portfolio
    • 43.
        • The Alternative Energy Portfolio: Non-Fossil Energy
        • - Solar Energy and Photovoltaics – ECE, Chem, ChBE, MSE, ME, Physics
        • Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics
        • Center of Excellence in Photovoltaic Research and Education
        • Biofuels - ChBE, Chem, ME, AE, ISyE
        • Chevron Biofuels Program – Strategic Energy Institute
        • DOE Bioenergy Science Center (with ORNL, Tennessee, UGA, Dartmouth, others)
        • Nuclear Energy – ME, Chem
        • Hydrogen Energy – ChBE, MSE, AE, GTRI, Chem, ME, Physics
        • Center for Innovative Fuel Cell and Battery Technology
        • Wind Energy – ME, Physics, AE, GTRI
        • Coastal wind farms (GT-Savannah)
      Alternative Energy: The Georgia Tech Portfolio