“ Marketing is the management process responsible for identifying , anticipating & satisfying consumer requirements profitably”
What is the Role of Marketing
To identify, anticipate and satisfy customers needs
Providing customers with desired goods/services = profits
To ensure customer awareness or goods/services
Target a new market or market segment
Achieve or maintain market share
Develop new range of products
Improve image of product
New Product Development
Promotion and Advertising
Preparing Publicity Information
Product Orientation Production Capabilities Manufacture Product Aggressive Sales Effort Customers Production Orientation is when a business focuses on the production process and seeks to make goods which are viewed as superior
Suzuki, Kawasaki and Honda catered for this. Look at what happened!
Market Orientation Customer Needs Potential Market Opportunities Marketing Products & Services Customers Market Orientation starts with the consumer and looks at consumer needs. It is customer orientated.
Designed due to people’s needs for a small tape recorder
Workers used headphones to listen to music and the Walkman was born
Henry Ford and Model T
The World’s First Assembly Line churned out the Model T Ford.
Henry Ford ‘boasted’ that “it was available in any colour… as long as it’s black!”
Ford was customer orientated because the savings made by the assembly line were passed down to the customer by offering cheap automobiles
Advantages of Market Orientated approach
Respond quicker to changes in market due to market research
Stronger position to meet new competitors
Can anticipate market changes
More chance of new product success
Market Share is the percentage of customers who buy/use a company’s goods/services
Increasing market share means a business increases sales at the expense of competitors.
However, firms can also increase sales if the whole market grows.
Market growth occurs when the number of people buying/using the good/service increases
The good or service which the business is trying to sell. Most important element a it determines what the price will be (Price), how it is promoted(Promotion) and where it is sold (Place).
Core Product provides a basic need
Augmented Product is made more attractive to the customer by having additional features.
Product Life Cycle Products have a natural ‘lifespan’. Some are very short others are around for decades. The file of a product can be prolonged by using extension strategies. However all products go through a number of distinct phases.
Stages in Cycle Development Stage – many products will never progress past this stage. Development of new products is essential but can be very costly. Before launching it may be test-marketed. Modifications can then be made based on feedback. Introduction Stage – heavy advertising at this stage to make consumers aware of the product. Sales are slow and costs are high. Growth Stage – consumers more aware of the product and sales start to grow rapidly. It is during this stage that the product begins to become profitable.
Stages in Cycle Maturity Stage – sales reach their peak. Advertising costs are lower and development costs should have been repaid. The product is at its most profitable. The business will work to keep the product in this stage for as long as possible. This can be done by using extension strategies . Decline Stage – Sales and profits start to fall. Mobile phone sales are beginning to decline if firms wish to stay in business they will have to create new phones or new demand for phones.
Product Life Cycle
Extension Strategies Reducing Price Therefore Promoting More Frequent Use of Product – reduce cost of texting to mobile phones. Developing New Markets for Existing Product – Computer were originally manufactured for the business market, moved into home market. Finding New Uses for Existing Products – fire lighters now used for barbeques.
Extension Strategies Develop a Wider Range of Products – new versions of same product can produce new interest from consumers. Irn Bru – range of can and bottle sizes, fruit chews, ‘alco-pop’ market. Developing Styling Changes – introducing slightly different product – football strips.
Effects of Extension Strategies
Branding Branding is used to create USP’s (unique selling propositions) and ESP’s (emotional selling propositions) The business chooses a word or symbol, or both, then registers them so that they can only be used on its products. Baxter’s, Oxo, Cadbury’s and Heinz are all well-known brand names.
Benefits of Branding Instant recognition of the product by the customer. Brand loyalty – repeat purchases Higher prices can be charged Quality is associated with it Easier to launch new products Good after sales service May lead to purchases of other products with same brand name
Drawbacks of Branding Time is taken to establish a brand Promotion costs will be high Bad publicity for one product can affect the whole range of same-brand products Fake products may appear. These imitators are very difficult to stop. (Burberry, Rolex and Calvin Klein who can charge premium prices for their products suffer most at the ands of the forgers.)
Own Brands Most of the supermarket chains, and large retailers such as Boots, offer a wide range of products under their own brand names. These can be produced by the supermarket or by a manufacturer who is contracted to produce goods for the supermarket.
Advantages of Own Brands Own brands will attract more customers and more sales within the store. Producer will have guaranteed sales Products are cheaper Disadvantages of Own Brands Some customers believe ‘own brands’ are of lower value than established brand names (although this is not necessarily true).
Price Consumers will only pay what they can afford and what they think is a reasonable price for the product. Consumers use price as a measure of quality. When setting a price for a product you need to consider: Costs of production Profit mark-up Competitor prices
Long Term Pricing Strategies Low Price - Charge lower than competitors. Only appropriate where there is a little brand loyalty and competition in the market is high. Market Price - Setting price at a similar price to competitors. Homogeneous product means that price competition is not of benefit. They compete in other areas – service etc. High Price - High quality products, premium goods and services where image is important, such as perfumes.
Short Term Pricing Strategies Skimming Using a high price initially for a new product where there is little competition. Penetration Pricing Used to introduce a product to an established market. Allows the business to achieve sales and gain market share very quickly. Usually set a low price to attract customers. Once product is established price can increase.
Short Term Pricing Strategies Destroyer Pricing Setting a very low price to destroy the competition. Product probably being sold at a loss, however once competition is destroyed the price will return to market price. Promotional Pricing Used to boost sales and create interest in a product by lowering the price. Supermarkets use this for some of their sales lines, as loss leaders. Demand-orientated Pricing Price varies with the demand, ie crops, trains, phones etc.
Place Producers Wholesalers Retailers Consumers Direct Selling Producer to Wholesaler Two or more intermediaries Producer to Retailer
Choice of Distribution Channel The Product – perishable, unique The Market – size – Mars Bars Legal Requirements – alcohol, drugs Buying Habits – expectations of customers The Business – own distribution network
Manufacturer Wholesaler Retailer Consumer A Distribution Channel
This is from manufacturer to the consumer
It is the fastest way (perishable goods?)
And cheapest for consumer (no costs added on by each part of the chain)
Manufacturers A B C D E Company warehouse Wholesalers Company outlets Retailers Retailers E-tailers C o n s u m e r s
Manufacturer – firm that makes goods
Wholesaler – company stores goods in bulk before selling them on in smaller batches
Retailer – firm who sells goods to end-users
Consumer – person who uses final good/service
Types of Promotion Promotion Advertising Sales Promotion Direct Mail Personal Selling Public Relations Exhibitions and Trade Fairs Merchandising
What is Promotion
method used to pass on information to consumers
an essential way of keeping existing customers and getting new ones
Methods of Promotion
Exhibitions and trade fairs
Types of Advertising Informative : Health Education Board for Scotland – smoking, drugs, alcohol etc Persuasive : used in very competitive markets, use powerful images and language – ‘Probably the world’s favourite lager.’ Corporate : promoting the whole company not a single product – BP adverts focus on their ‘green image’ not on the product (petrol) Generic : the whole industry come together to promote the whole industry – Scottish Beef, Scottish Tourism
Choice of Advertising Media
How and where an organisation carries out its advertising will depend on how it can best reach its existing and potential customers.
Young audience: teen magazines, Hollyoaks
Older people: Sunday newspapers, daytime TV
Whole market: Coronation Street
Types of Advertising Media
Print : newspapers and magazines
Broadcast : TV, radio, Internet
Outdoor : billboards, buses, round football grounds etc
Which one is chosen depends on:
Cost : TV expensive but memorable
Target audience : choice of programme, newspaper
Competitors’ Advertising : usual to match competitors
Impact required : new product wide variety of methods
The Law : tobacco and alcohol
Sales Promotion – Into the Pipeline
Dealer Loaders: 6 boxes for the price of 5
Point-of-sale displays, posters, videos etc
Staff training for the shops
Sale or return
Sales Promotion – Out of the Pipeline
Bonus packs: 50% free
Price reduction: 50p off offer
Premium offers: one product is free when you buy another
In-store demonstrations and tasting
Merchandising: in-store displays
The way an organisation communicates at a corporate level with: the public, the press, the government and shareholders
Will involve : press statements, making charitable donations, sponsoring events, arranging product endorsement
Publicity : internal through press releases or external through news reports or consumer programmes. Not usually paid for, can become advertising if it is good publicity.
An attempt to encourage the customer to buy at the point-of-sale by using window displays, posters,etc
Layout of products: popular items at the back of the store to make customers walk passed less popular items.
Related items together ie soap powder
Products at eye level are the best position to achieve sales
Well stocked shelves, the right atmosphere ie bright lighting can create a feeling of cleanliness near fresh food. The smell of coffee or baking can make customers hungrier.
Good packaging can increase sales of a product . Factors that
should be considered:
Shape and weigh : can affect distribution costs
Protection : product must not be damaged in transit or be affected by heat, light or dust
Convenience : easy for the customer to handle
Design : eye-catching to distinguish from competitors
Information : legal requirements (food labelling), technical requirements (wattage on bulbs)
Environmental factors : public concern about recyclable materials and excess packaging
Undifferentiated or Mass Marketing
When a product is sold to the entire market
When a product is offered to a group or groups within the total market