21st Century Coal Power: Recent Developments in Coal Power Generation Technology - Jeffrey Phillips, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)
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21st Century Coal Power: Recent Developments in Coal Power Generation Technology - Jeffrey Phillips, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

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Jeffrey Phillips, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) - Speaker at the marcus evans Generation Summit held in Dallas, TX, February 25-26, 2013, delivered his presentation entitled 21st Century ...

Jeffrey Phillips, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) - Speaker at the marcus evans Generation Summit held in Dallas, TX, February 25-26, 2013, delivered his presentation entitled 21st Century Coal Power: Recent Developments in Coal Power Generation Technology

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21st Century Coal Power: Recent Developments in Coal Power Generation Technology - Jeffrey Phillips, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Presentation Transcript

  • 1. 21st Century Coal PowerRecent Developments in Coal Power Generation Technology Dr. Jeffrey N. Phillips Senior Research Manager Generation Summit February 25, 2013
  • 2. Presentation Outline • Some fossil power plant basics • A History Lesson • 21st Century coal power plants • What to do about CO2?© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 2
  • 3. Conventional Coal Plant 12 MW 39 % Efficiency (HHV basis) 88 MW 2.5 MW own use 100 MW 39 MW 41.5 MW 46.5 MW© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 3
  • 4. Gas Turbine “simple cycle” 100 MW 65 MW 35 MW 35% Efficiency (HHV basis)© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 4
  • 5. Combined Cycle 27 MW 100 MW Fuel 38 MW 65 MW 17 MW 35 MW 17 + 35 = 52 MW 21 MW to 52% Efficiency! condenser (HHV basis)© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 5
  • 6. A History Lesson (the original Dr. Phillips)© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 6
  • 7. History of Steam Conditions for Fossil Fired Power Plants 1500 1400 750 • During 1st 60 years of the 1300 Eddystone 1 700 20th century, steam turbine 1200 650 temperatures rose from Temperature, Degrees F Temperature, Degrees C 1100 Philo 6 600 500°F to 1200°F 1000 550 900 500 – Thermal efficiency rose 800 450 from 4% to 40% (HHV) 400 700 350 • Eddystone experienced 600 300 several materials issues 500 250 200 – Derated from 1200°F to 400 1900 ’10 ’20 ’30 ’40 ’50 ’60 ’70 ’80 ’90 2000 ’10 1140°F Year Maximum Steam Turbine Inlet • No improvements for 50+ Temperature History years!© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 7
  • 8. A Different Story for Gas Turbines! (Note: Pentagon has funded R&D for jet engines for many years) Gas Turbines Steam Turbines 3000 2500 Max. Turbine Inlet Temp. (Deg F) 2000 1500 1000 500 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 8
  • 9. Emissions History of US Coal Power Plants (Dates represent year plant began operating) 90 3000 80 2500 SOx & NOx, lb/MWhr 70 CO2, lb/MWhr 60 2000 50 SO2 1500 40 NOx 30 1000 CO2 20 500 10 0 0 1921 1960 2008 NGCC Natural Gas has a natural advantage when it comes to CO2 emissions© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 9
  • 10. US Generation Capacity (Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, www.eia.doe.gov) Most coal power plants in the US are more than 30 years old© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 10
  • 11. 21st Century Coal Power Plants© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 11
  • 12. Increasing Steam Temperature and Pressure Increases Thermal Efficiency and Decreases Emissions 2 Percentage Point Efficiency Gain = 5% CO2 Reduction Subcritical Plant Range Supercritical Plant Range Commercial Advanced Ultra- Supercritical Plant Range 1000°F 1400°F Note: HHV Basis “Least Regrets” Strategy for CO2 Reduction?© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 12
  • 13. Acknowledgements: U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) / Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) A-USC Steam Boiler and Turbine Consortia© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 13
  • 14. Highlights of the Boiler Consortium Work IN740 Pipe Extrusion Weld Development Steamside Oxidation Fireside Corrosion© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 14
  • 15. Major Step: Code Case 2702 (Inconel®740H) now Approved for Use in Section I• Approved: Sept. 26, 2011• Maximum Use Temperature: 800°C (1472°F)• Rules for: – Chemistry – Heat-treatment – Welding – Post-weld heat- treatment – Cold-forming – Weld strength reduction factors Approved for B31.1 in September 2012 © 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 15
  • 16. What is gasification? • Similar to combustion (burning) but with less than half the amount of oxygen needed to fully burn the coal • Combustion: excess air • Gasification: excess fuel (by a lot!!) • Combustion: produces heat • Gasification: produces “syngas” and some heat© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 16
  • 17. 100MW Net Coal to Power: 28 + 20 – 9 = 39% (HHV basis) 19MW 9MW 15MW 79MW 51MW 20MW 28MW 47MW IGCC schematic from US DOE 27 MW© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 17
  • 18. Duke Edwardsport IGCC – In Start-up Phase • Edwardsport, IN • 618 MW • Consumes coal from Indiana • Uses GE Energy gasification technology and gas turbines • Construction Began: March 2008 • First firing of gas turbine on natural gas: March 2012 • First gasification of coal: October 2012 Courtesy of Duke Power EPRI will hold technical meeting & tour here in June 2013© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 18
  • 19. CO2 Capture in Coal Power Systems© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 19
  • 20. CO2 Storage – Main Focus is Injection Into Geological Formations• Saline reservoirs – 100’s of years capacity – Little experience• Economical, but lesser capacity options – Depleted oil & gas reservoirs / enhanced oil recovery – Unmineable coal beds/enhanced coal-bed methane recovery Courtesy of Peter Cook, CO2CRC© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 20
  • 21. SECARB Transport & Storage Project Overview Project Goals • Construct and operate a 19 km (12 mile) CO2 pipeline that will transport CO2 from Plant Barry to the Citronelle Dome in Alabama USA • Inject 100,000–300,000 metric tons of CO2 into the Paluxy Formation (saline) • Conduct monitoring activities before (8 mos), during (2 yrs) and after (3 yrs) injection • Close out the site© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 21
  • 22. SECARB Geology Overview • Target reservoir is the Lower Cretaceous Paluxy Formation (2,865 –3,200 m; 9,400–10,500 ft) • Massive 335 m (1,100 ft) interval of stacked fluvial sands and confining units • Numerous reservoir Confining Zone seals and confining Injection units above the Paluxy Zone (at least 5) • Structural dome has Rodessa Formation proven four-way closure© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 22
  • 23. CO2 Injection Started 21-Aug-2012 • Current CO2 injection rates and wellhead pressures • 500 tonnes/d (9.64 MMscf/d) • 9.06 MPa (1,314 psig) CO2 capture at Plant Barry CO2 booster pump at wellhead (maximum delivery pressure 22.8 MPa (3,300 psig) More than 50,000 tons of CO2 already stored© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 23
  • 24. Oxy-Combustion Capture of CO2© 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 24
  • 25. Oxy-Combustion Overview© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 25
  • 26. © 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 26
  • 27. FutureGen 2.0 Oxy-Combustion w/ CO2 Sequestration • Meredosia, IL & Morgan Co., IL • 167 MWe gross oxy-combustion repowering of Ameren’s Meredosia Unit 4 steam turbine • 90% CO2 capture (cryogenic separation) 1,000,000 tons CO2 /year • Deep saline sequestration in Mt. Simon formation ~30 miles east of power plant • Total Project: $1.65 Billion DOE Share: $1.05 Billion Status  Phase 1 (Pre-FEED) completed Key Dates  Initial sequestration site  Complete FEED: Sep 2013 characterization completed  Construction: Sep 2014  Phase 2 (NEPA, Design and  Commercial Operation: Sept 2017 Permitting) initiated February 1, 201427
  • 28. Pre-Combustion Capture of CO2© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 28
  • 29. Dakota Gasification Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) Production Facility Lignite CO2 to “Syngas” Enhanced Oil CO2 Pipeline Recovery ~3 million tons CO2/yr CO2 SNG to Production & Methanation pipeline Removal H2-rich syngas Gasification & Heat Recovery Supplies natural gas power Owned by Dakota plants (approx 1000 MW) Gasification connected to NG pipeline grid© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 29
  • 30. Southern Company Services, Inc. CCPI-2 Advanced IGCC with CO2 Capture • Kemper County, MS Plant Site • 582 MWe (net); 58 MWe duct firing; 2 TRIGTM gasifiers, 2 Siemens combustion turbines, 1 Toshiba steam turbine • Fuel: Mississippi lignite • ~67-69% CO2 capture (Selexol® process); 3,000,000 tons CO2/year • EOR; Denbury Onshore LLC, Treetop Midstream Services LLC • Total DOE Project: $2.01 Billion; DOE Share: $270 Million (13%) Status • Total estimated plant cost: ~ $3 Billion  Plant construction >50% complete; >4,000 construction workers on site Key Dates  CO2 off-take agreements signed  Project Awarded: Jan 30, 2006  Lignite mine under development  Project moved to MS: Dec 5, 2008  Subsystems (water treatment, cooling  NEPA Record of Decision: Aug 19, 2010 towers) to begin pre-commissioning  Initiate excavation work: Sept 27, 2010  Combustion turbine startup: Jul 2013  Operations: May 2014  Gasifier heat-up: Dec 201330
  • 31. 31
  • 32. Together…Shaping the Future of Electricity© 2013 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. 32