Construction materials
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Construction materials

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Learn basic issues about construction materials, its properties and applicactions

Learn basic issues about construction materials, its properties and applicactions

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Construction materials Construction materials Presentation Transcript

  • Construction materials Technology 3ESO
  • Introduction We use construction materials to build our houses and many other facilities: roads, tunnels, bridges, skyscrapers, dams. Choosing the appropiate material for each construction elements is essential to our construction. This choice depends on: 1. The role played by the element: properties of the material 2. The environment: properties and abundance of the material 3. Kind of construction: Materials price
  • Different types of materials Type Material origin Properties Applications Metal Steel (iron) Mines+ industry Resistant, hard, tougth, mouldable Frame structure Resistant, inert, maleable Pipes, wires Copper Stone Granite, marble Quarries Hard, resistant Pilars, bridges, fachades Binder Cement, mortar Industrial Gluing, resistant, inert Walls, fachades Concrete Industrial mortar+stones Ligth, resistant, impermeable Basement, pilars, fachade Plaster Industry Insulating, smooth, fire R Covering walls Industry Hard, resistant, mouldable, insulating Brick walls, roof Glass Industry Hard, resistant, transparent Windows Plastic Polyestirene, foams,… Industry Insulating, ligth, easy to mould, impermeable Insulating layers, interior Wood Pine…. Forests, industry Hard, reistant, ornamental Frame structure, walls, covering Ceramics Clay
  • Elements of a building Roof Insulating Fachade Windows Frame structure Inner spaces Basement
  • Basement    The basement sustains the building’s weigth and transmits it to the ground. It sustains compression efforts and distributes them Reinforced concrete is nowadays the most suitable/commonly used Index
  • Frame structure    The frame structure sustains the buildings weigth (roof, walls) and transmits it to the basement. Horizontal elements (beams)sustain shear and bending. Steel and wood are usual Vertical elements sustain compression. Steel, reinforced concrete, wood or stone are suitable Index
  • Fachade, walls The exterior walls protect us from the enviroment. They must be resistant, insulating, impermeable, and often ornamental.  Several layers are often used: Insulating foams+Brick walls+plaster  Index
  • Roof    Roof also protects us from the enviroment, keeping snow, rain, cold and sun rays away. We need hard, resistant insulating and impermeable materials. Roofs are made over a frame, superposing several layers of insulating plastic, and roof-tiles, made of ceramic, wich apart of insulating and keeping rain away, drive the water out due to their pipe-like form.
  • Windows     Windows connect us with the outside, letting ligth or even air (when opened) into the house. We need them to insulate They are placed in wall’s holes. A transparent, polished, hard, impermeable and resistant material is needed. The modern windows are formed by two glass layers with an air chamber between. Index
  • Insulating materials    Insulating house from the exterior is essential to keep a suitable temperature inside Keeping cold away in winter and protecting from heat and sun during summer helps to heat or cool the house and saves energy, pollution and money. Apart from covering layers with plaster, we place organic foams, polyestirene, etc between brick layers or under roof tiles. Index
  • Inner spaces   For the inner rooms we seek thermal comfort, a nice touch and resistance. Natural materials such as wood, stone, smooth coverings(plaster) or natural like plastics are most commonly used Index