Technology Needs for Advancing    Wind Power Generation           Stan T. Rosinski     Program Manager, Renewables        ...
Three Key Aspects of EPRI          Independent          Objective, scientifically based          results address reliabili...
EPRI’s R&D Portfolio                                Power Delivery and Utilization            Generation                  ...
Key Strategic Technical Issues                              Smart                                    Energy        Long-Te...
Renewable Resources and Integration          Many questions remain regarding renewable costs,          performance, impact...
Drivers for Wind Research• Reduce cost of wind (capital, LCOE),  optimize performance and expand  installed capacity• Acce...
Wind R&D Roadmap                                     Issue                                               R&D Area     Wind...
Wind R&D Roadmap                                    Issue                                               R&D Area   Offshor...
Wind R&D Roadmap                                    Issue                                               R&D Area   Conditi...
EPRI Wind Energy Program             Identify, evaluate and conduct targeted R&D on wind technologies with                ...
Ground Based Inspection of Wind Turbine Blades   Drivers    • Blade failure – overall reliability    • Blade manufacturing...
Approach   • Develop an NDE and engineering tool integrating:      – Advanced NDE technology for detection of flaws       ...
Laser Shearography   • Detection of flaws in complex composite materials in     aeronautical and aerospace industry (field...
Laser Shearography      Testing at National Renewable Energy Laboratory© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All ...
Visual Examination versus Laser Shearography   Lightning Damage                                                           ...
Infrared Thermography   • Enhance ground based inspection technology   • High-speed inspection of blades during operation ...
Laser Shearography (top) vs Thermography Imaging (bottom)                     Defects are Waves in the Carbon Fiber Spar C...
Imaged Defect due to Spar Cap Fiber Wave after 2.2 Million Fatigue    Cycles, Nominal Turbine Blade Operation Stress Load ...
Ground-Based Inspection Summary      Wide Field Thermography of 1.6 MW Blades                             Two test types f...
Wind Power and Bats   Issue and Challenge   • Financially important to Agriculture      – Pollination      – Insect contro...
Range of Federally Endangered Bat        (and bat species proposed to be listed in 2013)                                  ...
Options to Miminize Fatalaties   • Operation of turbines must be changed during bat migration (June-     October)      – I...
Smart Curtailment   Acoustic-Based Detection                                                                           ReB...
Automated Wind Turbine Curtailment   Scope   • Acoustic monitoring of bat activity at nacelle   • Post-construction mortal...
Automated Wind Turbine Curtailment   Summary   • Reducing bat mortality through curtailments is here      – Potentially wi...
Together…Shaping the Future of Electricity   For additional information:   Stan Rosinski   Program Manager, Renewables   E...
Additional Information
Extending Wind Turbine Life      • Reliability        Challenges      • Safety        Challenges© 2013 Electric Power Rese...
End of Design Life Options                      Combination of proactive                           approaches        Run b...
Proactive Life Extension Methods   Examples      • Operations and maintenance (O&M) strategies including modifying        ...
Engineering/Economic Assessment   Three Scenarios   • Scenario 1 – Targeted Inspections      – Regular inspections to moni...
Engineering/Economic Assessment   Three Scenarios      • Scenario 3 – Advanced Controls         – Implement advanced contr...
Wind Turbine Life Extension   Summary Results                                                                         NPV ...
Wind Turbine Life Extension   Conclusions      • Life extension generally cost effective (your mileage may        vary).  ...
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Technology Needs for Advancing Wind Power Generation - Stan Rosinski, Electric Power Research Institute

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Stan Rosinski, Electric Power Research Institute - Speaker at the marcus evans Wind Power Summit held in Dallas, TX February 25-26, 2013 delivered his presentation entitled Technology Needs for Advancing Wind Power Generation

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Technology Needs for Advancing Wind Power Generation - Stan Rosinski, Electric Power Research Institute

  1. 1. Technology Needs for Advancing Wind Power Generation Stan T. Rosinski Program Manager, Renewables Wind Power Summit February 25, 2013
  2. 2. Three Key Aspects of EPRI Independent Objective, scientifically based results address reliability, Independent efficiency, affordability, health, safety and the environment Nonprofit Nonprofit Chartered to serve the public benefit Collaborative Collaborative Bring together scientists, engineers, academic researchers, industry experts© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 2
  3. 3. EPRI’s R&D Portfolio Power Delivery and Utilization Generation • Transmission Lines and • Advanced Coal Plants, Carbon Substations Capture and Storage • Grid Operations and Planning • Combustion Turbines • Distribution • Environmental Controls • Energy Utilization • Major Component Reliability • Cross-Cutting Technologies • Materials and Chemistry • Operations and Maintenance Nuclear • Power Plant Water Management • Advanced Nuclear Technology • Chemistry, Low-Level Waste, and Environment and Radiation Management Renewable Energy • Equipment Reliability • Air Quality • Fuel Reliability • Energy and Environmental • Long-Term Operations Analysis • Materials Degradation/Aging • Land and Groundwater • Nondestructive Evaluation and • Occupational Health and Safety Material Characterization • Renewable Energy • Risk and Safety Management • T&D Environmental Issues • Used Fuel and High-level Waste • Water and Ecosystems Management© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 3
  4. 4. Key Strategic Technical Issues Smart Energy Long-Term Grid Efficiency Operations Renewable Resources Near Zero Water Resource and Integration Emissions Management© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 4
  5. 5. Renewable Resources and Integration Many questions remain regarding renewable costs, performance, impact and integration Key Challenges • Generation technology: cost and performance • Grid reliability: Operating the system with variable resources • Environmental impacts© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 5
  6. 6. Drivers for Wind Research• Reduce cost of wind (capital, LCOE), optimize performance and expand installed capacity• Accelerate grid parity w/o subsidies• Address wind resources variability and grid penetration issues• Innovative cost-effective wind energy storage options• Off-shore wind deployment challenges• Minimize/mitigate environmental impact© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 6
  7. 7. Wind R&D Roadmap Issue R&D Area Wind Turbine Components Blade design enhancements Improve drive train reliability Improved materials/designs for taller towers (100-175m) Integrated Turbine Systems New large-scale systems needed (large-scale; >6MW) Energy Storage Integrating wind energy with on-site storage© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 7
  8. 8. Wind R&D Roadmap Issue R&D Area Offshore Wind Foundations Components suited to offshore environment (blades, rotors, drive-train) Methodologies to identify/ evaluate critical risks Wind Forecasting Improved hour-ahead and day-ahead forecasting Seconds/minutes forecasting© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 8
  9. 9. Wind R&D Roadmap Issue R&D Area Condition Monitoring Improved on-line monitoring, data collection/ mining and analysis Non-destructive evaluation techniques Performance Optimization Adaptive control techniques for diverse terrains/models Enhanced reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) approaches Wind turbine database Life extension© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 9
  10. 10. EPRI Wind Energy Program Identify, evaluate and conduct targeted R&D on wind technologies with high potential to address critical industry issues Wind Power Technology Model Development Wind Power Asset Wind Environmental Assessment and and Validation Management Issues Development • Ground-based • Curtailment for inspection Bat Protection • Life extension© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 10
  11. 11. Ground Based Inspection of Wind Turbine Blades Drivers • Blade failure – overall reliability • Blade manufacturing improving – but defects do exist – Bond issues (lack of, inadequate) – Delaminations, wrinkles • Blades environmentally degrade, fatigue • Blade replacement costly© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 11
  12. 12. Approach • Develop an NDE and engineering tool integrating: – Advanced NDE technology for detection of flaws • Preservice and in-service • Ground-based – Flaw analysis processes • Effect of flaws • Remaining blade life Proactive Wind Turbine Blade Life and Asset Management Tool© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 12
  13. 13. Laser Shearography • Detection of flaws in complex composite materials in aeronautical and aerospace industry (field or factory) • Uses laser field and interferometer to detect flaws in part, under loading (heat, pressure, vacuum) Courtesy of Laser Technology Inc.© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 13
  14. 14. Laser Shearography Testing at National Renewable Energy Laboratory© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 14
  15. 15. Visual Examination versus Laser Shearography Lightning Damage Images Courtesy of Laser Technology Inc. Left photo - Visual examination of lightning damage to wind turbine blade Right photo - Laser shearogram of the same area indicating a 25 inch (635 mm) delamination extending from lightning strike.© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 15
  16. 16. Infrared Thermography • Enhance ground based inspection technology • High-speed inspection of blades during operation – Cost effective – Large area inspection • Infrared Thermography – Fast ‘screening’ scan – Identify areas for follow-up inspection – Simultaneous imaging of blade serial number Thermal Image of 15m segment of 2 MW rotating blade – No Indications Image – Courtesy of Digital Wind Systems© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 16
  17. 17. Laser Shearography (top) vs Thermography Imaging (bottom) Defects are Waves in the Carbon Fiber Spar Cap – HP Side (top of blade in fixture) Distance from Root: 6 meters 5 meters 3.5 meters Blade failed at this defect Images – Courtesy of Digital Wind Systems Images are not to scale.© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 17
  18. 18. Imaged Defect due to Spar Cap Fiber Wave after 2.2 Million Fatigue Cycles, Nominal Turbine Blade Operation Stress Load Fatigue crack imaged 100 ft. from blade Image – Courtesy of Digital Wind Systems© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 18
  19. 19. Ground-Based Inspection Summary Wide Field Thermography of 1.6 MW Blades Two test types for fast survey and detailed imaging Tower weld remains slightly warmer, heated by sunlight during daylight. Actual field tests have small field of view to image flaws Image – Courtesy of Digital Wind System© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 19
  20. 20. Wind Power and Bats Issue and Challenge • Financially important to Agriculture – Pollination – Insect control • Important in the ecosystem – Very slow reproductive rate (1-2 young/year) – High attrition rate of young • Mortality rate increasing in the US/Canada – White Nose Syndrome – Expanding area • Most mortality at wind sites occurs June through October© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 20
  21. 21. Range of Federally Endangered Bat (and bat species proposed to be listed in 2013) Striped – Indiana bats (Endangered) Light purple = Eastern Small- Footed (proposed for listing) Dark purple = Northern Long- Eared (proposed for listing) Gray = Little Brown Bats (proposed for listing) White-nose Fungus is driving listing consideration Courtesy of We Energies© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 21
  22. 22. Options to Miminize Fatalaties • Operation of turbines must be changed during bat migration (June- October) – Increase cut-in speed • Turbines begin to rotate only at higher wind speeds • Generation lost during periods of low wind – Shut off turbines for the entire night • Generation lost every evening – Restrict operation only during periods of bat activity (preferred)© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 22
  23. 23. Smart Curtailment Acoustic-Based Detection ReBAT system courtesy of Normandeau Associates© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 23
  24. 24. Automated Wind Turbine Curtailment Scope • Acoustic monitoring of bat activity at nacelle • Post-construction mortality survey • Develop predictive bat mortality model • Develop Bat Detection Shutdown System • Monitor 4 nacelles© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 24
  25. 25. Automated Wind Turbine Curtailment Summary • Reducing bat mortality through curtailments is here – Potentially widespread – Curtailing only when necessary is preferred • Proactive approach • Minimizes generation loss© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 25
  26. 26. Together…Shaping the Future of Electricity For additional information: Stan Rosinski Program Manager, Renewables Electric Power Research Institute srosinski@epri.com 704-595-2621© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 26
  27. 27. Additional Information
  28. 28. Extending Wind Turbine Life • Reliability Challenges • Safety Challenges© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 28
  29. 29. End of Design Life Options Combination of proactive approaches Run beyond design life but take Higher return measures to ensure low risk of failure Run blindly beyond design life Take measures to reduce fatigue accumulation Lower risk Higher risk Lower return Decommission upon reaching end of design life© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 29
  30. 30. Proactive Life Extension Methods Examples • Operations and maintenance (O&M) strategies including modifying operations • Mining O&M records to understand and predict component reliability • Load measurement to track fatigue accumulation or to control the turbine better • Flight Leader Concept: selecting turbines to serve as a sample subset of a fleet • Targeted inspections to detect incipient failures and ensure structural integrity beyond design life • Turbine refurbishment or retrofit • Advanced controls to reduce fatigue loading© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 30
  31. 31. Engineering/Economic Assessment Three Scenarios • Scenario 1 – Targeted Inspections – Regular inspections to monitor risk of failure: • Foundations - 5 year interval • Blades/selected tower welds/hubs – annually – Continued operation • Scenario 2 – Modified Operation – Reduce operation (turbine de-rate) during high loading events • Reduce fatigue accumulation • Less power produced (1-3% annual production) – Operational modification assumed to start in year 1© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 31
  32. 32. Engineering/Economic Assessment Three Scenarios • Scenario 3 – Advanced Controls – Implement advanced controls at year 0 and at year 10 using: • Lidar based controls (mean load reduction of 8%) • State estimation (3-7% load reduction) – Reduced downtime and O&M costs with reduced loads – Additional O&M costs and downtime for lidar Case Mean Load Reduction Mean Life Lidar implemented at year 0 8% 28 years Lidar implemented at year 10 8% 24 years State estimation implemented at year 0 5% 25 years State estimation implemented at year 10 5% 22 years© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 32
  33. 33. Wind Turbine Life Extension Summary Results NPV NPV Percent IRR Percent Scenario (millions of Difference from IRR Difference from dollars) Base Case Base Case Base Case $38 0% 8.1% 0% Targeted Inspections: 25 years $82 113% 9.3% 14% Targeted Inspections: 30 years $119 210% 10.0% 23% Targeted Inspections: 35 years $152 294% 10.4% 28% Operational Modifications, 9% load $80 108% 9.2% 13% reduction Operational Modifications, 5% load $105 173% 9.6% 18% reduction Advanced Controls, Lidar implemented $93 143% 9.2% 13% at year 0 Advanced Controls, Lidar implemented $63 65% 8.7% 7% at year 10 Advanced Controls, State Estimation $85 121% 9.4% 15% implemented at year 0 Advanced Controls, State Estimation $63 64% 8.9% 9% implemented at year 10© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 33
  34. 34. Wind Turbine Life Extension Conclusions • Life extension generally cost effective (your mileage may vary). • Project-specific uncertainties will require an analysis of consumed fatigue-life prior to any life extension program. • Best approach to life extension will be heavily site and owner specific. • More benefit could be achieved from a combination of approaches as they are not mutually exclusive.© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 34

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