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Learn basic issues about graphic expression

Learn basic issues about graphic expression

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- 1. GRAPHIC EXPRESSION Lesson 2. 1st term
- 2. Perspective in drawings • We use projection drawings to represent 3D objects in two dimensions (our paper) • There are two types of projections: Cylindrical (Orthogonal) Conic •No distorsion •Vanishing point (VP) far away •Objects are distorted in the same way our eyes see them •Vanishing point close (x, y, z) VP VP
- 3. First angle projection • Cylindrical projection composed of three views (taken from very far away) of the object: front side top
- 4. First angle projection: result front top side
- 5. Oblique projection • We represent one of the faces (mathing with X and Y axis) in true dimension and the others are distorted. Y Z X
- 6. Representing objects in oblique projection We have to consider the X, Y and Z axis. We first draw the front face of the figure (X and Y axis Then we draw the sides corresponding with the z axis with a reduction coefficient of 1/2 We finally close the figure with the lines corresponding to the back of the figure Y Z X
- 7. Axonometric projection _ Isometric projection • Axonometric projection shows an object from the corner so we see its three sides • Objects seem distorted because the same scale is used for all features • One axis is drawn vertical and the others are at an angle. 120º 120º 120º Isometric projection
- 8. Drawing objects in isometric projection We draw according the axis at 120º angles We first draw a figure’s corner 120º 120º 120º Second we draw the lines which correspond to the sides next to the corner, corresponding with Z axis Then we draw the lines corresponding to the left and rigth corners We first draw a figure’s corner Isometric projection
- 9. Two point perspective Draw an horizontal line across the page and mark two vanishing points: VP1 and VP2  Draw one corner of the box: vertical line Draw the construction lines from the top and the botton of the corner to the vanishing point  Draw two vertical lines corresponding to the left and rigth corners. They go from the top to the botton lines Draw the last construction lines from the top and the botton of the other corners Complete the box using the construction lines VP1 VP 2
- 10. Single point perspective First draw the front of the cube. Then add a vanishing point (X) Draw thin construction lines from each corner to the vanishing point Draw the lines which correspond to the back of the figure Draw the rest of the figure over the segments of the construction lines VP
- 11. Dimensioning • To dimension means “to indicate the real size of an object in its drawing” 70 25 50 45
- 12. Scale • Scale is a quotient/relationship beetween the size of an object’s drawing and the real size of this object. Scale=Drawing size/real size: 1:n or n:1 It is written as entire number, one of it is 1. Amplification scale: 2:1 (n:1) Reduction scale: 1:2 Real scale: 1:1
- 13. Magnitudes and units • Magnitude is a physical property which we can measure / determine / quantify: i.e: length, mass,… • Units are the symbols which go after a number and identify the magnitude we refer to
- 14. Types of magnitudes • Fundamental: we can express or determine them with a direct measurement: there are seven: mass (M), length (L), time (t) • Derived (derivadas): they are obtained by combining the fundamental magnitudes: force, volume, surface…
- 15. Metric system • A metric system is a unit system where bigger and smaller quantities are easier to convert. In a metric system, units of the same magnitude are transformed into powers of 10. 106 1000 100 mega kilo M K 10 0.1 0.01 0.001 10-6 hecto dam deci centi mili micro H d c m µ D 1
- 16. The international system (S.I.) • It is a metric system where units are Type Funda- magnitude Unit Length Meter (m) Mass Kilogram (kg) mental Time Second (s) Temperature Kelvin (K) Derived Force Newton (N=kgm/s2 Energy Joule (J=Kgm2/s2 Power Watt (J/s)
- 17. Conversion coefficients • For different reasons, magnitudes can be expressed into different units. To convert those units we multiply them by conversion coefficients: They are quotients where we write the units we want to convert and their mathematical relationship. i.e 52km 1000 1 m Km 52000 m 1. We identify how many different magnitudes we have: 1 (length) and add the same number of coeff. (1) 2. We write the former unit in the denominator and the new as the numerator 3. Before the unit, we add a “1” before the bigger unit and before the smaller, the number of smaller units contained in the bigger . 4. We simplify and multiply, obtaining the result

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